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Full text of "The general biographical dictionary : containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation ; particularly the British and Irish ; from the earliest accounts to the present time .."

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Printed  by  Nichols,  Son,  and*  Bentley, 
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BlUGIT,  or  BRIDGET,  and  by  contraction  BRIDE, 
(St.)  a  saint  of  the  Romish  church,  and  the  patroness  of 
Ireland,  flourished  in  the  beginning  of  the  sixth  century, 
and  is  named  in  the  martyrology  of  Bede,  and  in  all  others 
since  that  age.  She  was  born  at  Fochard  in  Ulster,  soon 
after  Ireland  was  converted,  and  took  the  veil  in  her  youth 
from  the  bauds  of  !  disciple  of  St. 

Patrick.    She  built  hi  irge  oak,  thence 

called  Kill-dare,  or  I  id  being  joined 

soon  after  by  severs  !y  formed  them- 

selves into  a  religious  ranched  out  into 

several  other  nunneri  1,  all  which  ac- 

knowledge her  for  th  Iress.     Her  bio- 

graphers give  no  particulars  of  her  life,  but  what  are  too 
much  of  the  miraculous  kind  for  modern  readers.  Several 
churches  in  England  and  Scotland  are  dedicated  to  her, 
and  some  hi  Germany  and  France,  by  which  we  may  guess 
at  her  past  reputation.  According  to  Giraldus  Cambrensis, 
her  body  was  found,  with  those  of  St.  Patrick  and  St.  Co- 
lumba,  in  a  triple  vault  at  Down-Patrick  in  1 1 85,  and  were 
all  three  translated  to  the  cathedral  of  the  same  city,  but 
their  monument  was  destroyed  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII. 
She  is  commemorated  in  the  Roman  martyrology  on  the 
first  of  February.  This  Brigit  was  a  virgin ;  but  in  the 
Roman  calendar  we  find  another  Bridgit,  a  widow,  the  foun- 
dress of  the  monasteries  of  the  Brigittines,  who  died  July 
t3,  I373.1 

1  Butler's  Lives  of  the  Saints. 

Vol.  VII.  B 

2  BRILL. 


BRILL  (Matthew),  an  artist  of  whom  very  few  parti- 
culars are  mentioned  ;  the  most  material  are,  that  he  was* 
born  at  Antwerp,  in  1550,  and  learned  the  rudiments  of 
his  art  in  that  city ;  that  he  went  to  study  at  Rome,  and  in 
a  very  few  years  manifested  so  much  merit .  iiv  landscape 
and  history,  that  Pope  Gregory  XIII.  employed  him  to 
work  in  the  Vatican,  and  allowed  him  an  honourable  pen- 
sion as  long  as  he  lived.  He  died  in  1 584,  aged  thirty- 
five.  * 

BRILL  (Paul),  an  excellent  artist,  brother  to  Matthew 
Brill,  was  born  at  Antwerp,  in  1554,  but  bred  to  the  pro- 
fession of  painting  under  Daniel  Voltelmans.  From  the 
time  of  his  quitting  that  master  till  he  went  to  Italy,  bis 
manner  was  rather  stiff,  his  pictures  had  a  predominant 
brown  and  yellow  tinge,  and  his  design  and  colouring  were 
equally  indifferent.  But  when  he  visited  his  brother  Mat- 
thew at  Rome,  and  saw  the  works  of  Titian  and  Caracciy 
he  altered  his  Flemish  manner  entirely,  and  fixed  upon  a 
style  that  was  abundantly  pleasing,  with  a  charming  tone 
of  colour.  The  pension  and  employment  which  his  brother 
possessed  at  the  Vatican  were  conferred  upon  Paul ;  and; 
be  so  far  surpassed  him,  that  he  daily  rose  in  his  reputa- 
tion, till  he  was  considered  as  the  first  in  his  profession.1 
Annibal  Caracci  generally  painted  the  figures  in  his  land- 
scapes, and  by  that  means  increased  their  value  to  a  very 
high  degree.  His  manner  of  painting  is  true,  sweet,  and* 
tender;  the  touchings  of  his  trees  are  firm,  and  yet  deli- 
cate ;  his  scenery,  his  situations,  and  distances,  are  ad- 
mirable, most  of  them  being  taken  from  nature ;  and  the. 
masses  of  his  light  and  shadow  are  strong,  and  very  judi- 
cious;  though,  in  stfme  of  his  small  easel-pictures,  he  may 
be  sometimes  accounted  rather  too  green,  or  at  least  more- 
greenish  than  could  be  wished.  It  is  remarked  of  him, 
Jthat,  in  the  latter  part  of  his  life,  his  landscapes  were 
always  of  a  small  size ;  but  they  are  beautiful  and  exqui- 
sitely finished,  and  frequently  he  painted  them  on  copper. 
The  genuine  works  of  this  eminent  master  are  now  rarely 
to  be  met  with,  especially  those  of  the  larger  size,  and 
they  afford  prices  that  are  extremely  high  in  every  part  of 
Europe.  Sandrart  observes,  that  in  his  time  the  pictures 
of  Paul  Brill  were  eagerly  coveted  in  all  countries  where 
the  polite  arts  are  encouraged ;  that  abundance  of  p«r- 

1  Pilkington.— -Detcamps. 

BRILL.  3 

chasers  appeared  at  tbe  public  sales,  ambitious  to  possess* 
them  ;  and  that  very  large  sums  of  money  were  given  fot 
them  whenever  they  could  be  procured.  And  it  seems 
that  their  intrinsic  value  is  not  diminished,  since,  a  very 
few  years  ago,  one  of  the  landscapes  of  this  master  sold  in 
Holland  for  160/.  and  another,  at  an  auction  in  London, 
for  1 20  guineas  or  upwards,  and  yet  they  were  deemed  to 
be  cheaply  purchased.  He  died  in  1626,  aged  seventy- 
two.  * 

BRINDLEY  (James),  a  man  of  a  most  uncommon  ge- 
nius for  mechanical  inventions,  and  who  particularly  ex- 
celled in  planning  and  conducting  inland  navigations,  was 
born  at  Tunsted,  in  the  parish  of  Wormhill,  and  county  of 
Derby,  in  1716.     His  parents  were  possessed  of  a  little 
freehold,  the  small  income  of  which  his  father  dissipated 
by  a  fondness  for  shooting  and  other  field-diversions,  and 
by  keeping  company  with  people  above  his  rank.     The 
consequence  of  this  was,  that  his  son  was  so  totally  neg- 
lected, that  he  did  not  receive  the  ordinary  rudiments  of 
education.     The  necessities  of  the  family  were  so  pressing, 
that  young  Brindley  was  obliged,  as  early  as  possible,  to 
contribute  towards  its  support ;   and,  till  he  was  nearly 
seventeen  years  of  age,  he  was  employed  in  those  kinds  of 
light  labour  which  are  usually  assigned,  in  country  places, 
to  the  children  of  the  poor.     At  this  period  of  his  life,  he 
bound  himself  apprentice  to  one  Sennet,  a  mill-wright, 
near  Macclesfield,  in  Cheshire,  and  soon  became  expert 
in  the  business;  besides  which,  he  quickly  discovered  a 
strong  attachment  to  the  mechanic  arts  in  general,  and  a 
ggnius  for  extending  them  much  farther  than  they  had 
hitherto  been  carried.     In  the  early  part  of  bis  apprentice- 
ship, he  was  frequently  left  by  himself,  for  whole  weeks 
together,  to  execute  works  concerning  which  his  master 
had   given   him   n*  previous  instructions.     These  works, 
therefore,  he  finished  in  his  own  way ;  and  Mr.  Bennet  was 
often  astonished  at  the  improvements  his  apprentice,  from 
time  to  time,  introduced  into  the  mill-wright  business,  and 
earnestly  questioned  him  from  whence  he  had  gained  his 
knowledge.     He  had  not  been  long  at  the  trade,  before 
the  millers,  wherever  he  had  been  employed,  always  chose 
bim  again,  in  preference  to  the  master,  or  any  other  work- 
man ;  and,  before  the  expiration  of  his  servitude,  at  which 

?  PiiJungton.-^Strutt— Ai^eaviUe.— Descamps. 

B   2 


time  Mr.  Sennet,  who  was  advanced  in  years,  grew  unable 
to  work)  Mr.  Brindley,  by  his  ingenuity  and  application, 
kept  up  the  business  with  credit,  and  supported  the  old 
man  and  his  family  in  a  comfortable  manner. 

It  may  not  be  amiss  to  mention  a  singular  instance  of 
our  young  mechanic's  active  and  earnest  attention  to  the 
improvement  of  mill-work.  His  master  having  been  em* 
ployed  to  build  an  engine  paper-mill,  which  was  the  first 
of  the  kind  that  had  been  attempted  in  those  parts,  went 
to  see  one  of  them  at  work,  as  a  model  to  copy  after.  But, 
notwithstanding  this.,  when  he  had  begun  to  build  the  mill, 
ai?d  prepare  the  wheels,  the  people  of  the  neighbourhood 
"were  informed  by  a  millwright,  who  happened  to  travel 
thai  road,  that  Mr.  Bennet  was  throwing  his  employers* 
money  away,  and  would  never  be  able  to  complete,  to 
any  effectual  purpose,  the  work  he  had  undertaken.  Mr. 
Brindley,  hearing  of  the  report,  and  being  sensible  that 
he  could  not  depend  upon  his  master  for  proper  instruc- 
tions, determined  to  see,  with  his  own  eyes,  the  mill  in* 
tended  to  be  copied.  Accordingly,  without  mentioning 
his  design  to  a  single  person,  he  set  out,  on  a  Saturday 
evening,  after  he  had  finished  the  business  of  the  day  » 
travelled  fifty  miles  on  foot ;  took  a  view  of  the  mill;  re- 
turned back,  in  time  for  his  work,  on  Monday  morning ; 
informed  Mr.  Bennet  wherein  he  had  been  deficient;  and 
completed  the  engine,  to  the  entire  satisfaction  of  the 
proprietors.  Besides  this,  he  made  a  considerable  im- 
provement in  the  press-paper. 

Mr.  Brindley  afterwarda  engaged  in  the  mill-wright 
business  onr  his  own  account,  and,  by  many  useful  inven- 
tions and  contrivances,  advanced  it  to  a  higher  degree  of 
perfection  than  it  had  formerly  attained ;  so  that  he  ren- 
dered himself  greatly  valued  in  his  neighbourhood,  as  a 
most  ingenious  mechanic.  By  degrees,  his  fame  began  to 
spread  itself  wider  in  the  country,  and  his  genius  was  no 
longer  confined  to  the  particular  branch  in  which  he  had 
hitherto  been  employed.  In  1752,  be  erected  a  very  ex- 
traordinary water-engine  at  Clifton,  in  Lancashire,  for.  the 
purpose  of  draining  some  coal-mines,  which  before  were 
worked  at  an  enormous  expence.  The  water  for  the  use 
of  this  engine  was  brought  out  of  the  river  Irwell,  by  a 
subterraneous  tunnel,  nearly  six  hundred  yards  in  length* 
carried  through  a  rock ;  and  the  wheel  was  fixed  thirty 
feet  below  the  surface  of  the  ground.    Mr.  Brindley'* 


TOperiority  to  the  mechanics  in  that  part  of  the  kingdom 
where  he  resided,  being  now  well  ascertained,  and  bis 
reputation  having  reached  the  metropolis,  he  was  em* 
ployed  by  N.  Pattison,  esq.  of  London,  and  some  other 
gentlemen,  in  1755,  to  execute  the  larger  wheels  for  a 
new  silk-mill,  at  Congleton,  in*  Cheshire.  The  execution 
of  the  smaller  wheels,  and  of  the  tnor^  complex  part  of 
the  machinery,  was  committed  to  another  person,  and  that 
person  had  the  superintendancy  of  the  whole.  He  was 
not,  however,  equal  to  the  undertaking;  for  he  was  obliged, 
after  various  efforts,  to  confess  his  inability  to  complete 
it  The  proprietors,  upon  this,  being  greatly  alarmed, 
thought  fit  to  call  in  the  assistance  of  Mr.  Brindley ;  but 
still  left  the  general  management  of  the  construction  of 
the  silk-mill  to  the  former  engineer,  who  refused  to  let 
him  see  the  whole  model,  and,  by  giving  him  his  work  to 
perform  in  detached  pieces,  without  acquainting  him  with 
the  result  which  was  wanted,  affected  to  treat  him  as  a 
common  mechanic.  Mr.  Brindley,  who,  in  the  conscious- 
ness of  genius,  felt  his  own  superiority  to  the  man  who 
thus  assumed  an  ascendancy  over  him,  would  not  submit  to 
such  unworthy  treatment.  He  told  the  proprietors,  that 
if  they  would  let  him  know  what  was  the  effect  they  wished 
to  have  produced,  and  would  permit  him  to  perform  the 
business  in  his  own  way,  be  would  finish  the  mill  to  their 
satisfaction.  This  assurance,  joined  with  the  knowledge 
they  had  of  his  ability  and  integrity,  induced  them  to 
trust  the  completion  of  the  mill  solely  to  his  care ;  and  he 
accomplished  that  very  curjqus  and  complex  piece  of  ma- 
chinery in  a  manner  far  superior  to  the  expectations  of  his 
employers.  They  had  not  solely  the  pleasure  of  seeing  it 
established,  with  a  most  masterly  skill,  according  to  the 
plan  originally  proposed,  but  of  having  it  constructed  with 
the  addition  of  many  new  and  useful  improvements.  There 
was  one  contrivance  in  particular,  for  winding  the  silk 
upon  the  bobbins  equally,  and  not  in  wreaths ;  and  another 
for  stopping,  in  an  instant,  not  only  the  whole  of  this  ex- 
tensive system  throughout  its  various  and  numerous  apart- 
ments, but  any  part  of  it  individually.  He  invented,  like- 
wise, machines  for  making  all  the  tooth  and  pinion  wheels 
of  the  different  engines.  These  wheels  had  hitherto  been 
cut  by  hand,  with  great  labour,  but  by  means  of  Mr. 
Brindley's  machines,  as  much  work  could  be  performed  in 
one  day  as.  had  heretofore  required  fourteen.    The  pot- 


teries  of  Staffordshire  were  also,  about  this  time,  indebted 
to  him  for  several  ^valuable  additions  in  the  mills  used  by 
them  for  grinding  flint  stones,  by  which  that  process  was 
greatly  facilitated. 

In  the  year  1756,  Mr.  Brindley  undertook  to  erect  a 
steam-engine,  near  Newcastle-under-  Line,  upon  a  new 
plan.  The  boiler  of  it  was  made  with  brick  and  stone,  in- 
stead of  iron  plates  ;  and  the  water  was  heated  by  fire-flues 
of  a  peculiar  construction  ;  by  which  contrivances  the  con- 
sumption of  fuel,  necessary  for  forking  a  steam-engine, 
was  reduced  one  half.  He  introduced,  likewise,  in  this 
engine,  cylinders  of  wood,  made  in  the  manner  of  coopers 
ware,  instead  of  iron  ones;  the  former  being  not  only 
cheaper,  but  more  easily  managed  in  the  shafts ;  and  he 
substituted  wood  too  for  iron  in  the  chains  which  worked 
at  the  end  of  the  beam.  His  inventive  genius  displayed 
itself  in  various  other  useful  contrivances,  which  would  pro- 
bably have  brought  the  steam-engine  to  a  great  degree  of 
perfection,  if  a  number  of  obstacles  had  not  been  thrown 
in  his  way  by  some  interested  engineers,  who  strenuously 
opposed  any  improvements  which  they  could  not  call  their 
own. , 

The  disappointment  of  Mr.  Brindley's  good  designs  in 
this  respect  must  have  made  the  less  impression  upon  him, 
as  his  attention  was  soon  after  called  off  to  another  object, 
which,  in  its  consequences,  hath  proved  to  be  of  the 
highest  national  importance  ;  namely,  the  projecting  and 
executing  of  Inland  Navigations,  from  whence  the  great- 
est benefits  arise  to  trade  and,  commerce.  By  these  na- 
vigations the  expence  of  carriage  is  lessened ;  a  communi- 
cation is  opened  from  one  part  of  the  kingdom  to  another, 
and  from  each  of  those  parts  to  the  sea;  and  hence  the 
products  and  manufactures  of  the  country  are  afforded  at  a 
moderate  price.  In  this  period  of  our  great  mechanic's 
life,  we  shall  see  the  powers  given  him  by  the  God  of  Na- 
ture, displayed  in  the  production  of  events,  which,  in  any 
age  less  pregnant  with  admirable  works  of  ingenuity  than 
the  present,  would  have  constituted  a  national  sera.  Wo 
shall  see  him  triumphing  over  all  the  suggestions  of  envy 
or  prejudice,  though  aided  by  the  weight  of  established 
customs;  and  giving  full  scope  to  the  operations  of  a 
strong  and  comprehensive  mind,  which  was  equal  to  the 
most  arduous  undertakings.  This  he  .did  under  the  pro- 
tection of  a  noble  duke,  who  had  the  discernment  to  single 

BRINDLEY.    '  7 

hltm  out,  and  the  steadiness  and  generosity  to  ""support 
him,  against  the  opinions  of  those  who  treated  Mr.  Brind- 
ley's  plans  as  chimeras,,  and  laughed  at  his  patron  as  an 
idle  projector.. 

His  grace  the  late  duke  of  Bridgewater  had,  at  Worslejv 
about  seven  miles  from  Manchester,  a  large  estate,  rich 
With  mines  of  coal,  which  had  hitherto  lain  useless  in  the 
bowels  of  the  earth,  because  the  expence  of  carriage  by 
land  was  too  great  to  find  a  market  for  consumption.  The 
duke,  wishing  to* work  these  mines,  perceived  the  neces- 
sity of  a  canal  from  Worsley  to  Manchester;  upon,  which 
occasion,  Mr.  Brindley,  who  was  now  become  famous  in 
the  country,  was  consisted.  Having  surveyed  the  ground,, 
he  declared  the  scheme  to  be  practicable.  In  consequence 
of  this,  an  act  was  obtained,  in  1758  and  1759,  for  en- 
abling his  grace  to  cut  a  canal  from  Worsley  to  Salford, 
hear  Manchester,  and  to  carry  the  same  to  or  near  Hollin 
Ferry,  in  the  county  of  Lancaster.  It  being,  however, 
afterwards  discovered,  that  the  navigation  would  be  more 
beneficial,  both  to  the  duke  of  Bridgewater  and  the  public, 
if  carried,  over  the  river  Irwell,  near  Barton  bridge,  tp 
Manchester,  his  grace  applied  again  to  parliament,  and 
procured  an  act,  which  enabled  him  to  vary  the  course  of 
bis  canal  agreeably  to  this  new  plan,  and  likewise  to  ex- 
tend a  side  branch  to  Longford  bridge  in  Stretford.  Mr, 
Brindley, ,  in  the  mean  time,  had  begun  these  great  under- 
takings, being  the  first  of  the  kind  ever  attempted,  igi 
England,  with  navigable  subterraneous  tunnels  and  ele* 
vated  aqueducts.  The  principle  laid  down  at  the  com- 
mencement of  this  business  reflects  much  honour  on  the 
noble  undertaker,  as  well  as  upon  bis  engineer.  It  was 
resolved  that  the  canal  should  be  perfect  in  its  kind,  and 
that,  in  order  to  preserve  the  level  of  the  water,  it  should 
jbe  free  from  the  usual  obstructions  of  locks.  But,  in  ac- 
complishing this  end,  many  difficulties  occurred, .  which 
were  deemed  unsurmountable.  It  was  necessary  that  the 
canal  should  be  carried  over  rivers,  and  many  large  and 
deep  vallies,  where  it  was  evident  that  such  stupendous 
mounds  of  earth  must  be  raised,  as  could  scarcely,  it  was 
thought,  be  completed  by  the  labour  of  ages :  and,  above 
all,  it  was  not  known  from  what  source  so  large  a  supply 
of  water  could  be  drawn,  as,  even  upon  this  improved 
plan,  would  be  requisite  for  the  navigation.  But  Mr, 
JBrincUey,  with  a  strength  of  mind  peculiar  to  himself,  and 


being  possessed  of  the  confidence  of  his  great  patron,  who 
spared  no  expence  to  accomplish  his  favourite  design,  con* 
quered  all  the  embarrassments  thrown  in  his  way,  not  only 
from  the  nature  of  the  undertaking  itself,  but  by  the  pas* 
sions  and  prejudices  of  interested  individuals :  and  the  ad- 
mirable machines  he  contrived,  and  the  methods  he  tookj 
to  facilitate  the  progress,  of  the  work,  brought  on  such  a 
rapid  execution  of  it,  that  the  world  began  to  wonder  how 
it  could  have  been  esteemed  so  difficult.  Thus  ready  are 
men  to  find  out  pretences  for  lessening  the  merit  of  others, 
and  for  hiding,  if  possible,  from  themselves,  the  unplea- 
sant idea  of  their  own  inferiority. 

When  the  canal  was  completed  as  far  as  Barton,  where 
the  Irwell  is  navigable  for  large  vessels,  Mr.  Brindley 
proposed  to  carry  it  over  that  river,  by  an  aqueduct  of 
thirty-nine  feet  above  the  surface  of  the  water.  This, 
however,  being  generally  considered  as  a  wild  and  extra- 
vagant project,  he  desired,  in  order  to  justify  his  conduct 
towards  his  noble  employer,  that  the  opinion  of  another 
engineer  might  be  taken ;  believing  that  he  could  easily 
convince  an  intelligent  person  of  the  practicability  of  his 
design.  A  gentleman  of  eminence  was  accordingly  called 
in ;  who,  being  conducted  to  the  place  where  it  was  in- 
tended that  the  aqueduct  should  be  made,  ridiculed  the  at* 
tempt;  and  when  the  height  and  dimensions  were  com- 
municated to  him,  he  exclaimed,  "  I  have  often  heard  of 
castles  in  the, air,  but  never  before  was  shewn  where  any 
of  them  were  to  be  erected."  This  unfavourable  verdict 
did  not  deter  the  duke  of  Bridgewater  from  following  the 
opinion  of  his  own  engineer.  The  aqueduct  was  immedi- 
ately begun ;  and  it  was  carried  on  with  such  rapidity  and 
success,  as  astonished  all  those  who  but  a  little  before  con- 
demned it  as  a  chimerical  scheme.  This  work  commenced 
in  September,  1760,  and  the  first  boat  sailed  over  it  on  the 
17th  of  July,  1761.  From  that  time,  it  was  not  uncom- 
mon to  see  a  boat  loaded  with  forty  tons  drawn  over  the. 
aqueduct,  with  great  ease,  by  one  or  two  mules ;  white 
below,  against  the  stream  of  the  Irwell,  persons  had  the 
pain  of  beholding  ten  or  twelve  men  tugging  at  an  equal 
draught :  a  striking  instance  of  the  superiority  of  a.  canal- 
navigation  over  that  of  a  river  not  in  the  tideway.  The 
works  were  then  extended  to  Manchester,  at  which  place 
the  curious  machine  for  landing  coals  upon  the  top  of  the 
bill,  gives  a  pleasing  idea  of  Mr.  Brindley's  address  in  dum% 

B  R  IN  D  L  E  V.  9 

mshing  labour  by  mechanical  contrivances.  It  may  here 
be  observed,  that  the  bason,  in  particular,  for  conveying 
the  superfluous  water  into  the  Irwell,  below  the  canal,  is 
an  instance  of  what  an  attentive  survey  of  this  ingenious 
man's  works  will  abundantly  evince,  that,  where  occasiorf 
offered,  he  well  knew  how  to  unite  elegance  With  utility. 

The  duke  of  Bridgewater  perceiving,  more  and  more, 
the  importance  of  these  inland  navigations,  extended  his 
ideas  to  Liverpool ;  and  though  he  had  every  difficulty  to 
encounter,  that  could  arise  from  the  novelty  of,  his  under- 
takings, or  the  fears  and  prejudices  of.  those  whose  in- 
terests were  likely  to  be  effected  by  them,  his  grace  hap- 
pily overcame  all  opposition,  and  obtained,  in  1762,  an 
act  of  parliament  for  branching  his  canal  to  the  tideway  id 
the  Mersey.  This  part  of  the  canal  is  carried  over  the 
livers  Mersey  and  Bollan,  and  over  many  wide  and  deep 
tallies.  Over  the  vallies  it  is  conducted  without  the  assist- 
ance of  a  single  lock  ;  the  level  of  the  water  being  pre- 
served by  raising  a  mound  of  earth,  and  forming  therein  a 
inould,  as  it  may  be  called,  for  the  water.  Across  the  val- 
ley at  Stretford,  through  which  the  Mersey  runs,  this  kind 
or  work  extends  nearly  a  mile.  A  person  might  naturally 
have  been  led  to  conclude,  that  the  conveyance  of  such  a 
mass  of  earth  must  have  employed  all  the  horses  and  car* 
riages  in  die  country,  and  that  the  completion  of  it  would 
be  the  business  of  an  age.  But  our  excellent  mechanic 
made  his  canal  subservient  to  this  part  of  his  design,  and 
brought  the  soil  in  boats  of  a  peculiar  construction,  which 
were  conducted  into  caissoons  or  cisterns.  On  opening 
the  bottoms  of  the  boats,  the  earth  was  deposited  where  it 
.  was  wanted ;  and  thus,  in  the  easiest  and  simplest  manner, 
the  valley  was  elevated  to  a  proper  level  for  continuing  the 
canal.  The  ground  across  the  Bollan  was  raised  by  tem- 
porary locks,  which  were  formed  of  the  timber  used  in  the 
caissoons  just  mentioned.  In  the  execution  of  every  part 
of  the  navigation,  Mr.  Brindley  displayed  singular  skill 
and  ingenuity  ;  and,  in  order  to  facilitate  his  purpose,  he 
produced  many  valuable  machines,  which  ought  never  to 
be  forgotten  in  this  kingdom.  Neither  ought  the  (Economy 
and  forecast  which  are  apparent  through  the  whole  work  to 
be  omitted.  His  ceconomy  and  forecast  are  peculiarly  dis- 
cernible in  the  stops,  or  floodgates,  fixed  in  the  canal, 
where  it  is  above  the  level  of  the  land.  These  stops  are  so 
constructed,  that,  should  any  of  the  banks  give  way,  and 

10  B  R  I  N  D  L  E  Y. 

thereby  occasion  a  current,  the  adjoining  gates  will  rise  by 
that  motion, only,  and  prevent  any  other  part  of  the  water 
from  escaping  than  what  is  near  the  breach  between  the 
two  gates. 

%    The  success  with  which  £he  duke  of  Bridgewater's  under- 
takings were  crowned,  encouraged  a  number  of  gentlemen 
and  manufacturers,  in  Staffordshire,  to  revive  the  idea  of 
a  canal  navigation  through  that  cpunty,  for  the  advance- 
ment of  the  landed  interest  and  the  benefit  of  trade,  in 
conveying  to  market,  at  a  cheaper  rate,  the  products  and 
.manufactures  of  the  interior  parts  of  the  kingdom.     This 
plan  was  patronized,  and  generously  supported,  by  lord 
Gower  and  Mr.  Anson ;  and  it  met  with  the  concurrence 
of  many  persons  of  rank,  fortune,  and  influence  in  the 
neighbouring  counties.     Mr.  Brindley  was,  therefore,  en- 
gaged to  make  a  survey  from  the  Trent  to  the  Mersey ;  and, 
upon  bis  reporting  that  it  was  practicable  to  construct  a 
canal,  from  one  of  these  rivers  to  the.  other,  and  thereby  to 
unite  the  ports  of  Liverpool  and  Hull,  a  subscription  for 
carrying  it  into  execution  was  set  on  foot  in  1765,  and  an 
act  of  parliament  was  obtained  in  the  same  year.     In  1766, 
this  canal,  caljed,  by  the  proprietors,  "  The  Canal  from 
the  Trent  to  the  Mersey,"  but  more  emphatically,  by  the 
engineer,  the  Grand  Trunk  Navigation,  on  account  of  the 
numerous  branches  which,  he  justly  supposed,  would  be 
extended  every  way  from  it,  was  begun ;  and,  under  his 
direction,    it  was  conducted,    with  great  spirit  and  suc- 
cess, as  long  as  he  lived.     Mr.  Brindley's  life  not  being 
continued  to  the  completion   of  this   important  and   ar- 
duous undertaking,    he   left    it    to    be    finished   by  his 
brother-in-law,    Mr.    Henshall,    who   put    the    last  hand 
to  it,  in   May    1777,   being   somewhat  less   than   eleven 
years  after  its  commencement.     We  need  not  say,  that 
the  final  execution  of  the  Grand  Trunk  Navigation  gave 
the  highest  satisfaction  to  the  proprietors,  and  excited  a 
general  joy  in  a  populous  country,  the  inhabitants  of  which 
already  receive  every  advantage  they  could  wish  from  so 
truly  noble  an  enterprize.     This  canal  is  ninety-three  miles 
in  length  ;  and,  besides  a  large  number  of  bridges  over  it, 
has  sevepty-six  locks  and  five  tunnels.     The  most  remark- 
able of  the  tunnels  is  the  subterraneous  passage  "of  Hare- 
castle,  being  2880  yards  in  length,  and  more  then  seventy 
yards  below  the  surface  of  the  earth.     The  scheme  of  this 
inland  navigation  had  employed  the  thoughts  of  the  inge* 

B  R  I  N  D  L  E  Y.  11 

nious  part  of  the  kingdom  for  upwards  of  twenty  years  be- 
fore, and  some  surveys  had  been  made.  But  Harecastle 
hill,  through  which  the  tunnel  is  constructed,  could  nei- 
ther be  avoided  nor  overcome  by  any  expedient  the  ablest 
engineers  could  devise.  It  was  Mr.  Brindley  alone  who 
surmounted  this  and  other  difficulties,  arising  from  the  va- 
riety of  measures,  strata,  and  quick-sands,  which  none 
but  himself  would  have  attempted. 

Soon  after  the  navigation  from  the  Trent  to  the  Mersey 
was  undertaken,  application  was  made  to  parliament,  by 
the  gentlemen  of  Staffordshire  and  Worcestershire,  for 
leave  to  construct  a  canal  from  the  Grand  Trunk,  near  Hay- 
wood in  Staffordshire,  to  the  river  Severn,  near  Bewdley. 
The  act  being  obtained,  the  design  was  executed  by  our 
great  engineer,  and  hereby  the  port  of  Bristol  was  added 
to  the  two  before  united  ports  of  Liverpool  and  Hull.    This 
canal,  which  is  about  forty-six  miles  in  length,  was  com- 
pleted in  1772.     Mr.  Brindley's  next  undertaking  was  the 
purvey  and  execution  of  a  canal  from  Birmingham,  to  unite 
with  the  Staffordshire  and  Worcestershirecanal  near  Wol- 
verhampton.    This  navigation,  which  was  finished  in  about 
three  years,  is  twenty-six  miles  in  length.     As,  by  the 
means  of  it,  vast  quantities  of  coals  are  conveyed  to  the 
jriver  Severn,  as  well  as  to  Birmingham,  where  there  must 
be  a  peculiar  demand  for  them,  extraordinary  advantages 
have  hence  accrued  to  manufactures  and  commerce.     Our 
engineer  advised  the  proprietors  of  the  last  mentioned  na* 
vigation,  in  order  to  avoid  the  inconvenience  of  locks,  and 
to  supply  the  canal  more  effectually  with  water,  to  have  a 
tunnel  at  Smethwick.     This  would  have  rendered  it  a  com- 
plete work.     But  his  advice  was  rejected,  and,  to  supply 
the  deficiency,  the  managers  have  lately  erected  two  of 
Messrs.  Watts  and  Boulton's  steam-engines.     The  canal 
from  Droitwich  to  the  river  Severn,  for  the  conveyance  of 
salt  and  coals,    was  likewise   executed   by  Mr.  Brindley. 
By  him,  also, ,  the  Coventry  navigation  was  planned,  and 
it  was  a  short  time  under  his  direction.     But  a  dispute 
arising  concerning  the  mode  of  execution,  he  resigned  his 
office  ;  which,  it  is  imagined,  the  proprietors  of  that  un- 
dertaking* have  since  had  cause  to  lament     Some  little 
time  before  his  death,  Mr.  Brindley  began  the  Oxfordshire 
canal.     This  unites  with  the  Coventry  canal,  and  forms  a 
continuation  of  the  Graud  Trunk  Navigation  to  Oxford,  and 
tkepce  by  the  Thames  to  London.    The  canal  from  Cbes- 

12  B  R  I  N  D  L  E  Y. 

terfield  to  the  river  Trent  at  Slbckwith,  was  the  last  pub* 
lie  undertaking  in  which  Mr.  Brindley  engaged.  He  sur- 
veyed and  planned  the  whole,  and  executed  some  miles  of 
the  navigation,  which  was  succesfully  6nished  by  Mr.  Hen- 
shall,  in  1777.  There  were  few  works  of  this  nature  pro* 
jected,  in  any  part  of  the  kingdom,  in  which  our  engineer 
was  not  consulted.  He  was  employed,  in  particular,  by 
the  City  of  London,  to  survey  a  course  for  a  canal  from 
Sunning,  near  Reading  in  Berkshire,  to  Monkey  island, 
near  Maidenhead.  But  when  application  was  made  to  par- 
liament, for  leave  to  effect  the  design,  the  bill  met  with 
such  a  violent  opposition  from  the  land-owners,  that  it  was 

Mi".  Brindley  had,  for  some  time,  the  direction  of  the 
Calder  navigation ;  but  he  declined  a  farther  inspection  of 
it,  on  account  of  a  difference  in  opinion  among  the  com- 
missioners. In  the  year  1766,  he  laid  out  a  canal  from  the 
river  Calder,  at  Cooper's  bridge,  to  Huddersfield  in  York- 
shire, which  hath  since  been  carried  into  execution.  In 
1768,  he  revised  the  plan  for  the  inland  navigation  from 
Leeds  to  Liverpool.  He  was,  likewise,  at  the  first  general 
meeting  of  the  proprietors  after  the  act  of  parliament  had 
been  obtained,  appointed  the  engineer  for  conducting  the 
work :  but  the  multiplicity  of  his  other  engagements 
obliged  him  to  decline  this  employment.  In  the  same  year, 
he  planned  a  canal  from  Stockton,  by  Darlington,  to  Win- 
ston in  the  bishopric  of  Durham.  Three  plans,  of  the  like 
iind,  were  formed  by  him  in  1769;  one  from  Leeds  to 
iSelby ;  another  from  the  Bristol  channel,  near  Uphill  in 
Somersetshire,  to  Glastonbury,  Taunton,  Wellington,  Ti- 
verton, and  Exeter;  and  a  third  from  Langport,  in  the 
county  of  Somerset,  by  way  of  Ilminster,  Chard,  and  Ax- 
minster,  to  the  South  channel,  at  Axmototh,  in  the  county 
of  Devon.  In  1770,  he  surveyed  the  country,  for  a  canal 
from  ,Andover,  by  way  of  Stockbridge  and  Rumsey,  to 
Redbridge,  near  Southampton;  and,  in  1771,  from  Salis- 
bury, by  Fordingbridge  and  Ringwood,  to  Christchurch. 
He  performed  the  like  office,  in  1772,  for  a  navigation  of 
the  same  kind,  proposed  to  be  carried  on  from  Preston  to 
Lancaster,  and  from  thence  to  Kendal,  in  Westmoreland. 
He  surveyed,  likewise,  and  planned  out  a  canal,  to  join 
that  of  the  duke  of  Bridgewater's  at  Runcorn,  from  Liver- 
pool. If  this  scheme  had  been  executed,  it  was  Mr.  Brind- 
ley's  intention  to  have  constructed  the  work,  by  an>  aque~ 



4uct  over  the  river  Mersey,  at  a.  place  where  the  tide 
flows  fourteen  feet  in  height.  He  also  surveyed  the  county 
qi  Chester,  for  a  canal  from  the  Grand  Trunk  to  the  city  of 
Chester.  The  plan  for  joining  the  Forth  and  the  Clyde 
was  revised  by  him  ;  and  he  proposed .  some  considerable 
alterations,  particularly  with  regard  to  the  deepening  of  the 
Clyde,  which  have .  been  attended  to  by  the  managers. 
He  was  consulted  upon  several  improvements  with  respect 
to  the  draining  of  the  low  lands,  in  different  parts  of  Lin- 
colnshire .and  the  Isle  of  Ely.  A  canal  was,  likewise,  laid 
out  by  him,  for  uniting  that  of  Chesterfield,  by  the  way 
of  Derby,  with  the  Grand  Trunk  at  Swarkstone.  To  the 
corporation  of  Liverpool,  he  gave  a  plan  for  cleansing 
their  docks  of  mud.  This  hath  been  put  into  execution 
with  the  desired  effect :  and  he  pointed  out,  also,  the  me- 
thod, which  has  been  attended  with  equal  success,  of 
building  wails  against  the  sea  without  mortar.  The  last  of 
our  great  mechanic's  ingenious  and  uncommon  contrivan- 
ces, that  we  shall  mention,  is  his  improvement  of  the  ma- 
chine for  drawing  water  out  of  mines,  by  a  losing  and  a 
gaining  bucket.  This  be  afterwards  employed,  to  advan- 
tage, in  raising  up  coals  from  the  mines. 
•  When  any  extraordinary  difficulty  occurred  to  Mr.  Brind- 
ley,  in  the  execution  of  his  works,  having  little  or  no  as- 
sistance from  books,  or  the  labours  of  other  men,  his  re-* 
sources  lay  within  himself.  In  order,  therefore,  to  be  quiet 
and  uninterrupted,  whilst  be  was  in  search  of  the  neces- 
sary expedients,  he  generally  retired  to  his  bed ;  and  be 
has  been  known  to  lie  there  one,  two,  or  three  days,  till 
he  had  attained  the  object  in  view.  He  then  would  get 
up,  and  execute  his  design  without  any  drawing  or  model; 
Indeed,  it  never  was  his  custom  to  make  either,  unless  he 
was  obliged  to.  do  it  to  satisfy  his  employers.  His  memory 
was  so  remarkable,  that  he  has  often  declared  that  he 
could  remember,  and  execute,  all  the  parts  of  the  most 
complex  machine,  provided  he  had  time,  in  his  survey  of 
it,  to  settle  in  his  mind  the  several  departments,  and 
their  relations  to  each  other.  His  method  of  calculating 
the  powers  of  any  machine  invented  by  him,  was  peculiar 
to  himself.  He  worked  the  question  for  some  time  in  his 
head,  and  then  put  down  the  results  in  figures.  After 
this,  taking  it  up  again  in  that  stage,  he  worked  it  farther 
in  his  mind,  for  a  certain  time,  and  set  down  the  results  as 
before.    la  the  same  '*ay  he  still  proceeded,  making  use 


14  B  R  I  N  D  L  E  V. 

of  figures  only  at  stated  periods  of  the  question.     Yet  the 
ultimate  result  was  generally  true,  though  the  road  be  tra- 
velled in  search  of  it  was  unknown  to  all  but  himself; 
and,  perhaps,  it  would  not  have  been  in  his  power  to  have, 
shewn  it  to  another. 

The  attention  which  was  paid  by  Mr.  Brindley  to  objects 
of  peculiar  magnitude  did  not  permit  him  to  indulge  him- 
self in  the  common  diversions  of  life.  Indeed,  he  had  not 
the  least  relish  for  the  amusements  to  which  mankind,  in 
general,  are  so  much  devoted.  He  never  seemed  in  his 
element,  if  he  was  not  either  planning  or  executing  some 
great  work,  or  conversing  with  his  friends  upon  subjects  of 
importance.  He  was  once  prevailed  upon,  when  in  Lon- 
don, to  see  a  play.  Having  never  been  at  an  entertain- 
ment of  this  kind  before,  it  had  a  powerful  effect  upon 
him,  and  he  complained,  for  several  days  afterward,* that 
it  had  disturbed  his  ideas,  and  rendered  him  unfit  for  busi- 
ness. He  declared,  therefore,  that  he  would  not  go  to 
another  play  upon  any  account.  It  might,  however,  have 
contributed  to  the  longer  duration  of  Mr.  Brindley' s  life, 
and  consequently  to  the  farther  benefit  of  the  public,  if 
he  could  have  occasionally  relaxed  the  tone  of  his  mind. 
His  not  being  able  to  do  so,  might  not  solely  arise  from  the 
vigour  of  his  genius,  always  bent  upon  capital  designs ; 
but  be,  in  part,  the  result  of  that  total  want  of  education,* 
which,  while  it  might  add  strength  to  his  powers  in  the 
particular  way  in  which  they  were  exerted,  precluded  him, 
at  the  same  time,  from  those  agreeable  reliefs  that  are  ad- 
ministered by  miscellaneous  reading,  and  a  taste  in  the 
polite  and  elegant  arts.  The  only  fault  he  was  observed  to 
fall  into,  was  his  suffering  himself  to  be  prevailed  upon  to 
engage  in  more  concerns  than  could  be  completely  at- 
tended to  by  any  single  man,  how  eminent  soever  might 
be  his  abilities  and  diligence.  It  is  apprehended  that,  by 
this  means,  Mr.  Brindley  shortened  his  days,  and,  in  a  cer- 
tain degree,  abridged  his  usefulness.  There  is,  at  least, 
the  utmost  reason  to  believe,  that  his  intense  application, 
in  general,  to  the  important  undertakings  he  had  in  hand; 
brought  on  a  hectic  fever,  which  continued  upon  him, 
with  little  or  no  intermission,  for  some  years,  and  at 
length  terminated  his  life.  He  died,  at  Turnhurst,  in 
Staffordshire,  on  the  30th  of  September,  1772,  in  the 
56th  year  of  his  age,  and  was  buried  at  New  chapel  in  the 
same  county,  where  an  altar-tomb  has  been  erected  to  his 

BRIND  L  E  Y.  15 

memory.  The  vast  works  Mr.  Brindley  was  engaged  in  at 
the  time  of  his  death,  he  left  to  be  carried  on  and  com- 
pleted by  his  brother-in-law,  Mr.  Henshall,  for  whom  he 
had  a  peculiar  regard,  and  of  whose  integrity  and  abilities 
in  conducting  these  works,  he  had  the  highest  opinion. 

Thns  was  the  world-  deprived,  at  a  comparatively  early 
period,  of  this  great  genius 

'*  Of  mother  wit,  and  wise  without  the  schools," 

who  very  soon  gave  indications  of  uncommon  talents,  and 
extensive  views,  in  the  application  of  mechanical  princi- 
ples;  and  who,  by  a  happy  concurrence  of  circumstances^ 
the  chief  of  which  was  the  patronage  of  bis  grace  the  duke 
of  Bridgewater,  was  favoured  with  an  opportunity  of  un- 
folding and  displaying  his  wonderful  powers,  in  the  exe- 
cution of  works  new  to  this  country,  and  .such  as  will  ex- 
tend his  fame,  and  endear  his  memory,  to  future  times.  The 
public  could  only  recognize  the  merit  of  this  extraordinary 
man  in  the  stupendous  undertakings  which  he  carried  to. 
perfection,  and  exhibited  to  general  view.  But  those  who 
had  the  advantage  of  conversing  with  him  familiarly,  and 
of  knowing  him  well  in  his  private  character,  .respected 
him  still  more  for  the  uniform  and  unshaken  integrity  of 
his  conduct ;  for  his  steady  attachment  to  the  interest  of 
the  community  ;  for  the  vast  compass  of  his  understanding* 
which  seemed  to. have  %  natural  affinity  with  all  grand  ob- 
jects; and,  Jikewise,  for  many  noble  and  beneficent  de- 
signs, constantly  generating  in  his  mind,  and  which  the 
multiplicity  of  his  engagements,  and  the  shortness  of  his 
life,  prevented  him  from  bringing  to  maturity. l 
■  BRINSLEY  (John),  a. nonT conformist  divine,  was  born 
at  Ashby-de-la-Zoucb,  in  Leicestershire,  in  1600.  His 
father  was  also  a  divine  of  the  puritan  kind,,  and  master  of 
the  school  at  Asbby*  The  noted  astrologer  William  Lilly, 
was  at  bis  school  in  1613.  His  mother  was  sister  to  bishop 
Hall. :  After  being  educated  by  his  father,  he  was  admitted 
of  Emanuel  college,  Cambridge,  at  the  age  of  thirteen 
and  a  half.  .  Having  resided  there  three  or  four  years,  he 
attended  his  uncle  Hall,  then  dean  of  Worcester,  as  his 
amanuensis,  to  the  synod  of  JDort,  and  after  his  return, 
resumed  his  studies  at  Cambridge,  and  being  elected  scho-< 

1  Biog.  Brit,  an  artiele  procured  from  Mr.  Hon  shall,  Brindley's  brother-in- 
law,  by  Messrs..  Wedg* wood  and  Bentley,  and  much  of  it  drawn  np  by  the  lat«" 
ttr.— PhUips's  Hist,  of  Inland  Navigation,  &c. 

16  3  A  I  N  S  L  E  Y. 

Jar  of  the  bouse,  resided  there  until  he  took  his  degrees* 
When  ordained  he  preached  first  at  Preston,  near  Chelms- 
ford, then  at  Somerleyton  in  Suffolk,  and  lastly  was  caHed 
to  Yarmouth,  on  the  election  of  the  township,  but  his  prin- 
ciples being  objected  to  by  Dr.  Harsnet,  bishop  of  Nor- 
wich, be  could  only  preach  on  the  week  days  at  a  country 
village  adjoining,  whither  the  people  of  Yarmouth  fol- 
lowed hipa,  until  the  township  applied  to  the  king  for  his 
licence  for  Mr.  Brinsley  to  preach  in  Yarmouth.  This 
being  granted  by  his  majesty,  be  remained  there  until  the 
restoration,  when  he  was  ejected  with  his  numerous  bre- 
thren, who  refused  the  terms  of  conformity.  Although  a 
man  of  moderate  sentiments,  he  appears  to  have  been  in- 
flexible in  the  points  which  divided  so  large  a  body  of 
clergymen  from  the  church,  and  is  said  to  have  refused 
considerable  preferment  to  induce  him  to  remain  in  ifc 
He  is  praised  by  his  biographer  for  piety,  and  extensive 
learning  in  theology.  He  died  Jan,  22,  1665.  Ha  wrote 
several  treatises  enumerated  by  Calamy,  none  of  which, 
we  believe,  are  now  much  known.  He  had  a  son,  Robert, 
who  was  ejected  from  the  university,  and  afterwards  stu- 
died and  took  his  degree  of  M.  D,  at  Leyden,  and  prac- 
tised at  Yarmouth. J 

BRISSON  (Barnaby),  president  of  the  parliament  of 
Paris,  and  an  eminent  lawyer,  was  born  at  Fontenay  ia 
Poictou,  about  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth  century.  He 
appeared  at  first  with  great  eclat  at  the  bar  of  the  parlia- 
ment; and,  by  his  knowledge  and  skill  in  the  law,  ite* 
commended  himself  so  powerfully  to  Henry  HI.  of  France* 
that  this  prince  first  made  him  his  advocate  general,  tbeii 
counsellor  of  state,  and  in  1580,  honoured  him  with  the 
dignity  of  president  of  the  parliament.  Scaevola  Sammar- 
thanus  relates,  that  Henry  IIL  declared  in  his  hearirtg} 
that  there  was  not  a  prince  in  Christendom,  who  could 
boast  of  so  learned  a  man  as  Barnaby  Brissott.  The  king 
employed  him  in  several  negociations,  and  rent  him  am- 
bassador into  England.  At  his  return,  he  employed  him  td 
make  a  collection  of  his  own  ordinances,  and  of  thos&  of 
his  predecessors ;  which  he  performed  with  wonderful  ex- 
pedition. He  wrote  some  works  in  law:  "  De  verbofurai, 
queD  ad  jus  pertinent,  significatione."  "  De  fortnuiis  et 
sojemnibus  populi  Romani  verbis,"  Paris,  1583,  fol. »"  De 

1  Calamy.— Lillys  Life  and  Times,  p.  5, 6,  8,  edit,  1774. 


*egio  Persarum  principatu,9'  &c.  1580,  1590,  1599,  8to; 
1606,  4to ;  but  the  best  edition  is  that  of  Strasburgh,  1710, 
8vo,  with  Sylburgius'  notes.  He  gave  4ti  expectation  of 
more  considerable  performances;  but  his  life  was  shortened 
by  a  very  unfortunate  accident  Living  at  Paris  when! 
t^at  rebellious  city  was  besieged  by  Henry  IV.  he  demon- 
strated against  the  treasonable  practices  of  the  leaguers, 
who,  under  pretence  of  the  holy  union,  contemned  the 
royal  authority,  which  was  much  more  sacred.  These  re- 
ligious traitors,  being  dissatisfied  with  his  loyalty,  fell  vio- 
lently upon  him,  dragged  him  to  prison,  and  cruelly 
strangled  him  the  1 5th  of  Nov.  1591. ' 

BR1SSOT  (Peter),  an  eminent  French  physician,  waa 
born  at  Fontenai-le-Comte,  in  Poitou^  1478,  and  about 
1495  was  sent  to  Paris,  where  he  went  through  a  course 
of  philosophy  under  Villemar,  a  famous  professor  of  those 
times.  By  his  advice,  Brissot  resolved  to  be  a  physician, 
and  studied  phytic  there  for  four  years.  Then  he  began 
to  teach  philosophy  in  the  university  of  Paris  ;  and,  va7ter 
he  had  done  this  for  ten  years,  prepared  himself  for  the 
examinations  necessary  to  his  doctor  of  physic's  degree; 
which  he  took  in  May  1514.  Being  one  of  those  men 
who  are  not  contented  with  custom  and  tradition*,  but 
choose  to  examine  for  themselves,  he  made  an  exact  com- 
parison between  the  practice  of  his  own  times  and  the 
doctrine  of  Hippocrates  and  Galen  :  and  he  found  that  the 
Arabians  had  introduced  many  things  into  physib  that  were 
contrary  to  the  doctrine  of  those  two  great  masters,  and  to 
reason  and  experience.  He  set  himself  therefore  to  re- 
form physic ;  and  for  this  purpose  undertook  publicly  to 
explain  Galen's  books,  instead  of  those  of  Avicenna,  Rha« 
sis,  and  Mesu'f,  which  were  commonly  explained  in  the 
schools  of  physic ;  but,  finding  himself  obstructed  in  the 
work  of  reformation  by  his  ignorance  of  botany,  he  resolved 
to  travel,  in  order  to  acquire  the  knowledge  bf  plants,  and 

}>ut  himself  into  a  capacity  of  correcting  pharmacy.  Be- 
ore^  however,  he  left  Paris,  he  undertook  to  convince  the 
public  of  what  he  deemed  an  inveterate  err  >r ;  but  which 
now  is  considered  as  a  matter  of  little  consequence.  The 
constant  practice  of  physicians,  in  the  pleurisy^  was  to 
bleed  from  the  arm,  not  on  the  side  where  the  distemper 
was,  but  the  opposite  side.     Brissot  disputed  about  it  in 

1  Morrri.— Cbaufepie. — Diet  Hist. — Frefceri  Tkeatnim.— Blount's  Censura. 
—Mem  nr»  of  Literature,  vol.  IV.  p.  7. 

Vol.  VII.  C 


18  B  R  I  S  S  O  T. 

the  physic-schools,  confuted  that  practice,  and  shewed 
chat  it  was  falsely  pretended  to  be  agreeable  to  the  doc- 
trine of  Hippocrates  and  Galen.  He  then  left  Paris  in 
1518,  and  went  to  Portugal,  stopping  there  at  Ebora^ 
whefe  he  practised  physic ;  but  his  new  way  of  bleeding 
in*  the  pleurisy,  notwithstanding  his  great  success,  did  not 
please  every  body.  He  received  a  long  and  rude  letter 
about  it  from  Denys,  physician  to  the  king  of  Portugal ; 
which  he  answered,  and  would  have  published  if  death  had 
not  prevented  him  in  1522.  It  was  printed,  however,  three 
years  after  at  Paris,  and  reprinted  at  Basil  in  1529.  Re- 
natus  Moreau  published  a  new  edition  of  it  at  Paris  in 
1622,  with  a  treatise  of  his  own,  "  De  missione  sanguinis 
in  pleuritide,"  and  the  life  of  "Brissot ;  out  of  which  this 
account  is  taken.  He  never  would  marry,  being  of  opinion 
that  matrimony  did  not  well  agree  with  study.  One  thing 
is  related  of  him,  which  his  biographer,  rather  uncharita- 
bly, says,  deserves  to  be  taken  notice  of,  because  it  is 
singular  in  the  men  of  his  profession;  and  it  is,  that  he 
did  not  love  gain.  He  cared  so  little  for  it,  that  when  he 
was  called  to  a  sick  person,  he  looked  into  his  purse  ;  and, 
if  he  found  but  two  pieces  of  gold  fn  it,  refused  to  go. 
This, "however,  it  is  acknowledged,  was  owing  to  his  great 
love  of  study,  from  which  it  was  very  difficult  to  take  him. 
The  dispute  between  Denys  and  Brissot  raised  a  kind  of 
civil  war  among  the  Portuguese  physicians.  The  business 
was  brought  before  the  tribunal  of  the  university  of  Sala- 
manca, where  it  was  thoroughly  discussed  by  the  faculty 
of  physic  ;  but  in  the  mean  time,  the  partisans  of  Denys 
had  recourse  to  the  authority  of  the  secular  power,  and 
obtained  a  decree,  forbidding  physicians  to  bleed  on  the 
fcame  side  in  which  the  pleurisy  was.  At  last  the  univer- 
sity of  Salamanca  gave  their  judgment ;  importing,  that 
the  opinion  of  Brissot  was  the  true  doctrine  of  Hippocrates 
and  Galen.  The  followers  of  Denys  appealed  to  the  em- 
peror about  1529,  thinking  themselves  superior  both  in 
authority  and  number ;  and  the  matter  was  brought  before 
Charles  V.  They  were  not  contented  to  call  the  doctrine 
of  their  adversaries  false ;  they  added  that  it  was  impious, 
mortal,  and  as  pernicious  to  the  body  as  Luther's  schism 
to  the  soul.  They  not  only  blackened  the  reputatioti  of 
their  adversaries  by  private  arts,  but  also  openly  accused 
them  of  ignorance  and  rashness,,  of  attempts  on.  religion, 
and  of  being  downright  Lutherans  in  physic.     It  fell  out 

BRISSOf.  19 

unluckily  'for  them,  that  Charles  III.  duke  of  Savoy,  hap-»; 
pened  to  die  of  a  pleurisy,  after  he  had  been  bled  accord- 
ing .to.  the  practice  which  Brissot  opposed.  Had  it  not 
been  for  this,  the  emperor,  it  is  thought,  would  have  grant- 
ed every  thing  that  Brissot's  adversaries  desired  of  him ; 
but  this  accident  induced  him  to  leave. the  cause  undecided. 
"Two  things,"  says  Bayle,  in  his  usual  prattling  way^ 
"  occur  in  this  relation*  which  all  wise  men  must  needs 
condemn;  namely,  the  base,  the  disingenuous,  the. unphi- 
losophic  custom  of  interesting  religion  in  disputes  about 
science,  and  the  folly  and  absurdity. of  magistrates  to  be 
concerned  in  such  disputes.  A  magistrate  is  for  the  most 
part  a  very  incompetent  judge  of  such  matters  ;  and,  as  her 
knows  nothing  of  them,  so  he  ought  to. imitate  Gallio  in 
this  at  least,  that  is,  not  to  care  for  them  ;  but  to  leave 
those  whose  business  it  is,  to  fight  it  out  among  themselves. 
Besides,  authority  has  nothing  to  do  with  philosophy  and 
the  sciences ;  it  should  be  kept  at  a  great  distance  froth; 
them,  for  the  same  reason  that  armed  forces  are  removed 
from  a  borough  at  the  time  of  a  general  assize ;  namely, 
that  reason  and  equity  may  have,  their  full  play."  l 

BRISSOT  DE  WARVILLE  (James  Peter),  a  very, 
active  agent  in  the  French  revolution,  and  a  victim  to  the 
tyranny  he  had  created,  was  the  son  of  the  master  of  an 
eating-house,  and  boru  in  1754  at  Chartres  in  the  Orlean- 
nois.  After  receiving  a  good  education,  he  was  intended 
for  the.  bar,  but  having  served  a  clerkship  for  five  years^ 
he  relinquished  the  further  prosecution  of  the  law,  in  or- 
der to  study  literature  and  the  sciences ;  and  an  accidental 
acquaintance  with  some  Englishmen,  and  the  perusal  of 
some  English  books,  seem  to  have  confirmed  this  determi- 
nation. About  this  time  be  changed,  the  appellation,  of 
"  de  Ouarvilie"  to  that  of  Warville,  agreeable  to  the  Eng- 
lish pronunciation.  Having  by  relinquishing  the  law  in- 
curred his  father's  displeasure*  he  was  indebted  tq  the 
bounty  of  some  .friends,  who  enabled  him  to  prosecute  his 
studies  at  Paris  for  two  years r  after  which  he  became  edi* 
tor  of  the  "  Courier  de TEurope,"  a  paper  printed  at  Bou> 
logne ;  but  this  being  discontinued  on  account  of  some  ar- 
ticles inimical  to  government,  he  returned  to  Paris,  and  in 
imitation  of  Voltaire,  Diderot,  and  D'Alembert,  who,  aa 
he  imagined,  had  destroyed  religious  tyranny,,  began  to 

»  Baylt.— Moreri.— Haller  Bibl.  Med,  Pract. 

C   2 

20  B  R  I  S  S  O  T. 

attempt  the  destruction  of  political  tyranny,  which  he  fan- 
cied was  reserved  for  his  irresistible  pen.    To  develope  the 
whole  of  his  plan,  however,  was  not  his  aim  at  first :  and 
be  began,  therefore,  with  attacking  such  abuses  as  might 
have  been  removed  without  any  injury  to  an  established  con- 
stitution, but  which,  as  they  could  not  be  wholly  denied,  he 
endeavoured  to  trace  from  the  very  nature  of  monarchy. 
With  this  view  he  published  some  works  on  criminal  juris- 
prudence, as,  in  1780,  his  "Theory  of  Criminal  laws,"  2 
vols.  8vo,  and  two  papers  arising  out  of  the  subject,  which 
gained  the  prize  in  1782,  at  the  academy  of  Chalons-sur- 
Marne.     He  also  began  a  work  which  was  afterwards  com- 
pleted in   10  vols,  .8vo,  "  A  philosophical  library  of  the 
criminal  law,"  and  a  volume  concerning  "Truth"  and 
"Thoughts  on  the  means  of  attaining  Truth  in  all  the 
branches  of  human  knowledge,"  which  he  intended  mere- 
ly as  an  introduction  to  a  work  on  a  more  enlarged  and 
comprehensive  plan.    To  all  these  he  annexed  ideas  of  sin- 
gular importance  and  utility,   although  his  notions   are 
crude,  and  his  knowledge  superficial* 

Brissot,  at  the  period  of  his  residence  at  Boulogne,  had 
been  introduced  to  mademoiselle  Dupont,  who  was  em- 
ployed under  mad.  de  Genlis  as  reader  to  the  daughter  of 
the  duke  of  Orleans,  and  whose  mother  kept  a  lodging- 
house  in  that  place:  and  having  married  this  lady,  he 
found  it  necessary  to  exert  his  literary  talents  for  gaining 
a  subsistence.     But  as  France  did  not  afford  that  liberty, 
which  he  wished  to  indulge,  he  formed  a  design  of  printing, 
in  Swisserland  or  Germany,  a  series  of  works  in  a  kind  of 
periodical  publication,  under  the  title  of  "  An  universal 
Correspondence  on  points  interesting  to    the  welfare  of 
Man  and  of  Society,"  which  he  proposed  to  smuggle  into 
France.    With  this  view,  he  visited  Geneva  and  NeQ- 
ehatel,  in  order  to  establish  correspondences ;  and  he  also 
made  a  journey  to  London,  which  was  to  be  the  central 
point  of  the  establishment,  and  the  fixed  residence  of  the 
writers.     His  intentions,  however,  were  divulged  by  the 
treachery  of  some  of  his  confidential  associates  ;  and  the 
scheme  totally  failed.     During  his  abode  in  London,  he 
concerted  the  plan  of  a  periodical  work  or  journal,  on  the 
literature,  arts,  and  politics  of  England,  which,  being  pub- 
lished in  London,  was  allowed  to  be  reprinted  at  Paris,  and 
first  appeared  in  J  784.    The  avowed  object  of  this  publi- 
cation, as  he  himself  declares,  was  "  the  universal  eman- 

B  R  I  S  S  O  T.  21 

/  * 


cipation  of  men."     In  London,  he  was  arrested  for  debt ; 
but,  being  liberated  by  the  generosity  of  a  friend,  he  re- 
turned to  Paris,  where  he  was  committed  to  the  Bastille 
in  July  1784,  on  the  charge  of  being  concerned  in  a  very 
obnoxious  publication.     Put  by  the  interest  of  the  duke 
of  Orleans,  he  was  released,  on  condition  of  never  residing 
in  England,  and  discontinuing  his  political  correspondence* 
In  1735,  he  published  two  letters  to  the  emperor  Joseph 
II.  "  Concerning  the  Right  of  Emigration,  and  the  Right 
of  the  People  to  revolt,"  which,  he  applied  particularly  to 
the  case  of  the  Walachians  :  and  in  the  following  year  ap- 
peared bis  "  Philosophical  Letters  on  the  History  of  Eng- 
land," in  2  vols,  and  "  A  critical  Examination  of  the  Tra- 
vels of  the  marquis  de  Chatelleux  in  North  America."  With 
a  view  of  promoting  a   ilose,  political,   and  commercial 
union  between  France  and  the  United  States,  he  wrote  in 
1787,  with  the  assistance  of  Claviere,  a  tract,   entitled 
u  De  la  France  et  des  Etats  Unis,  &c."  "  On  France  and 
the  United  States ;  or  on  the  Importance  of  the  American 
Revolution  to  the  kingdom  of  France,  and  the  reciprocal 
advantages  which  will  accrue  from  a  commercial  Inter- 
course between  the  two  nations."     Of  this  work,  an  Eng- 
lish translation  was  published,  both  in  England  and  Ame- 
rica.    At  this  time  he  was  in  the  service  of  the  duke  of 
Orleans,  as  secretary  to  his  chancery,  with  a  handsome 
salary,  and  apartments  in  the  palais  royal ;  and,  without 
doubt,  employed  in  aiding  that  monster  in  his  schemes  of 
ambition.     In  this  situation,  he  wrote  a  pamphlet  against 
the  administration  of  the  archbishop  of  Sens,  entitled  "  No 
Bankruptcy,  &c."  which  occasioned  the  issuing  of  a  lettre 
de  cachet  against  him.     But  to  avoid  its  effect,  he  went 
to  Holland,  England,  and  the  Low  Countries;  and   at 
Mechlin,  he  edited  a  newspaper,  called  "  Le  Courier  Bel- 
gique."     For  the  purpose  of  promoting  the  views  of  a  so- 
ciety at  Paris,  denominated  "  Les  Amis  des  Noirs,"  and 
established  for  the  purpose  of  abolishing  negro  slavery,  he 
embarked  for  America  in  1>788 ;  and,  during  his  residence 
in  that  country,  he  sought  for  a  convenient  situation,  in 
which  a  colony  of  Frenchmen  might  be  organized  into  a 
republic,  according  to  his  ideas  of  political  liberty.     But 
his  return  was  hastened  in  1789  by  the  intelligence  he 
received  of  the  progress  of  the  French  revolution.     After 
his  arrival,  he  published  his  "Travels  in  America;"  (Nou- 
veau  Voyage  daps  les  Etats  Unis,  &c.  Pyuria,  1791,  3  vols. 

it  B  R  I  S  S  O  T, 

8vo),  and  as  he  found  the  attention  of  the  public  directed 
to  the  approaching  assembly  of  the  states- general/  he 
Wrote  his  "  Plan  of  Conduct  for  the  Deputies  of  the  Peo- 
ple." At  this  time,  he  had  withdrawn  from  the  partisans  of 
the  duke  of  Orleans;  and  he  took  an  active  part  in  the 
plans  that  were  then  projected  for  the  organization  of  the* 
people,  with  a  view  to  their  union  and  energy  in  accom- 
plishing the  revolution.  To  the  lodgings  of  Brissot,  as  sv 
person  who  was  held  in  estimation  at  this  period,  the  keys 
of  the  Bastille,  when  it  was  taken,  were  conveyed  ;  he  also 
became  president  of  the  Jacobin  club  ;  and  he  distinguished 
himself  in  various  ways  as  a  zealous  promoter  of  those 
revolutionary  principles,  which  afterwards  gave  occasion 
to  a  great  number  of  atrocious  excesses.  After  the  king's 
flight  to  Varennes,  Brissot  openly  supported  the  republican 
cause ;  but,  as  some  form  of  monarchy  was  still  the  object 
of  the  national  wish,  he  was  obliged  to  restrain  his  impe- 
tuosity. The  popularity  acquired  by  his  writings  and 
conduct  was  such,  as  to  induce  the  Parisians  to  return  hint 
as  one  of  their  members  in  the  "  Legislative  national  as- 
sembly," which  succeeded  the  "  Constituent  assembly,** 
in  October  1791,  of  which  assembly  he  was  appointed  se- 
cretary ;  and  he  became  afterwards  a  member  of  the  com- 
mittee of  public  instruction.  Although  inferior  to  many 
others  in  talents  and  knowledge,  his  activity  raised  him  to 
the  rank  of  head  or  chief,  in  the  party  denominated  "  Gi«i 
rondists"  or  "  La  Gironde,"  the  name  of  the  department 
to  which  several  of  its  members  belonged,  and  also  frorq 
his  own  name  "  Brissotins."  In  his  career  of  ambition,  he 
does  not  seem  to  have  been  influenced  by  pecuniary  ccn- 
siderations ;  power,  more  than  wealth,  being  the  object  of 
his  aim  ;  for,  at  this  time,  he  and  his  family  lodged  in  an 
apartment  up  four  pair  of  stairs,  and  subsisted  on  his  sti- 
pend as  deputy,  and  the  inconsiderable  gains  accruing 
from  a  newspaper.  As  a  determined  enemy  to  monarchy, 
he  was  unremitting  in  his  efforts  to  engage  the  nation  in  a 
war,  with  the  avowed  purpose  of  involving  the  king  and 
his  ministers  in  difficulties  which  would  terminate  in  their 
ruin,  and  this  part  of  his  political  conduct  must  ever  bfe 
lamented  and  execrated  by  the  friends  of  freedom  and  of 
mankind.  In  the  impeachment  of  M.  Delessart,  the  mi- 
nister for  foreign  affairs,  Brissot  took  a  principal  lead ;  and 
alleged  against  him  several  articles  of  accusation,  in  con- 
sequence of  which,  he  was  Apprehended,  tried  by  .the  higfy 

BR  IS  S  Or  T:  M 

national  court  at  Orleans,  and  condemned  to  die,  without 
being  first  beard  in  his  own  defence,  so  that  he  became 
the  first  victim  to  that  desperate  faction,  which  afterwards 
deluged  France  with  blood.     His  colleagues  were  so  com- 
pletely terrified  by  this  event,  that  they  requested  leave  to 
resign,  and  the  ministry  was  at  once  completely  dissolved* 
The ir  successors,  appointed  by.  the  king,  under  the  direc- 
tion and  influence  of  Brissot,  were  Dumourier,  Roland,  and 
Claviere.     This  appointment  was  followed  by  a  declaration 
ol  war,  decreed  by  the  national  assembly,  against  the  king- 
of  Hungary  aud  Bohemia  ;  and  Brissot,  during  the  exist- 
ence of  this  administration,  which  terminated  soon,  wa* 
considered  as  the  most  powerful  person  in  France.     About 
this  time,  Brissot  began  to  entertain  secret  jealousy  and 
suspicion  of  La  Fayette,-,  and  concurred  with  other  mem* 
bers  of  the  assembly,  in  signing  an  accusation  against  him,, 
which,  however,  he  wasrnot  able  to  substantiate.    He  aud  his 
republican  party  were  likewise  industrious  in  their  endea- 
vours  to  throw  an  odium  on  the  court,  by  alleging,  that  a~ 
private  correspondence  was  carried  on  between  the  king 
and  queen  and  the  emperor ;  and  they  even  averred,  that 
an  "  Austrian  Committee,9'  and  a  conspiracy  iu  favour  of 
the  enemies  of  the  country,  existed  among  the  friends  of 
the  court.    The  charge  seemed  to.  be  unsupported  by  suffi- 
cient evidence ;  the  king  publicly  contradicted  these  accu- 
sations  as  calumnies;  nevertheless,  they  made  no  small 
impression  on  the  minds  of  the  public.     To  the  writings 
and  conduct  of  Brissot,  the  horrid  massacres  at  the  Tuil- 
leries,  on  the  10th  of  August,  1792,  have  been  principally- 
ascribed  ;  and  it  is  a  poor  excuse  that  he  is  said  to  have 
preserved  the  lives  of  several  of  the  Swiss  guards  on  that 
fatal  day.     He  was  employed  to  draw  up  the  declaration  to 
the  neutral  powers  concerning  the  suspension  of  the  king's 
authority  ;  but  he  is  said  to  have  regarded  with  horror  the 
sanguinary  spirit  that  was  now  predominant  among  the 
leaders  of  the  jacobins.     Whilst,  indeed,  he  was  ascending 
to  the  pinnacle  of  power,  he  seems  to  have  been  the  ardent 
advocate  of  insurrection  and  the  revolutionary  power :  but 
a* he  found  himself  raised  to  that  station,  he, began  to  in- 
culcate "  order  and  the  constitution,"  the  usual  cant  of  all 
demagogues  who  think  they  have  attained  their  object. 
In  the  shocking  massacre  of  the  prisoners  at  Paris  in  Sep- 
tember, he  had  probably  no  other  conpern,  than  the  in- 
fluftice ;  which  his  irritating  speeches  and  writings  had 

U  B  R  I  S  S  O  T, 

treated  on  the  minds  of  the  more  active  agents.    When 
the  •*  National  convention,"  the  idea  of  which  is  said  to 
have  been  suggested  by  him,  assumed  the  direction  of  the 
state,  and  assembled  on  the  20th  of  September,  i792,  he 
was  returned  as  member  for  the  department  of  Eure  and 
Loire,  his  native  country.     In  this  assembly,  he  openly 
avowed  himself  an  advocate  for  a  republican  government, 
in  opposition  both  to  the  Jacobins  and  Orleanists  5  and  was 
expelled  the  Jacobin  club.     On  this  occasion,  he  wrote  a 
vindication  of  bis  public  condpct,  under  the  title  of  "  An 
Address  to  all  the  Republicans."     He  is  said  to  have  been 
$0  far  shocked  by  the  prospect  of  the  fatal  issue  of  the 
king's  trial,  as  to  have  attempted  the  preservation  of  bis 
life,  by  deferring  his  execution  till  the  constitution  should 
be  perfected ;  a  proposition  of  which  the  absurdity  and 
cruelty  are  nearly  equal.     The  war  with  England,  which 
soon  followed  the  death  of  Louis,  is  ascribed  to  his  ardour 
and  credulity ;  for  he  was  led  to  imagine,  that  the  conse- 
quence of  it  would  be  a  civil  war  in  this  country ;  and  it  is 
Said,  that  this,  as  well  as  the  war  with  Holland,  was  decreed 
in  the  national  convention,  Feb.  1,  1793,  at  his  motion. 
This  charge,  however,  he  retorts  on  bis  accusers,  and  says, 
that  the  anarchists,  by  voting  the  death  of  the  king,  were 
themselves  the  authors  of  the  war. 

Brissot's  influence  now  gradually  declined ;  and  his  party 
was  at  length  overpowered  by  a  more  violent  and  san- 
guinary faction,  denominated  the  "  Mountain/9  so  called 
from  its  members  usually  sitting  in  the  convention,  on  the 
upper  seats  of  the  hall,  at  the  head  of  which  was  Robes? 
pierre,  of  execrable  memory.  The  treachery  and  deser? 
tion  of  Dumourier  likewise  contributed  to  hasten  the  down* 
fel  of  this  party.  To  their  imbecility  or  perfidy,  the  public 
calamities  that  threatened  the  country,  were  generally  as? 
cribed ;  and,  after  the  establishment  of  the  "  Revolutionary 
tribunal,*'  for  the  purpose  of  trying  crimes  committed 
against  the  state,  in  March  1793,  a  petition  was  presented 
in  the  following  month  by  the  communes  of  the  48  sections' 
of  Paris,  requiring  that  the  chiefs  of  the  Girondists,  or  Brja* 
potins,  denounced  in  it,  should  be  impeached,  arid  expelled 
the  convention.  In  May  and  June  decrees  of  arrest  were 
issued  against  them ;  and  against  Brissot  among  the  rest, 
who  attempted  to  make  his  escape  ipto  bwisaejrland,  but 
fvas  stopped  and  imprisoned  ;  and  in  the  following  October, 
he  and  21  of  bife  associates  were  brought  beforethe  revolu- 

B  R  I  S  S  O  T.  2$ 

lionary  tribunal  Brissot,  who  was  elevated  in  the  miist 
of  them,  maintained  a  firm  and  tranquil  mind  ;  but,  though 
their  accusers  could  support  their  charges  by  little  moid 
than  mere  surmises,  the  whale  party  was  immediately  con- 
demned to  the  scaffold ;  and  next  morning  were  led  td 
execution.  There  Brissot,  after  seeing-  the  blood  of  16 
associates  stream  from  the  scaffold,  submitted  to  the  stroke 
with  the  utmost  composure.  In  the  relations  of  private 
life,  his  character  stands  without  reproach ;  but  these  af- 
ford no  counterpoise  to  his  public  conduct;  and  although 
his  sentence  was  unjust  as  coming  from  men  as  guilty  as 
himself,  it  was  the  natural  consequence  of  a  tyranny  to  the 
establishment  of  which  he  had  contributed  more  largely 
♦than  most  of  his  countrymen. » 

BR1STOW  (Richard),  an  eminent  Roman  catholic 
priest  and  writer  in  the  reign  of  queen  Elizabeth,  was  born 
at  Worcester,  in  1538.  In  1555  he  was  entered  of  Exeter 
college,  Oxford,  according  to  Pits,  Which  Wood  doubts; 
but  he  took  his  degree  of  B.  A.  in  1559,  and  M.  A.  in  1562, 
at  which  last  time  he  was  a  member  of  Christ  church.  He 
*nd  the  celebrated  Campian  were  so  esteemed  for  their 
talents,  as  to  be  selected  to  entertain  queen  Elizabeth  with 
a  public  disputation  in  1566.  Bristow  was  afterwards,  iti 
July  1567,  made  a  fellow  of  Exeter  college,  by  the  interest 
of  sir  William  Petre,  who  bad  founded  some  fellowships  in 
that  college,  and  who  would  have  promoted  him  further, 
had  he  not  laid  himself  open  to  the  suspicion  of  holding 
popish  tenets;  and  this  appeared  more  plainly  by  his  quit- 
ting the  university  on  cardinal  Alan's  invitation/  He  went 
then,  to  Do  way,  and  after  prosecuting  his  theological  stu- 
dies in  that  academy,  was  admitted  to  his  doctor's  degree 
jo  1579,  and,  says  his  biographer,  was  Alan's  "right  hand 
upon  all  occasions."  He  was  made  prefect  of  studies, 
lectured  on  the  scriptures,  and  in  the  absence  of  Alan  acted 
as  regent  of  the  college.  His  intense  studies,  however, 
injured  a  constitution  originally  very  weak,  and  after  a 
journey  to  Spa,  which  had  very  little  effect,  he  was  recom- 
mended to  try  his  native  air.  On  his  return  to  England, 
he  resided  for  a  very  short  time  with  a  Mr.  Bellamy,  a  gen* 
tieman  of  fortune,  at  Harrow  on  the  Hill,  where  he  died 
Oct.  IB,  1581.  The  popish  historians  concur  in  express* 
ing  the  loss  their  cause  suffered  by  his  death,  he  being 

i  Life,  1794,  Sro.~Bk>grephie  RKM)erae«-~Ree*>i  Cyctopaodi*. 

tS  ,     ERI8TOV. 

tefcjjied  "  an  Alan  in  prudence,-  a  Stapleton  in  acuteness,  a 
Campian  in  eloquence,  a  Wright  in  theology,  and  a  Mar* 
tin  in  languages."  He  wrote,  1.  "  Dr.  Bristow's  motives,** 
Antwerp,  1574,  1599,  8vo,  translated  afterwards  into  La- 
tin, by  Dr.  Worthington,  Doway,  1 608,  4to.  2-  "  A  Re- 
ply to  William  Fulk  (his  ablest  antagonist),  in  defence  of 
Dr.  Allen  (Alan's)  articles,  and  book  of  purgatory,"  Lou- 
vain,  1580,  4to.  3.  "  Fifty-one  demands,  to  be  proposed 
by  catbQlics  to  heretics,"  London,  .1592,  4to.  4.  "  Veri* 
tates  Aureae  S.  H.  Ecclesise,"  1616.  5.  "  Tabula  in  sum- 
roam  theologicam  S.  Thorn®  Aquinatis,"  1579.  He  wrote 
also,  "  An  Apology  in  defence  of  Alan  and  himself,"  and 
notes  upon  the  Rueims  Testament.  * 

BRITANNICO  (John  Angelo),  an  eminent  Italian* 
scholar  of  the  fifteenth  century,  was  born  in  the  Brescian 
territory,  of  a  family  originally  from: Great  Britain  ;  and 
having  studied  at  Padua  about  the  year  1470,  kept  school 
at  Brescia,  and  distinguished  himself  by  several  learned 
annotations  on  various  classic  authors,  particularly  Juvenal, 
Lucan,  Horace,  Persius,  and  Statius  in  his  Achiileid.  He 
also  wrote  grammatical  and  other  tracts,  and  an  eulogy  on 
Bartholomew  Cajetan.  He  is  supposed  not  to  have  long 
survived  the  year  1518,  and  did  not  live  to  publish  his 
notes  upon  Pliny's  Natural  History.  His  Statius  was  pub- 
lished in  1485,  fol.  and  his  Juvenal  in  1512,  Venice,  fol.  •  ' 

BRITO  (Bernard  de),  a  Portuguese  historian,  was  born 
at  Almeida,  Aug.  20,  1569,  and  entered  young  into  the 
order  of  the  Cistercians,  by  whom  he  was  sent  to  Italy  to 
be  educated.  During  his  studies  be  betrayed  much  more 
fondness  for  history  than  for  philosophy  or  divinity,  yet 
did  not  neglect  the  latter  so  far  as  to  be  unable  to  teach 
both,  which  he  did  with  reputation  on  his  return  home. 
His  abilities  in  investigating  the  affairs  of  Portugal  pro* 
cured  him  the  office  of  first  historiographer  of  Portugal, 
and  he  was  the  first  who  endeavoured  to  give  a  regular  - 
form  to  its  history,  two  folio  volumes  of  which  he  pub* 
lished  in  1597,  at  Alcobaga,  and  1609,  at  Lisbou,  under 
the  title  of  "  Monarcbia  Lusitana."  It  is  written  with  ele* 
gance ;  and  was  brought  down  to  Alfonsus  III.  by  Antony 
and  Francis  Brandano,  monks  of  the  same  order,  making 
in  all  7  vols.     He  published  also,  2.  .Panegyrics  of  the 

>   -  ... 

1  Dodd's  Ch.  Hist.  vol.  II — Pits.— Taimer.— Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I. 
•  Gen.  Djct*— 'Mortri.— Saxii  Onopaast. 

B,R  I  T  O,   -  27 

m  ■ 

kings  of  Portugal,  with  their  portraits.  3.  Ancient  Geo- 
graphy of  Portugal.  4.  Chronicle  of  the  Cistercian  order* 
The  "  Guerra  Brasilica,"  Lisbon,  1675,  2  vols,  folio,  is 
by  Francis  de  Brito,  a  different  person  from  Bernard,  who 
died  in  1617. l 

BRITTON  (Thomas),  a  very  singular  personage,  known 
by  the  name  of  the  Musical  Small-coal  Man,  was  born  at 
or  near  Higbam  Ferrers,  in  Northamptonshire,  about  the 
middle  of  the  seventeenth  century,  and  went  from  thence 
to  London,  where  he  bound  himself  apprentice  to  a  small- 
coal  man.  He  served  seven  years,  and  returned  to  North- 
amptonshire, his  master  giving  him  a  sum  of  money  not 
to  set  up :  .but,  after  this  money  was  spent,  he  returned  again 
to  'London,  and  set  up  the  trade  of  small-coal,  which  he 
continued  to  the  end  of  his  life.  Some  time  after  he  had 
been  settled  in  business  here,  he  became  acquainted  with 
jUAfht  ¥*T*  Garaniere,  his  neighbour,  an  eminent  chemist,  who, 
,^£  r.g  admitting  mm  into  his  laboratory,  Tom,  with  the  doctor's 
consent,  and  his  own  observation,  soon  became  a  notable 
chemist ;  contrived  and  built  himself  a  moving  laboratory, 
in  which,  according  to  Hearne,  "  he  performed  with  little 
espence  and  trouble  such  things  as  had  never  been  done 
before."  Besides  his  great  skill  in  chemistry,  he  became 
a  practical,  and,  as  was  thought,  a  theoretical  musician. 
Tradition  only  informs  us  that  be  was  very  fond  of  music, 
and  that  he  was  able  to  perform  oft  the  viol  da  gamba  at 
hfe  own  concerts,  which  be  at  first  established  gratis  in  his 
miserable  house,  which  was  an  old  mean  building,  the 
ground-floor  of  which  was  a  repository  for  his  small-  coal ; 
over  this  was  his  concert-room,  long,  low,  and  narrow,  to 
which  there  was  no  other  ascent  than  by  a  pair  of  stairs  oa 
the  outside,  so  perpendicular  and  narrow,  as  scarcely  to 
be  mounted  without  crawling. 

Hearne  allows  him  to  have  been  a  very  diligent  collec- 
tor of  old  books  of  all  kinds,  which,  in  his  courses  through 
the  town  crying  his  small-coal,  he  had  a  good  opportunity 
*of  doing  at  stalls,  where  he  used  to  stop  and  select ,  for 
purchase  whatever  was  ancient,  particularly  on  his  two  fa* 
vourite  subjects  of  chemistry  and  music.  On  the  former, 
v  it  has  naturally  been  suggested  that,  he  had  picked  up 
books  oh  Rosier ucian  mysteries,  and  not  impossible  but 
that  he  may  have  wasted  some  of  his  small-coals  in  the 
great  secrets  of  alchemy  in  the  .transmutation  of  metals. 

1  Moreri,— Diet.  Hist 

2*  BRIT.TON. 

With  respect  to  music,  be  collected  all  the  elementary 
books  in  English  that  were  then  extant ;  such  as  Morley's. 
introduction,  Simpson's  division  violist,  Playford,  Butler, 
Bath,  and  Mace ;  nine  books  of  instruction  for  the  psal- 
mody, flute,  and  mock  trumpet.  But  besides  his  vast 
collection  of  printed  music,  the  catalogue  of  which  fills 
eight  pages  iu  4to,  of  sir  J.  Hawkins's  Hist,  of  Music,  he 
teems  to  have  been  such  an  indefatigable  copyist,  that  he 
is  said  to  have  transcribed  with  his  own  hand,  very  neatly 
and  accurately,  a  collection  of  music  which  sold  after  his 
decease  for  near  100/, 

Mr.  Walpole,  in  his  Anecdotes,  says,  that  "  Woolaston 
the  painter,  who  was  a  good  performer  on  the  violin  and 
flute,  had  played  at  the  concert  held  at  the  house  of  that 
extraordinary  person,  Thomas  Britton  the  small-coal  man, 
whose  picture  he  twice  drew,  one  of  which  was  purchased 
by  sir  Hans  Sloane,  and  is  now  in  the  British  museum : 
there  is  a  mezzotinto  from  it.  T.  Britton,  who  made  much 
noise  in  his  time,  considering  his  low  station  and  trade, 
was  a  collector  of  all  sorts  of  curiosities,  particularly 
drawings,  prints,  books,  manuscripts  on  uncommon  sub- 
jects, as  mystic  divinity,  the  philosopher's  stone,  judicial 
astrology,  and  magic ;  and  musical  instruments,  both  in 
and  out  of  vogue.  Various  were  the  opinions  concerning 
him ;  some  thought  his  musical  assembly  only  a  cover  for 
seditious  meetings ;  others,  for  magical  purposes.  He 
was  taken  for  an  atheist,  a  presbyterian,  a  Jesuit.  But 
Woolaston  the  painter,  and  the  son  of  a  gentleman  who 
fcad'likewise  been  a  member  of  that  club,  averred  it  a& 
their  opinions,  that  Britton  was  a  plain,  simple,  honest 
man,  who  only  meant  to  amuse  himself.  The  subscrip- 
tion was  but  ten  shillings  a  year ;  Britton  found  the  instru- 
ments, and  they  had  coffee  at  a  penny  a  dish.  Sir  Hans 
Sloane  bought  many  of  his  books  and  MSS.  now  in  the 
Museum,  when  they  were  sold  by  auction  at  Tom's  coffee- 
house, near  Ludgate.*' 

Dr.  Burney  in  early  life  conversed  with  members  of  this 
concert,  who  spoke  of  him  in  the  same  manner.  So  late 
as  the  middle  of  the  last  century,  mezzotinto  prints  of  him 
were  in  all  the  print-shops,  particularly  an  excellent  one 
by  Smith,  under  which}  and  almost  all  the  prints  of  Britton, 
were  the  following  verses,  by  Hughes,  who  frequently  per- 
formed on  the  violin  at  the  concerts  of  this  ingenious 
small-coal  man: 

B  R  I  T  T  O  N.  M 

«*  Though  mean  thy  rank,  yet  in  thy  humble  eeH 
Did  gentle  peace,  and  arts,  unpurchased,  dwells 
Well  pleased,  Apollo  thither  led  his  train, 
And  music  warbled  in  her  sweetest  strain. 
Cyllenius  so,  as  fables  tell,  and  Jove, 
Came  willing  guests  to  poor  Philemon's  grove. 
Let  useless  pomp  behold,  and  blush  to  find, 
So  low  a  station,  such  a  liberal  mind." 

In  most  of  the  prints,  he  was  represented  with  his  sack 
of  small-coal  on  his  shoulder,  and  his  measure  of  retail  in 
his  hand.  In  the  Guardian,  No.  144,  Steele,  speaking  of  the 
variety  of  original  and  odd  characters,  which  our  free  go-  . 
vernment  produces,  says:  "  We  have  a  small-coal  man,  who 
beginning  with  two  plain  notes,  which  made  up  his  daily 
cry,  has  made  himself  master  of  the  whole  compass  of  the 
gammut,  and  has  frequent  concerts  of  music  at  his  own 
house,  for  the  entertainment  of  himself  and  friends." 

But  the  assertion  of  sir  John  Hawkins,  that  Britton  was 
the  first  who  had  a  meeting  that  corresponded  with  the 
idea  of  a  concert,  is  not  correct :  in  the  time  of  Charles  I. 
and  during  the  usurpation,  at  Oxford,  meetings  for  the 
performance  of  Fancies  in  six  and  seven  parts,  which  pre- 
ceded sonatas  and  concerts,  were  very  common.  And  in 
Charles  the  Second's  time,  Banister,  father  and  son,  had 
concerts,  first  at  taverns  and  public-houses,  and  after- 
wards at  York-buildings.  It  is,  perhaps,  not  a  matter 
worthy  of  dispute ;  but  we  imagine  that  it  would  be  diffi- 
cult to  prove  that  Handel  ever  played  at  the  small-coal 
man's  concert.  Handel  was  proud,  and  never  had  much 
respect  for  English  composers.  He  had  been  caressed  and 
patronised  by  princes  and  nobles  so  long,  that  be  would  as 
soon  have  gone  into  a  coal-pit  to  play  at  a  concert,  as  to  the 
hovel  of  our  vender  of  small- coal. 

About  the  commencement  of  the  last  century,  a  passion 
prevailed  among  several  persons  of  distinction,  of  collecting 
old  books  and  MSS. ;  and  it  was  their  Saturday's  amuse- 
ment during  winter,  to  ramble  through  various  quarters  of 
the  town  in  pursuit  of  these  treasures.  The  earls  of  Ox- 
ford, Pembroke,  Sunderland,  and  Winchelsea,  and  the 
duke  of  Devonshire,  were  of  this  party,  and  Mr.  Bagford 
and  other  collectors  assisted  them  in  their  researches. 
Britton  appears  to  have  been  employed  by  them ;  and,  as 
he  was  a  very  modest,  decent,  and  unpresuming  man,  he 
was  a  sharer  in  their  conversation,  when  they  met  after 
their  morning's  walk,  at  a  bookseller'sshop  in  Ave- Maria  lane. 


to  britton; 

Britton  usfcd  to  pitch  his  coal-sack  on  a  Uulk  at  the  doofrV 
and*  dressed  in  his  blue  frock,  to  step  in  and  spend  an  hour 
with  the  company.  But  it  was  not  only  by  a  few  literary 
lords  that  his  acquaintance  was  cultivated  ;  his  humble  roof 
was  frequented  by  assemblies  of  the  fair  and  the  gay ;  and 
his  fondness  for  music  caused  him  to  be  known  by  many 
dilettanti  and  professors,  who  formed  themselves  into  a  club 
at  his  hoiise,  where  capital  pieces  were  played  by  some 
of  the  first  professional  artists,  and  other  practitioners } 
and  here  Dubourg,%when  a  child,  played,  standing  upon  a 
joint-stool,  the  first  solo  that  he  ever  executed  in  public. 

The  circumstances  of  his  death  were  very  extraordinary. 
A  ventriloquist  was  introduced  into  his  company  by  one 
justice  Robe,  who  was  fond  of  mischievous  jests.  This 
man,  in  a  voice  seemingly  coming  from  a  distance,  anT 
nounced  to  poor  Britton  his  approaching  end,  and  bid  him: 
prepare  for  it,  by  repeating  the  Lord's  prayer  on  his  knees. 
The  poor  man  did  so,  but  the  affair  dwelt  so  much  upon 
his  imagination,  that  he  died  in  a  few  days,  leaving  justice 
Robe  to  enjoy  the  fruits  of  his  mirth.  His  death  hap- 
pened in  September,  1714,  when  he  was  upwards  of  sixty 
years  of  age. 

Britton's  wife  survived  her  husband.  He  left  little  behind 
him,  except  his  books,  his  collection  of  manuscript  and 
printed  music,  and  musical  instruments ;  all  which  were 
sold  by  auction,  and  catalogues  of  them  are  in  the  hands 
of  some  collectors  of  curiosities.  His  instrumental  music 
consists  of  160  articles;  his  vocal,  of  42 ;  11  scores;  in- 
struments, 27.  All  these  are  specified  in  Hawkins's  His- 
tory of  music,  but  we  shall  add  the  title-page  of  the  ca- 
talogue of  his  library :  "  The  library  of  Mr.  Thomas 
Britton,  small-coal  man,  decease^;  who,  at  his  own  charge, 
kept  up  a  concert  of  music  above  forty  years,  in  his  little 
cottage;  being  a  curious  collection  of  every  ancient  and 
uncommon  book  in  divinity,  history,  physic,  chemistry^ 
magick,  &c.  Also  a  collection  of  MSS.  chiefly  on  vellum, 
which  will  be  sold  by  auction  at  Paul's  coffee-house,  &c. 
Jan.  1714-1 V  &c.  It  contained  102  articles  in  folio  > 
270  in  4to;  664  in  8vo ;  50  pamphlets,  and  twenty-three 
•MSS.  A  few  of  the  works  in  8vo  were  sufficiently  ama- 
tory. A  copy  of  this  now  very  rare  catalogue  is  in  Mr.  > 
Heber's  excellent  library. l 

1  Hawkins's  Hist,  of  Music— Walpole's  Anecdotes  of  Painters. — Rees's  Cy* 
clopsedia. — Annual  Register,  vols.  VHI.  and  XX. — Spectator,  with  notes,  roll 
VIII.  p.  205.— Guardian,  vol.  II.  330.— Dibdin's  Bibliomania. 

B  R  I  X  I  U  8.  3i 

BRIXIUS*  or  DE  BRIE  (Germain),  U  learned  French- 
man, was  born  about  the  end  of  the  fifteenth  century,  at 
Auxerre,  or  in  that  diocese ;  and  in  his  education  made 
great  progress  in  the  learned  languages,  particularly  the 
Greek,  from  which  he  translated  into  Latin,  Chrysostom's 
treatise  on  the  priesthood ;  his  first  eight  homilies  oh  the 
epistle  of  St.  Paul  to  the  Romans,  and  some  other  works, 
which  contributed  very  much  to  his  reputation.  He  used 
frequently  to  compose  Greek  verses,  with  which  he  enter- 
tained the  literati  at  his  house,  where  they  were  sure  of  an 
open  table.  From  1512  he  was  secretary  to  queen  Anne, 
and  archdeacon  of  Albi.  In  1515  he  had  a  canonry  con- 
ferred upon  him  in  the  church  of  Auxerre,  which,  in  1520, 
he  resigned,  on  being  promoted  to  the  same  rank  at  Paris; 
He  calls  himself  almoner  to  the  king  in  the  title  of  his  rare 
book  "  Germani  Brixii,  gratulatoriae  quatuor  ad  totidem 
viros  classissimos,  &c."  Paris,  1531,  4 to.  This  contains 
also  four  letters  to  Erasmus,  Jerome  Vida,  Sadolet,  and 
Lazarus  Bayf,  with  some  Latin  poetry  addressed  to  Fran- 
cis I.  on  a  marble  statue  of  Venus,  which  the  chevalier 
Reriz  had  presented  to  that  sovereign.  He  published  also 
an  edition  of  Longolius's  defences,  "  Christ.  Longolii  per- 
duellionis  rei  defensiones  duae,"  1520.  Brixius  died  in 
1538.  He  was  the  familiar  acquaintance  of  Rabelais,  and 
long  the  correspondent  of  Erasmus,  but  what  more  parti- 
cularly entitles  him  to  notice  here,  is  his  quarrel  with  sir 
Thomas  More,  on  which  some  of  the  biographers  of  that 
illustrious  character  have  been  either  silent,  or  superficial. 
Brixius  in  1513  composed  a  poem  called  "  Chordigera," 
where  in  three  hundred  hexameter  verses,  he  described  a 
battle  fought  that  year  by  a  French  ship,  la  Cordeliere, 
and  an  English  ship,  the  Regent.  More,  who  was  not 
then  in  the  high  station  which  he  afterwards  reached,  com- 
posed several  epigrams  in  derision  of  this  poem.  Brixius, 
piqued  at  this  affront,  revenged  himself  by  the  *r  Anti- 
Morus,"  an  elegy  of  about  400  verses,  in  which  he  se- 
verely censured  all  the  faults  which  he  thought  he  had. 
found  in  the  poems  of  More.  Yet  he  kept  this  piece  of 
satire  by  him  for  some  time,  declaring,  that  if  he  should 
consent  to  the  publication,  it  would  be  purely  to  comply 
with  his  friends,  who  remonstrated  to  him,  that  compo- 
sitions of  this  kind  lost  much  of  their  bloom  by  coming  out 
late.  There  are  three  editions  of  the  Anti-Morus.  The 
two  first-are  of  Paris;  one" published  by  himself,  in  1520, 

31  B  R  I  X  I  U  S. 

the  other  in  1 560,  in  the  second  volume  of  the  "  Flore* 
Epigrammatum"  of  Leodegarius  a  Quercu,  or  Leger  du 
Ch£ne.  The  third  is  in  the  "  Corpus  Poetarum  Latino* 
rum"  collected  by  Janus  Gruterus,  under  the  anagram* 
matic  name  of  Ranutius  Gerus.  Erasmus  says  that  More 
despised  this  poem  so  much  as  to  have  intended  to  print 
it ;  Erasmus  at  the  same  time  advised  More  to  take  no  no* 
tice  of  it.  The  chancellor's  great-grandson  and  biographer, 
More,  seems  to  think  that  he  had  written  something  in 
answer  to  Brixius,  before  he  received  this  advice  from 
Erasmus,  but  called  in  the  copies,  "  so  that,"  says  his 
biographer,  "  it  is  now  very  hard  to  be  found ;  though 
some  have  seen  it  of  late."  Much  correspondence  on  the 
subject  may  be  perused  in  our  authorities. ' 
-  BROAD,  or  BRODJEUS  (Thomas),  son  of  the  rev.  W. 
Broad,  of  Rendcombe,  in  Gloucestershire,  was  born  in 
1677,  and  .educated  at  St.  Mary's-hall,  Oxford,  which  he 
entered  in  1594,  but  soon  after  went  to  Alban-hall,  where 
he  took  his  degrees  in  arts.  In  1-611,  on  the  death  of  his 
father,  he  became  rector  of  Rendcombe,  where  he  was 
held  in  high  esteem  for  piety  and  learning,  and  where  he 
died,  and  was  buried  in  the  chancel  of  his  church,  in  June, 
1635.  He  wrote:  1.  a  "Touchstone  for  a  Christian,'* 
Lond.  1613,  12mo.  2.  "  The  Christian's  Warfare,"  ibid. 
1613,  12mo.  3.  "Three  questions  on  the  Lord's  Day, 
&c."  Oxon.  1621,  4to.  4.  "  Tractatus  de  Sabbato,  in 
quo  doctrina  ecclesiae  primitive  declarator  ac  defenditur," 
1627,  4to,  and  two  treatises  on  the  same  subject,  left  in 
manuscript,  and  published,  with  an  answer,  by  George 
Abbot  (not  the  archbishop),  as  mentioned  in  his  life.8 

BROCARDUS  (James),  a  man  of  a  visionary  turn,  was 
a  native  of  Venice,  born  in  the  beginning  of  the  sixteenth 
century.  He  embraced  the  Protestant  religion,  and  ex- 
pressed a  great  zeal  against  Popery.  He  published  se- 
veral hooks  in  Holland,  in  which  he  maintained  that  the 
particular  events  of  the  sixteenth  century  had  been  fore- 
told by  the  prophets,  and  after  he  had  applied  scripture, 
as  his  fancy  directed,  to  things  that  had  already  happened;. 
he  took  the  liberty  to  apply  it  to  future  events.  In  this  he 
succeeded  so  far  as  to  persuade  a  French  gentleman  of 
noble  extraction,    and  a  Protestant,   that   a  -  Protestant 

i  Moreri.— Jnrtin's  Life  of  Erasmus.— *More*  Life  of  sir  T.  More,  p.  13.— 
Baitlet  Jujremena  des  Savans.  i 

•  George  Abbot,  vol.  I.  p.  29,  of  this  Dictionary.— Ath,  Ox.  vol.  I. 


prince  would  quickly  overthrow  the  Pope's  kingdom,  and 
make  himself  the  head  of  all  the  united  Christians.  This 
gentleman,  S£gur  Pardaillan,  was  a  faithful  servant  to  the 
king  of  Navarre,  afterwards  Henry  IV.  and  thought  heaven 
designed  his  master  for  the  glorious  enterprise  which  Bro- 
cardus  ha*l  foretold.  Big  with  these  hopes,  he  proposed 
to  him  to  send  an  embassy  to  the  Protestant  princes,  of- 
fering to  be  his  ambassador ;  and  there  being  nothing  in 
his  proposal  but  what  suited  with  the  exigencies  of  the 
time,  it  was  approved  of,  and  he  was  actually  deputed  to 
those  princes  in  1583. 

The  catholic  writers  have  abused  Brocardus  as  an  im- 
postor, and  a  promoter  of  wars  and  insurrections  ;  but 
though  he  might  have  been  the  cause  of  disturbances,  he 
does  not  appear  to  have  been  a  knavish  impostor.  He 
seems  to  have  been  sincere,  and  to  have  believed  what  he 
taught.  He  retired  to  Nuremberg  at  the  latter  end  of  his 
life,  where  he  met  with  persons  who  were  very  kind  and 
charitable  to  him.  "  I  hear,"  says  Bongars  in  a  letter  to 
Camerarius,  dated  Feb.  3,  1591,  "  that  your  republic  has 
kindly  received  the  good  old  man  J.  Brocard,  who  in  his 
youth  appeared  among  the  most  polite  and  learned  men.'/ 
He  expresses  the  same  affection  for  Brocard  in  another, 
dated  July  24,  1593.  "  I  am  mightily  pleased  with  the 
great  affection  you  express  for  Brocard.  He  certainly 
deserves  that  some  persons  of  such  probity  as  yours  should 
take  care  of  him.  As  for  me,  I  am  hardly  in  a  capacity  to 
oblige  him.  I  leave  no  stone  unturned  to  procure  him  the 
payment  of  300  gold  crowns,  which  Mr.  S£gar  left  him 
by  his  will."  In  another,  of  Nov.  16,  1594:  "I  cannot 
but  even  thank  you  for  your  kind  and  generous  treatment 
of  the  poor,  but  good,  old  Brocard."  He  died  soon  after, 
but  we  do  not  find  exactly  when. 

Among  the  works  he  published,  which  were  most  of 
them  printed  at  S£gur  Pardaillan's  expence,  were  his 
"  Commentary  on  the  Revelations  of  St  John,"  and  his 
"  Mystical  and  prophetical  explication  of  Leviticus."  These 
both  camp  pot  at  Ley  den,  in  1580;  as  did  some  other 
things  of  inferior  note  the  same  year.  The  synods  of  the 
United  Provinces  were  afraid  that  people  would  think  they 
approved  the  extravagant  notions  advanced  in  them,  if 
they  were  wholly  silent  about  them;  and  therefore  the 
national  senate  of  Middleburg  condemned,  in  1581,  that 
method  of  explaining  the  scripture j  enjoining  the  divinity 

Vol.  VIL  D 



professor  at  Leyden  to  speak  to  Brocard  about  his  visions ;. 
and  it  has  been  said,  that  Brocard,  not  being .  able  to  an- 
swer the  objections  raised  against  his  mode  of  interpreting 
prophecies,  promised  to  desist. ! 

BROCKES  (Bartholomew  Henry),  a  German  lawyer 
and  poet,  was  born  at  Lubeck,  Sept.  22,  1680,  and  after 
having  studied  and  taken  his  degrees  in  the  civil  and  canon 
law,  settled  and  practised  at  Hamburgh,  where  his  merit 
Boon  raised  him  to  the  senatorial  digrtity,  to  which  the 
emperor,  without  any  solicitation,  added  the  rank  of  Aulic 
counsellor,  and  count  Palatine.  These  counts  Palatine 
-were  formerly  governors  of  the  imperial  palaces*  and  bad. 
Considerable  powers,  being  authorized  to  create  public 
tiotaries,  confer  degrees,  &c.  Brockes  published  in  five 
parts,  from  1724  to  1T&6,  8vo,  "  Irdisches  Vergnugen  in 
<5ott,  &c."  or  "  Earthly  Contentment  in  God,"  consisting- 
of  philosophical  and  moral  poems,  which  were  mutjr 
praised  by  his  countrymen.  He  also  published  translations 
from  Marini,  and  other  Italian  poets,  into  German,  and  had 
tome  thoughts  of  translating  Milton,  as  he  had  done  Pope's 
Essay  on  Man,  a  proof  at  least  of  bis  taste  for  English 
poetry.  His  works  form  a  collection  of  9  vols.  8vo,  and 
have  been  often  reprinted.  He  appears  to  have  carefully 
divided  his  time  between  his  public  duties  and  private 
studies,  and  died  much  esteemed  and  regretted,  Jan.  16, 

BROCKLESBY  (Richard),  an  eminent  English  physi- 
cian, the  son  of  Richard  Brocklesby,  esq.  of  the  city  of 
Cork,  by  Mary  Alloway,  of  Minehead,  Somersetshire,  was 
bom  at  Minehead,  where  his  mother  happened  to  be  on  a 
visit -to  her  parents,  Aug.  11,  1722.  There  he  remained 
until  he  was  three  years  old,  at  which  time  he  was  carried 
to  Ireland,  and  privately  instructed  for  some  years  in  his 
father's  house  at  Cork,  At  a  proper  age  he  was  sent  to 
Bally  tore  school  in  the  north  of  Ireland,  at  which  Edmund 
Burke  was  educated,  and  although  they  were  not  exactly 
contemporaries,  Dr.  Brocklesby  being  seven  years  older, 
this  circumstance  led  to  a  long  end  strict  friendship.  Hay- 
ing finished  his  classical  education  at  Ballytore,  with  dili- 
gence and  success,  his  father,  intending  him  for  a  physi- 
cian, sent  him  to  Edinburgh,  where  after  continuing  the 
usual  time,  he  went  to  Leyden,  and  took  his  degree  under 

'  GrtL  Diet.       *  Saxii  Ooomast.— Republic  of  Litters,  vol.  VIII,— Dirt.  Hilt. 


the  celebrated  Gaubios,  who  corresponded  with  him  fot 
several  years  afterwards.  His  diploma  is  dated  June  28, 
1745,  and  the  same  year  be  published  his  thesis,  "  De 
Saliva  sana  et  morbosa." 

On  returning  home  he  began  practice  in  Broad-street, 
London  ;  and  diligence,  integrity,  and  (Economy,  soon  en- 
abled him  to  surmount  the  difficulties  which  a  young  phy- 
sician has  to  encounter,  while  his  father  assisted  him  witfy 
150/.  a  year,  a  liberal  allowance  at  that  time.  In  1746, 
he  published  "  An  Essay  concerning  the  mortality  of  the 
honied  cattle:"  and  in  April,  1751,  was  admitted  a  licen- 
tiate of  the  college  of  physicians.  He  had  by  this  time 
risen  into  reputation ;  and  as  his  manners  were  naturally 
mild  and  conciliating,  his  knowledge  well-founded,  and 
Us  talents  soniewhat  known  as  an  author,  he  sooft  became 
acquainted  with  the  leading  men  in  the  profession — parti- 
cularly the  celebrated  Dr.  Mead,  Dr.  Leatherland,  Dr. 
Heberden,  sir  George  Baker,  &c.  He  added, another  tes- 
timony to  the  fame  of  Dr.  Mead,  by  always  praising  his 
skill,  his  learning,  urbanity,  &c.  and  amongst  many  other 
anecdotes  of  this  extraordinary  man,  used  to  relate  the 
circumstance  of  his  giviug  that  celebrated  impostor,  Psal- 
manazar, an  opportunity  of  eating  nearly  a  pound  of  raw 
human  flesh  at  his  table,  to  prove  that  this  was  the  constant 
food  of  the  inhabitants  of  Formosa  *• 

On  the  28th  of  September  1754,  he  obtained  an  hono- 
rary degree  from  the  university  of  Dublin,  and  was  ad- 
mitted to  Cambridge  ad  eundem  the  16th  of  December  fol- 
lowing. In  virtue  of  this  degree  at  Cambridge,  he  became 
a  fellow  of  the  college  of  London  the  25th  of  June  1756  ; 
and,  on  the  7th  of  October  1758  (on  the  recommendation 
of  Dr.  Shaw,  favoured  by  the  patronage  of  the  late  lord 
Harrington),  he  was  appointed  physician  to  the  army.  la 
this  capacity  he  attended  in  Germany  the  best  part  of 
what  is  called  "  the  seven  years9  war,"  where  he  was  soon 
distinguished  by  his  knowledge,  his  zeal,  and  humanity; 
and  particularly  recommended  himself  to  the  notice  of  his 
grace  the  duke  of  Richmond,  the  late  lord  Pembroke,  and 

*  Amongst  man?  otter  impositions  one  of  the  dissectiug  surgeons  of  the 

of  Psalmanazar,    he  related  that  the  hospital  from  the  posteriors  of  a  man. 

inhabitants  of  Formosa  constantly  ate  who  had  been  hanged  that  morning, 

human  flesh,  of  which  he  as  frequently  which  he  had  served  up  at  his  table* 

partook,  and  which  he  called  «*  deli-  and  which  Psalmanazar  actually  ate, 

^kftis  eating."    Dr.  Mead,  to  try  him,  seemingly  with  a  good  liking,  before  a 

obtained  a  pound  of  human  flesh  of  large  ptrty  selected  for  that  purpose. 



others,  which  with  the  former  mellowed  into  a  friendship, 
only  terminated  by  the  doctor's  life.  On  the  2 7 tfr  of  Oc- 
tober 1760,  be  was  appointed  physician  to,  the  hospitals 
for  the  British  forces,  and  returned  to  England  some  time 
before  the  peace  of  1763. 

On  his  return  he  settled  in  Norfolk-street,  in  the  Strand, 
where  he  was  considered  as  a  physician  of  very  extensive 
experience,  particularly  in  all  diseases  incident  to  the 
army.  His  practice  spread  in  proportion  to  his  reputation ; 
.and,  with  his  half-pay,  and  an  estate  of  about  six  hundred 
pounds  per  year,  which  devolved  on  him  by  the  death  of 
his  father,  he  was  now  enabled  to  live  in  a  very  handsome 
manner,  and  his  table  was  frequently  filled  with  some 
of  the  most  distinguished  persons  for  rank,  learning,  and 
abilities  in  the  kingdom.  In  the  course  of  his  practice, 
his  advice  as  well  as  his  purse  was  ever  accessible  to  the 
poor,  as  well  as.  to  men  of  merit  who  stood  in  need;  of 
either.  Besides  giving  his  advice  to  the  poor  of  all  descrip- 
tions, which  he  did  with  an  active  and  unwearied  benevo- 
lence, he  had  always  upon  his  list  two  or  three  poor  wi- 
dows, to  whom  he  granted  small  annuities  j  and  who,  on 
the  quarter  day  of  receiving  their  stipends,  always  partook 
of  the  hospitalities  of  his  table.  To  his  relations  who 
wanted  his  assistance  in  their  business  or  professional-  he 
was  not  only  liberal,  but  so  judicious  in  his  liberalities  as 
to  supersede  the  necessity  of  a  repetition  of  them.  To  his 
friend  Dr.  Johnson  (when  it  was  in  agitation  amongst  his 
friends  to  procure  an  enlargement  of  his  pension,  the,  tyet- 
tev  to  enable  him  to  travel  for  the  benefit  of  bis  health},  he 
offered  an  establishment  of  one  hundred  pounds  per  year 
during  his  life  '.  and,  upon  doctor  Johnson's  declining  it 
(which  he  did  in  the  most  affectionate  terms  of  gratitude 
and  friendship),  he  made  him  a  second  offer  of  apartments 
in  his  own  house,  for  the  more  immediate  benefit  of  medi- 
cal advice.  To  his  old  and  intimate  friend  Edmund  Burke, 
be  had  many  years  back  bequeathed  by  will  the  sum  of 
one  thousand  pounds;  but  recollecting  that  this  event 
might  take  place  (which  it  afterwards  did)  when  such  a  le- 
gacy could  be  of  no  service  to  him,  he,  with  that  judicious 
liberality  for  which  he  was  always  distinguished,  gave  it  to 
him  in  advance,  "  ut  pignus  amicitia ;"  it  was  accepted  as 
such  by  Mr.  Burke,  accompanied  with  a  letter,  which  none 
but  a  man  feeling  the  grandeur  and  purity  of  friendship 
like  him,  could  dictate. 

BROCRLfcSBY.     ,  37. 

-     Passing  through  a  life  thus  honourably  occupied  in  the 
liberal  pursuits'  of  his  profession,  and  in  the  confidence  and 
friendship  of  some  of  the  first  characters  of  the  age  for 
rank  or  literary  attainments,  the  doctor  reached  his  73d 
year ;  and  finding  those  infirmities,  generally  attached  to 
that  time  of  life,  increase  upon  him,  be  gave  up  *  good 
deal  of  the  bustle  of  business,  as  well  as  bis  half-pay* 
on  being  appointed,  by  his  old  friend  and  patron  the  duke 
of  Richmond,  physician  general  to  tbe  royal  regiment  of 
artillery  and  corps  of  engineers,  March,  1794.     This  wat. 
-  a  situation  exactly  suited  to  his  time  of  life  and  inclina- 
tions ;  hence  he  employed  his  time  in  occasional  trips  to ' 
Woolwich,  with  visits  to  his  friends  and  patients.     In  this 
last  list  be  never  forgot  either  the  poor  or  those  few  friends 
whom  he  early  attended  as  a  medical  man  gratuitously. 
\  Scarcely  any  distance,  or  any  other  inconvenience,  could 
~  repress  this  benevolent  custom ;  and  when  he  heard  by  ac- 
cident that  any  of  this  latter  description  of  his  friends  were 
ill,  and  had  through  delicacy  abstained  from  sending  for 
him,  he  used  to  say,  somewhat  peevishly,  "  Why  am  I 
treated  thus  ?     Why  was  not  I  sent  for  ?" 

Though  debilitated  beyond  his  years,  particularly  for  a 
man  of  his  constant  exercise  and  abstemious  and  regular 
manner  of  living,  he  kept  up  his  acquaintance  and  friend- 
ships to  tbe  last,  and  in  a  degree  partook  of  the  pleasant- 
*  ries  and  convivialities  of  the  table.  Tbe  friends,  who  knew 
"•  his  habits*  sometimes  indulged  him  with  a  nap  in  his  arm 
chair  after  dinner,  which  greatly  refreshed  him  :  he  then 
would  turn  about  to  the  company,  and  pay  his  club  of  the 
conversation,  either  by  anecdote  or  observation,  entirely 
free  from  the  laws  or  severities  of  old  age. 

In  the  beginning  of  December  1797,  he  set  out  on  a 
visit  to  Mrs,  Burke,  .at  Beaconsfield,  the  long  frequented 
seat  of  friendship  and  hospitality,  where  the  master  spirit 
Of  the  age  be  lived  in,  as  well  as  the  master  of  that  man- 
sion, had  so  often  adorned,  enlivened,  and  improved  the. 
convivial  hour.  On  proposing  this  journey,  and  under  so 
infirm  a  state  as  he  was  in,  it  was  hinted  by  a  friend,  whe- 
ther such  a  length  of  way,  or  the,  lying  ou(  of  his  own  bed, 
With  other  little  circumstances,  mighx  not  fatigue  him  too 
muchi  be  instantly  caught  the  force  of  this  suggestion, 
and  with  bis  usual  placidity  replied,  "  My  good  friend,  I 
perfectly  understand  your  hint,  and  am  thankful *  to  you 
for  it j  but  where' s  tbe  difference  whether  I  die  at  a  frifend'i 


house,  at  an  inn,  or  in  a  post-chaise  ?  I  hope  I'm  every 
way  prepared  for  such  an  event,  and  perhaps  it  would,  be 
as  well  to  elude  the  expectation  of  it."  He  therefore  be- 
gan his  journey  the  next  day,  and  arrived  there  the  same 
evening,  where  he  was  cordially  received  by  the  amiable 
mistress  of  the  mansion,  as  well  as  by  doctors  Lawrence 
and  King,  who  happened  to  be  there  on  a  visit.  He  remained 
at  Beaconsfield  'till  the  11th  of  December,  but  recollect- 
ing that  his  learned  nephew,  Dr.  Young,  now  foreign  se- 
cretary to  the  royal  society,  was  to  return  from  Cambridge 
to  London  next  day,  he  instantly  set  out  for  his  house  in 
town,  where  he  ate  his  last  dinner  with  his  nearest  friends 
and  relations.  About  nine  o'clock  he  desired  to  go  to  bed, 
but  going  up  stairs  fatigued  him  so  much,  that  he  was 
obliged  to  sit  in  his  chair  for  some  time  before  he  felt  him- 
self sufficiently  at  ease  to  be  undressed.  In  a  little  time, 
however,  he  recovered  himself;  and,  as  they  were  unbut- 
toning his  waistcoat,  he  said  to  his  elder  nephew,  "  What 
an  idle  piece  of  ceremony  this  buttoning  and  unbuttoning 
is  to  me  now !"  When  he  got  to  bed  he  seemed  perfectly 
composed,  but  in  about  five  minutes  after,  expired  with- 
out a  groan. 

He  was  interred  Dec.  18,  in  the  church-yard  of  St.  Cle- 
ment Danes,  in  a  private  manner,  according  to  his  request. 
His  fortune,  amounting  to  near  30,000/.  after  a  few  lega- 
cies to  friends  and  distant  relations,  was  divided  between 
his  two  nephews,  Robert  Beeby,  esq.  and  Dr.  Thomas 
Young.  The  preceding  facts  may  be  sufficient  to  illustrate 
Dr.  Brocklesby's  character.  His  future  fame  as  a  writer 
must  rest  on  his  publications,  of  which  the  following 
is,  we  believe,  a  correct  list:  1.  "  Dissertatio  Inaug, 
de  Saliva  Sana  et  Morbosa,"  Lug.  Bat,  1745,  4to.  2.  "  An 
Essay  concerning  -the  Mortality  of  the  Horned  Cattle," 
1746,  8vo.  3.  "  Eulogium  Medicum,  sive  Oratio  Anni- 
versaria  Harveiana  habita  in  Theatris  Collegii  Regalis  Me- 
dicorum  Londinensium,  Die  xviii  Octobris,"  1760,  4to. 
4.  "  (^Economical  and  Medical  Observations  from  1738  to 

1763,  tending  to  the  improvement  of  Medical  Hospitals," 

1764,  8vo.  5.  fi€  An  Account  of  the  poisonous  root  lately 
found  mixed  with  Gentian,"  Phil.  Trans.  N.  486.  6.  "  Case 
of  a  Lady  labouring  under  a  Diabetes,"  Med.  Observ.  No. 
III.  7.  "  Experiments  relative  to  the  Analysis  and  Vir- 
tues of  Seltzer  Water,"  ibid.  vol.  IV.  8.  "  Case  of  an 
Encysted  Tumour  in  the  Orbit  of  the  Eye,  cured  by 
Messrs.  Bromfield  and  Ingram,"  ibid,    9,  "  A  -Disserts 


tion  on  the  Music  of  die  Antients."  We  do  not  know  the 
date  of  this  last  article,  but  believe  it  to  be  amongst  his 
early  literary  amusements.  When  Dr.  Young  was  at  Ley- 
den,  a  professor,  understanding  he  was  a  nephew-  of  Dr. 
Brocklesby's,  shewed  him  a  translation  of  it  in  the  Ger- 
man language. l 

BRODEAU  (John),  in  Latin  BnoDJEUS,an  eminent  cri- 
tic, on  whom  Lipsius,  Scaliger,  Grotius,  and  all  the  learned 
of  his  age,  have  bestowed  high  encomiums,  was  descended 
from  a  noble  family  in  France,  and  born  at  Tours  in  1500. 
He  was  liberally  educated,  and  placed  under  Alciat  to 
study  the  civil  law ;  but,  soon  forsaking  that,  he  gave  him* 
self  up  wholly  to  languages  and  the  belles-lettres.  He 
travelled  into  Italy,  where  he  became  acquainted  with  Sa- 
dolet,  Bembus,  and  other  eminent  characters;  and  here 
he  applied  himself  to  the  study  of  philosophy,  mathema- 
tics, and  the  sacred  languages,  in  which  he  made  no  small 
proficiency.  Then  returning  to  his  own  country,  he  led  a 
retired  but  not  an  idle  life ;  as  his  many  learned  lucubrations 
abundantly  testify.  He  was  a  man  free  from  all  ambition 
and  vain-glory,  and  suffered  his  works  to  be  published 
rather  under  the  sanction  and  authority  of  others,  than 
under  his  own  :  a  singular  example,  says  Thuanus,  of  mo- 
desty in  this  age,  when  men  seek  glory  not  only  from 
riches  and  honours,  but  even  from  letters ;  and  that  too 
with  a  vanity  which  disgraces  them.  He  died  in  1563,  at 
Tours,  where  he  was  a  canon  of  St.  Martin.  His  principal 
works  are,  1.  his  "  Miscellanea,  a  collection  of  criticisms 
and  remarks,  the  first  six  books  of  which  are  published  in 
Gruter's  "  Lampas,  seu  fax  artium,"  vol.  II.  and  the  four 
latter  in  vol.  IV.  2.  "  Annotationes  in  Oppianum,  Q.  Ca- 
Jabrum,  et  Coluthum,"  Basil,  1552,  8vo.  3.  "  Note  in 
Martialem*"  ibid.  16 19,  8vo.  4.  "  Annot.  in  Xenophon- 
teto,  Gr.  et  Lat,"  ibid.  1559,"  fol.  5.  "  Epigrammata  Graeca 
cum  Annot.  Brodaei  et  H.  Steph."  Francfort,  1600,  fol. 
Many  of  these  epigrams  were  translated  into  Latin  by  Dr. 
Johnson,  and  are  printed  with  his  works.  * 

BROECKHUSIUS  (John),  or  John  Broeckhuizen,  a 
distinguished  scholar  in  Holland,  was  born  Nov.  20,  1649, 
at  Amsterdam,  where  bis  father  was  a .  clerk  in  th$  ad- 
miralty.    He  learned  the, Latin  tongue  under  Hadrian  Ju- 

1  From  a  life  in  the  European  Magazine,  1798.— Boswell'a  Life  of  Johnson. 
--Gent.  Mag.  vol.  LKVII. 

*  Gen.  Diet. — Moreri.— Baillet  Jugemeas  des  Sayang.— Saxii  Onomast— 
BJooat's  Centura. 


nius,  and  made  a  prodigious  progress  in  polite  literature ; 
but  bis  father  dying  when  be  was  very  young,  he  was 
taken  from  literary  pursuits,  and  placed  with  an  apothecary 
at  Amsterdam,  with  whom  be  lived  some  years.  Not  liking 
this,  he  went  into  the  army,  where  his  behaviour  raised 
him  to  the  rank  of  lieutenant-captain  ;  and,  in  1674,  wa* 
sent  with  his  regiment  to  America  in  the  fleet  under  ad- 
miral de  Ruyter,  but  returned  to  Holland  the  same  year. 
In  1678  he  was  sent  to  the  garrison  at  Utrecht,  where  he 
contracted  a  friendship  with  the  celebrated  Grsevius ;  and 
here,  though  a  person  of  an  excellent  temper,  he  had  the 
misfortune  to  be  so  deeply-engaged  in  a  duel,  that,  ac- 
cording to  the  laws  of  Holland,  his  life  was  forfeited  :  but 
Grsevius  wrote  immediately  to  Nicholas  Heinsius*  who  ob- 
tained his  pardon  from  the  stadtholder.  Not  long  after, 
he  became  a  captain  of  one  of  the  companies  then  at  Am- 
sterdam ;  which  post  placed  him  in  an  easy  situation,  and 
gave  him  leisure  to  pursue  his  studies.  His  company 
being  disbanded  in  1697,  a  pension  was  granted  him; 
upon  which  he  retired  to  a  country-house  near  Amsterdam, 
where  he  saw -but  little  company,  and  spent  his  time  among 
his  books.  He  died  Dec.  15,  1707,  and  was  interred  at 
Amsterween,  hear  Amsterdam ;  a  •mouument  was  after- 
wards erected  to  his  memory,  with-an  inscription,  the  let- 
ters of  which  are  arranged  so  as  to  form  the  date  of  the 
year,  which  we  presume  was  considered  as  a  great  effort  of 
genius : 

prlnCeps  poetarVM  DeCessIt. 

His  works  are,  1.  his  "  Carolina,"  Utrecht,  1684,  l2mo, 
and  afterwards  more  splendidly  by  Hoogstraatert,  at  Amst. 
171 1,  4to,  under  the  title  of  "  Jani  Broukhusii  poematum 
libri  sedecim."  2.  "  Actii  Sinceri  Sannazarii,  &c.  Opera 
Latina ;  aceedu'nt  notoe,  &c."  Amst.  1680,  12mo,  without 
his  name,  which  was  added  to  the  best  edition,  Amst.  1727. 
3.  "Aonii  Palearii  Verulani  opera,"  ibid,  1696,3vo,  without 
his  name,  and  by  some  mistaken  for  one  of  Gravius's  edi- 
tions. 4.  "  S.  Aurelii  Propertii  Elegiarum  libri  IV."  ibid. 
1702,  4to;  ibid.  1727,  4to.  5.  "  Albii  Tibulli  qu«  extant, 
&o."  ibid.  1708,  4to.  His  u  Dutch  poems4'  were  pub- 
lished by  Hoogstraaten,  -Amst.  1712,  8vo,  with  the  au- 
thor's life.  Modern  pritics  seem  agreed  in  the  value  of  his 
editions  of  the  classics,  although  he  has  been  sometimes 
censured  for  bold  freedom's. 1 

•  Gen.  Diet— Moreri,— Sa*ii  Onomart,— Dibdiu'i  Classics  m  Tibmll.  **d 

B  R  O  K  E  S  B  Y.  41 


BROKESBY  (Francis),  was  born  at  Stoke  Golding,  in 
Leicestershire,  Sept.  29,  1637,  and  educated  at  Trinity 
college,  Cambridge,  and  was  afterwards  rector  of  Rowley, 
in  the  East  riding  of  Yorkshire.     He  wrote  a  "  Life  of 
Jesus  Christ ;"  and  was  a  principal  assistant  to  Mr.  Nelsou 
in  compiling  his  "  Feasts  and  Fasts  of  the  Church  of  Eng- 
land."    He  was  also  author  of  "  An  History  of  the  govern- 
ment of  the  primitive  Church,  for  the  three  first  centuries, 
and  the  beginning  of  the  fourth,"  printed  by  W.  B.  1712, 
-  fcvo.     In  a  dedication  to.  Mr.  Francis  Cherry,  dated  Shot- 
tesbroke,  Aug.  13,  1711,  the  author  says,  "The  following 
treatise  challenges  you  for  its  patron,  an^  demands  its 
dedication  to  yourself,  in  that  I  wrote  it  under  your  roof, 
was  encouraged  in  my  studies  by  that  respectful  treatment 
I  there  found,  and  still  meet  with ;  and  withal,  as  I  was 
assisted  in  my  work  by  your  readiness  to  supply  me,  out 
of  your  well-replenished  library,  with  such  books  as  I 
stood  in  need  of  in  collecting  this  history.     I  esteem  my- 
"self,  therefore,  in  gratitude  obliged  to  make  this  public 
acknowledgement  of  your  favours,  and  to  tell  the  world, 
that  when  I  was  by  God's  good   providence  reduced  to 
straits  (in  part  occasioned  by  my  care  lest  I  should  make 
shipwreck  of  a  good  conscience),  I  then  found  a  safe  re- 
treat and  kind  reception  in  your  family,  and  there  both 
Jeisure  and  encouragement  to  write  this,  following  treatise.1* 
As  Mr.  Brbkesby's  straits  arose  from  his  principles  a«  a 
nonjuror,  he  was,  of  course,  patronised  by  the  most  emi- 
nent persons  of  that  persuasion.     The  house  of  the  be- 
nevolent Mr.  Cherry,  however,  was  his  asylum ;  and  there 
he  formed  an  intimacy  with  Mr.  Dodwell,  whose  "  Life'* 
he  afterwards  wrote,  and  with  Mr.  Nelson,  to  whom  the 
Life  of  Dodwell  is  dedicated.    He  died  suddenly  soon  after 
that  publication,  in  1715.     Mr.  Brokesby  was  intimately 
acquainted  with  the  famous  Oxford  antiquary,  Hearne, 
wha  printed  -a  valuable  letter  of  his  in  the  first  volume  of 
.'Leland's  Itinerary ;  and  was  said  to  be  the  author  of  a  tract, 
entitled  "  Of  Education,  with  respect  to  grammar-schools 
and  universities,'*  1710,  8vo.  * 

BROM  (Adam  de),  almoner  to  king  Edward  II.  is.  al- 
lowed to  have  shafted  the  honour  of  founding  Oriel  college, 
Oxford,  with  that  monarch.     The  only  accounts  we  have' 
of  De  Brom  state,  that  he  was  rector  of  Hanworth  in  Mid- 

»  Nichols's  Hitt.  of  Hmckloj,  and  Hist,  of  Leieeftewhire,  where  U  Mr.  Brokef- 
is  diary,  Jtc. 

42  B  ROM. 

dlesex,  in  1313;  the  year  following,  chancellor  of  the  dio» 
cese  of  Durham;  in  1319,  archdeacon  of  Stow;  and  a 
few  months  after  was  prompted  to  the  living  of  St.  Mary, 
Oxford.  In  1324  he  requested  of  his  sovereign  to  be  em- 
powered to  purchase  a.  messuage  in  Oxford,  where  he 
might  found,  to  the  honour  of  the  Virgin  Mary,  a  college 
of  scholars,  governed  by  a  rector  of  their  own  choosing, 
^  sub  nomine  Rectoris  Domus  Scholarium  Beat®  Marias.'* 
With  this  the  king  readily  complied,  and  De  Brom  im- 
mediately commenced  his  undertaking  by  purchasing  a 
tenement  in  St.  Mary's  parish ;  and,  by  virtue  of  the  char- 
ter granted  by  the  king,  dated  1324,  founded  a  college  of 
scholars  for  the  study  of  divinity  and  logic.  He  then 
resigned  the  whole  into  the  hands  of  the  king,  of  whose 
liberality  he  appears  to  have  made  a  just  estimate,  and 
from  whose  power  he  expected  advantages  to  the  society, 
which  he  was  himself  incapable  of  conferring.  Nor  was  he 
disappointed  in  the  issue  of  this  well-timed  policy.  The 
ling  took  the  college  under  his  own  care,  and  the  next 
year  granted  a  new  charter,  appointing  it  to  be  a  college 
for  divinity  and  the  canort-law,  to  be  governed  by  a  pro- 
<vost,  and  for  their  better  maintenance,  besides  some  tene- 
ments in  St.  Mary's  parish,  he  gave  them  the  advowson  of 
St.  Mary's  church,  &c.  Adam  de  Brom,  who  was  de- 
servedly appointed  the  first  provost,  drew  up  a  body  of 
statutes  in  1326,  and  gave  his  college  the  church  of  Aber- 
ibrth  in  Yorkshire;  and  in  1327,  Edward. III.  bestowed 
upon  them  a  large  messuage,  situated  partly  in  the  parish 
-of  St.  John  Baptist,  called  La  Oriole,  to  which  the  scholars 
soon  removed,  and  from  which  the  college  took  its  name. 
De  Brom  procured  other  advantages  for  the  college,  the 
last  of  which  was  the  .advowson  of  Coleby  in  Lincolnshire. 
He  died  June  16,  1332,  and  was  buried  in  St.  Mary's 
church,  in  a  chapel  still  called  after  his  name.  It  is  said 
to  have  been  built  by  bim,  and  his  tomb,  no>v  decayed, 
was  visible  in  Antony  Wood's  time.  In  this  chapel  the 
heads  of  houses  assemble  on  Sundays,  &c.  previous  t» 
«their  taking  their  seats  in  the  church. 1 

BROME  (Alexander),  an  English  poet,  has  the  re- 
putation of  ably  assisting  the  royal  party  in  the  time  of 
Charles  I.  and  of  even  having  no  inconsiderable  hand  in 
promoting  the  restoration.     Of  his  personal  history,  we 


*  Chalmers's  History  of  Oxford. 

JB  R  O  M  E.  *S 

fcave  only  a  few  notices  in  the  Biographia  Dramatics  He 
was  born  in  1620,  and  died  June  30,  1666.  He  was  an 
attorney  in  the  lord  mayor's  court,  and  through  the  whole 
of  the  protectorship,  maintained  his  loyalty,  and  cheered 
his  party  by  the  songs  and  poems  in  his  printed  works, 
most  of  which  must  have  been  sung,  if  not  composed,  at 
much  personal  risk.  How  far  they  are  calculated  to  excite 
resentment,  or  to  promote  the  cause  which  the  author 
espoused,  the  reader  must  judge.  His  songs  are  in  mea~ 
sures>  varied  with  considerable  ease  and  harmony,  and  have 
many  sprightly  turns,  and  satirical  strokes,  which  the 
Roundheads  must  have  felt.  Baker  informs  us  that  he 
was  the  author  of  much  the  greater  part  of  those  songs  and 
epigrams  which  were  published  against  the  rump.  Phillips 
styles  him  the  "  English  Anacreon."'  Walton  has  drawn  a 
very  favourable  character  of  him  in  the  eclogue  prefixed  to 
his  works,  the  only  one  of  the  commendatory  poems  which 
seems  worthy  of  a  republication.  Mr.  Ellis  enumerates 
three  editions  of  these  poems,  the  first  in  1 660,  the  second 
in  1664,  amkthe  third  in  1668.  That,  however,  uped  ia 
the  late  edition  of  the  English  Poets  is  dated  1661.  In 
1660  be  published  "  A  Congratulatory  Poem  on  the  mira* 
culous  and  glorious  Return  of  Charles  11."  which  we  have 
not  seen.  Besides  these  poems  he  published  a  "  Transla- 
tion of  Horace,*'  by  himself,  Fanshaw,  Holliday,  Hawkinsf 
Cowley,  Ben  Jonson,  &c.  apd  had  once  an  intention  to 
translate  Lucretius.  In  1654  he  published  a  comedy  en* 
titled  "The  Cunning  Lovers,"  which  was  acted  in  1651 
at  the  private  house  in  Drury  Lane.  He  was  also  editor  of 
the  plays  of  Richard  Brome,  who,  however,  is  not  men* 
tioned  as  being  related  to  him. l 

BROME  (Richard)  lived  also  in  the  reign  of  Charles  L 
and  was  contemporary  with  Decker,  Ford,  Shirley,  &c. 
His  extraction  was  mean ;  for  be  was  originally  no  better 
than  a  menial  servant  of  Ben  Jonson.  He  wrote  himself, 
however,  into  high  repute ;  and  is  addressed  in  some  lines 
by  his  quondam  master,  on  account  of  his  comedy  called 
tfie  "  Northern  Lass."  His  genius  was  entirely  turned  to 
comedy,  and  we  have  fifteen  of  his  productions  in  this  way 
remaining.     They  were  acted  in  their  day  with  great  up* 

plause,  and  have  been  often  revived  since.     Even  in  our 

•  ■  * 

1  English  Poets,  Edit.  21  vols.  1810.— Biog.  Dram.— Kennctt's  Register,  p. 
91$.— JJUis's  SpeciaaeBS,  vol.  111. 


44  BKOME. 

dwn  time,  one  of  them,  caHed  the  u  Jotfial  Crew/1  has, 
With  little  alteration,  been  revived,  and  exhibited  at  Co- 
Vent- garden  with  great  and  repeated  success.  He  died  in 
1652.  »  > 

BROMFIELD  (Sir  William),  an  eminent  English  sur- 
geon, Was  born  in  .London,  in  1712,  and  studied  surgery^ 
under  the  celebrated  Ranby, .  by  whose  instructions  he  was 
soon  enabled  to  practise  on  his  own  account.  In  1741,  he 
began  to  give  lectures  on  anatomy  and  surgery,  and  soon 
found  his  theatre  crowded  with  pupils.  Some  years  after, 
in  conjunction  with  the  rev.  Mr.  Madan,  be  formed  the 
plan  of  the  Lock  hospital,  into  which  patients  were  first 
received  Jan.  3,  1747,  and  was  made  first  surgeon  to  that 
establishment,  an  office  he  filled  with  advantage  to  the 
patients  and  credit  to  himself  for  many  years.  With  a 
view  of  contributing  to  its  success,  he  altered  an  old 
comedy,  "The  City  Match,"  written  in  1639,  by  Jaspar 
Maine,  and  procured  it  to  be  acted  at  Drury-lane  theatre, 
in  1755,  for  the  benefit  of  the  hospital.  He  was  also,  vejy 
early  after  its  being  instituted,  elected  one  ofc the  surgeons 
to  St  George's  hospital.  In  1761,  he  was  appointed  in 
the  suite  of  the  noble  persons,  who  were  sent  to  brings 
over  the  princess  of  Mecklenburgb,  our  present  queen, 
and  was  soon  after  appointed  surgeon  to  her  majesty's 
household.  In  1751,  he-sent  to  the  royal  society  a  case  of 
a  woman  who  had  a  foetus  in  her  abdomen  nine  years, 
which  is  printed  in  their  Transactions  for.  the  same  .year. 
In  1157,  he  published  an  account  •  of  the  English  night 
shades,  the  internal  use  of  which  had  been  recommended 
in  scrophulous  Gases ;  but  they  had  failed  in  -producing  die 
expected  benefit  with  him.  In  1759,  be  gave  "  A  Narra- 
tive of  a  Physical  Transaction  with  Mr.Aylet,  surgeon,  at 
Windsor."  This  is  a  controversial  piece  of  no  conse- 
quence now,  but  the  author  clears  himself  from  the  impu- 
tation of  having  treated  his  antagonist  improperly.  In 
1767,  he  published  "  Thoughts  concerning  the  present 
peculiar  method  of  treating  persons  inoculated, for  the 
Small-pox."  This  relates  to  the  Suttons,  who  were  now 
in  the  zenith  of  their  reputation.  He  thinks  their,  prac- 
tice of  exposing  their  patients  to  the  open  air  in  th^  inidst 
of  winter,  of  repelling  the  efuption,  and  checking  or  pre-* 
venting  the  suppurative  process,  too  bold,  and  hazardous, 

1  Biog .  Dramatica.— Winsta*l*y  and  Jacob. 


*    •  •     -.    r    •» 

On  the  whole,  however,  he  acknowledges,  they  were  de- 
serving of  commendation,  for  the  improvements  they  h^4 
introduced,  in  the  treatment,  both  of  the.  inoculated  ai>d 
natural  small-pox.  His  next  work,  the  moat  considerable 
one  written  by  him^  was  "  Chirurgical  Cases  and  Observa- 
tions/' published  in  17X3,  in  2  vols.  8vo.  Though  there 
are  much  judicious  practice,  and  many  valuable  observa- 
tions contained  in  these  volumes,  yet  they  did  not  answer 
the  expectations  of  the  public,  or  correspond  to  the  fame 
and  credit  the  author  had  obtained  :  accordingly  in  the 
following  year  they  were  attacked  by  an  anonymous  writer, 
said  to  be  Mr.  Justamond,  in  a-  pamphlet,  entitled  "  l^otes 
on  Chirurgical  Cases  and  Observations,  by  a  Professor  of 
Surgery/'  The  strictures  contained  in  these. notes  are 
keen  and  ingenious,  and,  though  evidently  the  produce  of 
ill-humour,  yet  seem  to  have  had  the  effect  of  preventing 
so  general  a  diffusion  of  the  cases,  as  the  character  of  the 
'author  would  otherwise  have  procured  them.  They  have 
;  never  "been  reprinted.  About  this  time  the  author  took  a 
spacious  mansion  in  Chelsea  park,  which  he  enlarged, 
altered,  And  furnished  in  an  elegant  style.  Hither  he;  re- 
tired, after  doing  his  business,  which  he  began  gradually 
to  cor/tract  into  a  narrower  circle.     With  that  view,  a  few 

{ears  after,  he  gave  up  his  situation  as  surgeon  to  the  Lock 
ospital.  His  other  appointments  he  kept  to  the.  time  of 
his  death,  which  happened  on  the  24th  of  November,  1792, 
in  the  80th'  year  of  his  age. l 

BROMLEY  (John),  an  English  clergyman,  was  a  native 
of  Shropshire,  but  where  educated  is  not  known.  In  the 
beginning  of  king  James  IL's  reign  he  was  curate  pf  St. 
Giles's  in  the  Fields*  London,  but  afteiwa^ds  turned  Ho* 
man  catholic,  and  was  employed  a&  a  corrector  of  the  press 
in  the  king'sf  printing-house,  which  afforded  him  a, com- 
fortable subsistence.  When  obliged  to  quit  that,  after  ..^he 
revolution,  he  undertook  a  boarding-school  for  the  instruc- 
tion of  young  gentlemen,  some  of  whoin  being  the  sons, of 

'  opulent  persons,  this  employment  proved  very  beneficial* 
His  biographer  informs  us  that  Pope,  the  celebrated j>oetf 
was  one  of  his  pupils.  He  afterwards  travelled  abroad  with 
some  young  gentlemen,  as  tutor,  but  retired  at  last  to  his 

4   own  country,  where  he  died  Jan.  10,  1717.    He  published 

1  &tes'i  CycWpadi*. 

40  B'ROMLET. 

only  a  translation  of  the  "  Catechism  of  the  Council  df 
Trent,"  Land.  1687,  8V0.1 

BROMPTON  (John)  was  a  Cistercian  monk,  and  abbot 
of  Jorevall,  or  Jerevall,  in  Richmondshire.     The  "  Chronic- 
con*9  that  goes  under  his  name  begins  at  the  year  588,* 
when  Augustin  the  monk  came  into  England,  and  is  car- 
ried on  to  the  death  of  king  Richard  I.  anno  domini  1198. 
This  chronicle,  Selden  says,  does  not  belong  to  the  person 
whose  name  it  goes  under,  and  that  John  Brompton  the 
abbot  did  only  procure  it  for  his  monastery  of  Jorevall. 
But  whoever  was  the  author,  it  is  certain  he  lived  after  the 
beginning  of  the  reign  of  Edward  III.  as  appears  by  his  di- 
gressive relation  of  the  contract  between  Joan,  king  Ed- 
ward's sister,  and  David,  afterwards  king  of  Scots.     This 
historian  has  borrowed  pretty  freely  from  Hoveden.     His 
chronicle  is  printed  in  the  u  Decern  Script  Hist.  Angliae," 
Lond-1652,  fol.* 

BRONCHORST  (John),  of  Nimeguen,  where  he  was 
born  in  1494,  and  therefore  sometimes  called  NoviOMAGUg, 
was  an  eminent  mathematician  of  the  sixteenth  century, 
and  rector  of  the  school  of  Daventer,  and  afterwards  pro* 
fessor  of  mathematics  at  Rostock.  He  died  at  Cologne  ire 
1570.  Saxius  says  that  he  was  first  of  Rostock,  then  of 
Cologne,  and  lastly  of  Daventer,  which  appears  to  be  pro- 
bable from  the  dates  of  his  writings.  He  wrote,  1.  "  Scho- 
lia in  Dialecticam  Georgii  Trapezuntii,"  Cologne  and 
Leyden,  1537,  8vo.  2.  "  Arithmetica,"  ibid,  and  Paris,* 
1539.  3.  "  De  Astrolabii  compositione,"  Cologne,  1533, 
8vo.  4.  a  Urbis  Pictaviensis  (Poitiers)  tumultus,  ejusque 
Restitutio,"  an  elegiac  poem,  Pictav.  1562,  4to. .  5.  "Ven, 
Beds  de  sex  mundi  eetatibus,"  with  scholia,  and  a  conti- 
nuation to  the  26th  of  Charles  V.  Cologne,  1537.  He  also 
translated  from  the  Greek,  Ptolomy's  Geography.  * 

BRONCHORST  (Everard),  son  of  the  preceding, 
was  born  at  Daventer  in  1554,  and  became  one  of  the  most 
celebrated  lawyers  in  the  Netherlands.  He  studied  at  Co- 
logne, Erfurt,  Marpurg,  Wittemberg,  and  Basil,  at  which 
last  place  he  took  his  doctor's  degree  in  1579.  He  after- 
wards taught  law  at  Wittemberg  for  a  year,  and  at  Erfurt' 
for  two  years,  and  returned  then  to  his  own  country,  where 

1  Dodd's  Church  Hfct.  vol.. III. 

*  Selden  in  vitis  X.  Script — Tanner.— -Nicolson,s  English  Hist.  Library. 

*  Moreri.— Foppen.— «Saxii  Onemast. 



ke  was  appointed  burgomaster  of  Daventer  in  1586,  and 
the  year  following  professor  at  Leyden,  Where  he  died 
May  27,  1627.  His  principal  works  were  :  1.  "  Centura 
et  conciliationes  earundem  con  troversiarura  juris,  Cent.  II.*9 
1621.  2.  "  Methodus  Feudorum,"  Leyden,  8vo.  3. 
u  Aphorismi  politici,"  first  collected  by  Lambert  Danaeusj 
and  enlarged  by  Bronchorst,  probably  a  good  book,  as  it 
was  prohibited  at  Rome  in  1646. 1 

BRONZERIO  (John-Jerom),  an  Italian  physician,  was 
born  of  wealthy  parents,  in  Abadia,  near  Rovigo,  in  the 
Venetian  territory,  in  1577.  After  making  great  progress 
in  the  study  of  the  belles  lettres,  philosophy,  and  astro- 
nomy, he  was  sent  to  Padua,  where  he  was  initiated  into 
the  knowledge  of  medicine  and  anatomy,  and  in  1597,  was 
made  doctor.  He  now  went  to  Venice,  where  he  practised 
medicine  to  the  time  of  his  death,  in  1630.  His  publica- 
tions are,  "  De  inn  a  to  calido,  et  natural  i  spiritu,  in  quo 
pro  veritate  rei  Galeni  doctrina  defenditur,"  1626,  4to; 
"  Disputatio  de  Principatu  Hepatis  ex  Anatome  Lampe- 
trae,"  Patav.  4to.  Though  from  dissecting  the  liver  of  this 
animal  he  was  satisfied  the  blood  did  not  acquire  its  red 
colour  there,  yet  he  did  not  choose  to  oppose  the  doctrine 
of  Galen.  His  observation,  however,  was  probably  not 
lost,  but  led  the  way  to  a  more  complete  discovery  of  the 
fact,  by  subsequent  anatomists.  He  published  also,  "  De 
Principio  Effectivo  Semini  insito."  * 


BROOKE  (Frances),  whose  maiden  name  was  Moore, 
was  the  daughter  of  a  clergyman,  and  the  wife  of  the  rev. 
John  Brooke,  rector  of  Colney  in  Norfolk,  of  St.  Augus- 
tine in  the  city  of  Norwich,  and  chaplain  to  the  garrison  of 
Quebec.  She  was  as  remarkable  for  her  gentleness  and 
suavity  of  manners  as  for  her  literary  talents.  Her  hus- 
band died  on  the  21st  of  January  1789,  and  she  herself 
expired  on  the  26th  of  the  same  month,  at  Sleaford,  where 
she  had  retired  to  the  house  of  her  son,  now  rector  of 
Folkingham  in  Lincolnshire.  Her  disorder  was  a  spas* 
modic  complaint.  The  first  literary  performance  we  know; 
of  her  writing  was  the  "  Old  Maid,"  a  periodical- work, 
begun  November  15,  1755,  and  continued  every  Saturday 
until  about  the  end  of  July  1756.     These  papers  have 

1  Moreri.— rFoppen. — Freheri.— lilust  Academiae  Leid.  1614,  4to#  p.  89.— 
Saxii  Onomast. 
•  Alureri Haller  Bibl.  Med.—Freberi  Theatrum. 

4S  BROOK  E. 

since  been  collected  into  one  volume  12 mo.  In  the  same 
year  (1756)  she  published  "  Virginia,"  a  tragedy,  with 
odes,  pastorals,  and  translations,  8vo.  In  the  preface  to 
this  publication  she  assigns  as  a  reason  for  its  appearance, 
"  that  she  was  precluded  from  all  hopes  of  ever  seeing  the 
tragedy  brought  upon  the  stage,  by  there  having  been  two 
so  lately  on  the  same  subject." — "  If  hers,"  she  adds, 
"  should  be  found  to  have  any  greater  resemblance  to  the 
two  represented,  than  the  sameness  of  the  story  made  un- 
avoidable, of  which  she  is  not  conscious,  it  must  have  been 
accidental  on  her  side,  as  there  are  many  persons  of  very 
distinguished  rank  and  unquestionable  veracity,  who  saw 
hers  in  manuscript  before  the  others  appeared,  and  will 
witness  for  her,  that  she  has  taken  no  advantage  of  having 
seen  them.  She  must  here  do  Mr.  Crisp  the  justice  to 
say,  that  any  resemblance  ipust  have  been  equally  acci- 
dental on  his  part,  as  he  neither  did,  nor  could  see  her 
Virginia  before  his  own  was  played  ;  Mr.  Garrick  having 
declined  reading  hers  till  Mr.  Crisp's  was  published."  Pre- 
fixed to  this  publication  were  proposals  for  printing  by 
subscription  a  poetical  translation,  with  notes,  of  il  Pastor 
Fido,  a  work  which  probably  was  never  completed. 

In  1763  she  published  a  novel,  entitled,  "The  History 
of  Lady  Julia  Mandeville,"  concerning  the  plan  of  which 
there  were  various  opinions,  though  of  the  execution  there 
seems  to  have  been  but  one.  It  was  read  with  much 
avidity  and  general  approbation.  .  It  has  been  often,  how- 
ever, wished  that  the  catastrophe  had  been  less  melan- 
choly ;  and  of  the  propriety  of  this  opinion  the  authoress 
herself  is  said  to  have  been  satisfied,  but  did  not  choose  to 
make  the  alteration.  In '  the  same  year  she  published 
"  Letters  from  Juliet  lady  Catesby  to  her  friend  lady  Hen- 
rietta Campley,"  translated  from  the  French,  12mo.  She 
soon  afterwards  went  to  Canada  with  her  husband,  who 
was  chaplain  to  the  garrison  at  Quebec ;  and  there  saw 
those  romantic  scenes  so  admirably  painted  in  her  next 
work,  entitled,  "  The  History  of  Emily  Montagu,"  1769, 
.4  vols.  12mo.  The  next  year  she  published  "  Memoirs  of 
the  Marquis  of  St.  Forlaix,"  in  4  vols.  12mo.  On  her  re- 
turn to  England  accident  brought  her  acquainted  with  Mrs. 
Yates,  and  an  intimacy  was  formed  between  them  which 
lasted  as  long  as  that  lady  lived  ;  and  when  she  died,  Mrs.' 
Brooke  did  honour  to  her  memory  by  a  eulogium  printed 
in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine.    If  we  are  not  mistaken, 

BROOKE.  4? 

Mrs.  Broofee  bad  with  Mrs.  Yates  for  a  tim£  some  share  ia 
the  opera-house.  She  certainly  had  some  share  of  the 
libellous  abuse  which  the  management  of  that  theatre  du- 
ring the  above  period  gave  birth  to.  We  have  already 
seen  that  her  first  play  had  been  refused  oy  Mr.  Garrick. 
After  the  lapse  of  several  years  she  was  willing  once  more 
to  try  her  fortune  at  the  theatre,  and  probably  relying  ou 
the  influence  of  Mrs.  Yates  to  obtain  its  representation, 
produced  a  tragedy  which  had  not  the  good  .fortune  to 
please  the  manager.  He  therefore  rejected  it;  and  by 
that  means  excited  the  resentment  of  the  autheress  so 
much  that  she  took  a  severe  revenge  on  him  in  a  novel 
published  in  1777,  entitled  the  "  Excursion,''  in  2  vols* 
12mo.  It  is  not  certainly  known  whether  this  rejected 
tragedy  is  or  is  not  the  same  as  was  afterwards  acted  at 
Covent-garden.  If  it  was,  it  will  furnish  no  impeachment 
of  Mr.  Garrick's  judgment  It  ought,  however,  to  bar 
added,  that  our  authoress,  as  is  said,  thought  her  invec* 
tire  too  severe ;  lamented  and  retracted  it.  In  177.1  she 
translated  "Elements  of  the  History  of  England,  from: 
the  invasion  of  the  Roman*  (to  the  reign  of  George  IL 
from  the  abb6  MiUot,' '  in  4  vols.  1 2  mo.  In  January  1781, 
the  "  Siege  of  Sinope,"  a  tragedy,  was  acted  at  Covent- 
garden.  This  piece  added  but  little  to  her  reputation, 
though  the  principal  characters  were  well  supported  by 
Mr.  Henderson  and  Mrs.  Yates*  It  went  nine  nights,  but 
never  became  popular *,  it  wanted  energy,  and  bad  not 
much  originality;  there  was  little  to  disapprove,  but  no- 
thing to  admire.  Her  next  and  most  popular  performance 
#as  "  Rosina,"  acted  at  Covent-garden  in  December  1782* 
This  she  presented  to  Mr.  Harris,  and  few  pieces  have 
been  equally  successful.  The  simplicity  of  the  story,  the 
elegance  of  the  words,  and  the  excellence  of  the  music, 
promise  a  long  duration  tp  this  drama.  Her  concluding 
work,  was  "  Marian,"  acted  1788  at  Covent-garden  witto 
some  success,  but  very  much  inferior  to  Rosina.1 

BROOKE  (Hskky),  an  amiable  and  ingenious  writer, 
was  a  native  of  Ireland,  where  he  was  born  in  the  year  1706. 
His  father,  the  rev.  William  Brooke  of  Rantavan,  rector 
of  the  parishes  of  Killinkare,  Mullough,  Mybullougb,  and 
ticowie,  is  said  to  have  been  a  man  of  great  talents  and 

1  From  our  latt  edition.— Gent  Mag,  vol,  LIX.— Biog.  Pram*— KicboU's 
life  of  Bowyer* 

Vow,  VIL  E 

90  BROOKE. 

worth  J  his  mother's  name  was  Digby.  His  education  ap- 
pears to  have  been  precipitated  in  a  manner  not  very  usual  £ 
after  being  for  .some  time  the  pupil  of  Dr.  Sheridan,  he 
was  sent  to  Trinity  college,  Dublin,  and  from  thence  re- 
moved, when  only  seventeen  years  old,  to  study  law  in 
the  Temple.  Dr.  Sheridan  was  probably  #  the  means  of 
his  being  introduced  in  London  to  Swift  and  Pope,  who 
regarded  him  as  a  young  man  of  very  promising  talents. 
How  long  he  remained  in  London  we  are  not  told ;  but  on 
his  return  to  Ireland  he  practised  for  some  time  as  a  cham- 
ber counsel,  when  an  incident  occurred  which  interrupted 
his  more  regular  pursuits,  and  prematurely  involved  him 
in  the  cares  of  a.  family.  An  aunt,  who  died  at  Westmgatli 
about  the  time  of  his  arrival  in  Ireland,  committed  to  him 
the  guardianship  of  her  daughter,  a  lively  and  beautiful 
girl  between  eleven  and  twelve  years  old.  Brooke,  pleased 
with  the  trust,  conducted  her  to  Dublin,  and  placed  her 
at  a  boarding-school,  where,  during  his  frequent  visits/  fie 
gradually  changed  the  guardian  for  the  lover,  and  at  length 
prevailed  on  her  to  consent  to  a  private  marriage.  In  the 
life  prefixed  to  his  works,  this  is  said  to  have  taken  place 
before  she  had  reached  her  fourteenth  year :  another  ac- 
count, which  it  is  neither  easy  nor  pleasant  to  believe, 
informs  us  that  she  was  a  mother  before  she  had  completed 
that  year.  When  the  marriage  was  discovered,  the  cere- 
mony was  again  performed  in  the  presence  of  his  family. 
For  some  time  this  happy  pair  had  no  cares  but  to  please 
each  other,  and  it  was  not  until  after  the  birth  of  their 
third  child  that  Brooke  could  be  induced  to  think  seriously 
how  such  a  family  was  to  be  provided  for.  The  law  had 
long  been  given  up,  and  he  had  little  inclination  to  re- 
sume a  profession  which  excluded  so  many  of  the  pleasures 
of  imagination,  and  appeared  inconsistent  with  the  feelings 
pf  a  mind  tender,  benevolent,  and  somewhat  romantic. 
Another  journey  to  London,  however,  promised  the  ad-* 
vantages  of  literary  society,  and  the  execution  of  literary 
schemes  by  which  he  might  indulge  his  genius,  and  be 
rewarded  by  fame  and  wealth.  Accordingly,  soon  after 
his  arrival,  he  renewed  his  acquaintance  with  his  former 
friends,  and  published  his  philosophical  poem,  entitled 
^  Universal  Beauty."  This  had  been  submitted  to  Pope, 
who,  probably,  contributed  his  assistance,  and  whose  man- 
Iter  at  least  is  certainly  followed.  At  what  time  this  oc- 
fcurrfcd  is  uncertain*    The  second  part  was  published  U 

fc  It  0  6  K  £.  *i 

1735,  and  the  remainder  about  a  year  after.  What  faro* 
pr  advantage  he  derived  from  it  we  know  not,  as  no  men- 
tion is  made  of  him  in  the  extensive  correspondence  of 
Pope  or  Swift.  He  was,  however,  obliged  to  return  to 
Ireland,  wher^  for  a  short  time  he  resumed  his  legal  pro- 

■  In  1737  he  went  a  third  time  to  London,  where  he  waft 
introduced  to  Lyttelton  and  others,  the  political  and  lite- 
rary adherents  of  the  prince  of  Wales,  "who,"  it  is  said, 
-**  caressed  him  with  uncommon  familiarity,  and  presented 
him  with  many  elegant  and  valuable  tokens  of  his  friend- 
ship.'*  .  Amidst  such  society,  he  had  every  thing  to  point 
bis  ambition  to  fame  and  independence,  and  readily  caught 

:  that  fervour  of  patriotic  enthusiasm  which  was  the  bond  of 
union  and  the  ground  of  hope  in  the  prince's  court. 

'In  1738  he  published  a  translation 'of  the  First;  Three 
Books  of  Tasso,  of  which  it  is  sufficient  praise  that  Hoole 
says :  u  It  i?  at  once  so  harmonious  and  so  spirited',  that  I 
think  an  entire  translation  of  IVsso  by  him  would,  not  only  % 
have  rendered  my  task  unnecessary,^  but  have,  discouraged 
those  from  the  attempt  whose  poetical  abilities  ate  much 

'  superior  to.mine."  He  Was*  however,  diverted  from  com- 
pleting his  translation,  by  his  political  friends,  who,  among 
other  plans  of  hostility  against  the  minister  of  the  day,  en- 
deavoured' to  turn  all  the  weapons  of  literature  against 
him.  Their  prose  writers  were  ilumerdiis,  but  principally 
essayists  and  pamphleteers:  from  their 'pbets  they  had 
greater  expectations  ;  Taul  Whitehead  wrote  satires ; 
Fielding,  comedies  and  farces ;  Glover.,  an  epic  poem ; 
and  now  Brooke  was  encouraged  to  introduce  Walpole  in 
a  tragedy »  This  was  eritMed  "  G'ustavus  Vasa,  the  de* 
liverer  of  his  country,"  and  was  accepted  by  Drufy*lane 

1  theatre,  and  almost  quite  ready  for  performance,  when  an 
order  came  from  the  lord  chamberlain  to  prohibit  it.  That 
it  contains  a  considerable  portion  of  p&rty- spirit  cannot  be 
denied,  and  the  character  of  Trollio,  the  Swedish  minister, 

*- however  unjustly,   was  certainly  intended  for  sir  Robert 

"Walpole;  but  it  may  be  doubted  whether  this  minister 
gained  much  by  prohibiting  the  acting  of  a  play  which  he 

.  aad  hot  the  courage  to  suppress  when  published,  and  when 
the  sentiments,  considered  deliberately  in  the  closet,  might 

*  be  hearty  as  injurious  as  when  delivered  by  a  mouthing 
actor.    The  press,  however,  remained  open,  ahdthepro- 

kib\tion  having  excited  an  uncommon  degree  of  curiosity, 

■•*.•  «  _  .  -  • 

R  2 

j   i 

the  f.u%>r  was  jptire  ricbjv  r<ejeai;de4  than  he  c&uld  4we 
been,  by  the  profit?  of  the  f  t$ge.  Aboyje  a  thousand  copied 
were  subscribed  for  at  £ve  schillings  e$cb,  and  jby  the  fiate 
of  the  subsequent  edition,  flhe  autb.qr  is  ftdd  to  have 
cleaned  .nearly  a  thousand  p^p^s.  T&p  editor  of  the 
Biographia  Dramatica  says  that  it  was  acted  in  1742,  with 
some  ^ltei^t  ipns,  on  tlje  Jri$b  stfg$,  fcy  the  titje  pf "  The 
Patriot."  Dr.  J#bnSPP>  wfeq  #  $b*s  tip^e  r*fikfc£  among 
the  discontented*  wrpte  p.  very  jpgenioujs  ^iric^l  p?«n~ 
pblet  in  favour  of  $be  ^udftofr  entitled  "  A  pontpiete  vin- 
dication o/  t^e  Licensers  of  the  Stage  frpm  *be  m?4ick>u* 
and  scandalous  -fspe^ons  pf  lyir,  grppkp,  Wfctbof  of  <Jus- 
tav.usVasa,"  1739,  Uo. 

The  fame  Brooke  $tcq.uire4  by  this  pky,  iphicb  baa  cert 
tainly  m^any  beauties,  seeded  the  earnest  pf  a  prospieroti* 
career,  >aud  a?  fee  thought  be  could  now  afford  to  wait  the 
&k>w  progress  of  eyentSj  fee  l^ir^e4  *  bpuse  at  Twickenham* 
near  to  Pope'*,  furjusb^J  ?£  <gejatoelly,  $nd  s$njt  for  M«3- 
Brooke  and  his  family,  $ut  tl}$s£  pattering  prwpepte  #era 
soon  clouded.  He  was  seized  witljL  ap  .agpe  90  violent  *&d 
obstinate  that  hfs  physicians,  after  having  almost  4«#pw*eti 
of  bis  life,  advise^  hin),  9s  $  lasi  fle^oprce,  £9  $ry  hi?  ftativ* 
air.  Wi&  this  be  cpippfted,  *#4  <obt&jfle4  ft  fK*fcpl#*  re- 
covery. It  was  thep .  expected  tha$  h$  should  r&turu  to 
London,  and  such  wa?  certainly  bjs  .int£otioq>  but  to  the 
surprise  of  hi?  friends,  fre  determined  tp  remain  in  Ireland* 
jFor  a  conduct  50  $ppprently  inconsistent  not  pnly  wijtb  hi* 
interest,  but  his  inclination,  be  was  Ions;  unwilling  to  acT 
count.  If,  appeared  afterward?,  that  Mr*.  Brooke  wa# 
alarmed  flfc  the  zeaJ  with  wbjch  he  espoused  the  cause  of 
the  opposition  ajyj  dr^ded  tb$  cpns5qu$fyc£s  wWh  wtoiicki 
bis  pext  intenjpgr^fcte  pubjic^tipi)  might  be  followed.  Sh* 
persuaded  bjin  t^ece/foi^  to  r-ejpain  in  Irejaqd,  %nd  for  w> 
singular  p,  measure  *t  tfcts  favourable  crisis,  in  hj#  history, 
be  could  assign  gp  adequate  ye&sQft  «vi*fefeut  exposing  bar 
to  the  iiBputat'19^ f  of  cagrfcfi,  afyd  \»m§\(  *Q  jthtf  of  a  too 
yielding  tamper. 

During  his  residence  in  Ire)ai*d,  be  kept  up  a  literary 
corresppn4ei?f?e  frith  his  Lpn4pa  frjte&ds,  but  ail  their  let- 
f^l  wepe  con^fpqd  by  an  a^pcMle.n^i  fire.  Two  frpnj  Pope, 
f?e  are  told,  are  particularly  \g  h§  ^epted,  ^  in  one  of 
these  he  professed  hio)seif  in  heart  a  protectant,  but  apo- 
logized fpr  not  publicly  cjonfprming,  by  alleging  that  it 
wpul4  ^p4«r  ^  ^ve  of  his  fltytftor'*  life  unhappy,  Pope'a 

BK09SE  5 J 


filial  rfffmicmf  is?  fife  iftdfc*  amiable  ftjtoi&ff  fol  Ms*  ahai-acter ; 
but  this  stofy  of  his  d*clirtitog  ttf  confcrrt  feete^H^  it  wfcultf 
gitfe  utasasiness  to  his  flMth**,  &Us  to  the  gtotad'  wfteii 
the  reader  is  told  tttat  kis  nether  hfe*  befcto  <teatf.  six  or 
seven  yea«*  before'  Brook*:  w«ttt  to  frildftd:  In*  anther 
letter,  tier  is>  &ldy  wilEh  m&ra'appe*ra<tae  of  tlrtfth,.  td  hav« 
tfdvised'  Btiofeke  to  talk*  <frck*s;  *  as*  being  a*  profession 
better  suited  to  his  principles,  his  disposition,  and*  his  ge- 
*ta&,  tlfcfci  that?  of  the  Ww,  and  afeo  ties*  injuribtts  tki  his 
healths  Why  h*  ctid  ito*  comply  wMtf  this  afdvhte  cannot 
iwtfv  be  krt&ww;  btwl,  bdlkmthffe'time*'  lie-  appears-  to  hav£ 
teen  of  a-  religions*  tarty  4lt*iough  *  is  no*  <*a3y  to  rt&on- 
<$ile  his*]M*nbiptog;  w%teli>w*¥e  tho^  of  tihe  ^tridt^t  kind, 
Wlth<  lite  OHftioual1  atobition  to  shine  a*  a  draddatib  writer. 

Hor  sothe  yisairW  afte*  his  arrival'  in  Ireland!,  little  is 
known  oft  his  life,  *#ce$Q  thtft *lor*d  Ciesterflfci*,  when  Vice- 
roy, cortto-^du^Ofthim^  the- office  of  barrack-riiastef.  His 
howevGtf,  Was'  not  idte.  ItV  1741,  he  contributed  to 
sV  vercfcttf  oft  ehftwtery  <<  Cbhstabtia,  or  tfo^Maitof 
fc  Tate;''  a&4  in  1745,  afecordfog  tJb-  dne- account,  his 
tragedy  of  the  u  Earl  of  Westmoreland"  was  performed 
oa  the  Dublin  stage ;  Hut  tb#  ddkdtf  of  tfc«i  Bibgtephia 
Bramaftea  ihfortns  us>  tji»t^  war fit^f  act^d^tJ  Dublin  in 
fWty  utodnr  thfc  title  oB  thfe  "  Better  ctf  HW  Cobrftry," 
and' again  in  1754  under  thdtfof1  ^  Ittjured  HtHttktr."  its 
feaife,  however,  wa* confined* W  Ireland;  rior  wtfs  it' knowii 
itr  Engtand)  Until  tife  pubttfcatk>ri  df  Ms*  pttetteal  works  ill 
1778.  A  more  imptfrt&rit  publication  washis*  «  Farmer's 
fceatetfc,"  written*  in  K740,  on  tHe'pted  <tf  Swfttfs'BteiiJier's 
lettfetoj  arid  wiito'  a  view  to  rotiste  tbfef  spirit  of  freedom 
attong  ttefir  Irish,' threatened, as  thfey  wtere,  in  common  with 
tmr  feMow-sfctyfcfctfc;  by  rebettioft  atod>  invasion. 

fii  1*74$  hb  wtfctte  aw  epilogue  on  the  birth-day*  of  the 
duke  <rf  Cttmbferktad;  spoken-  bf  Mr*  Garrtek  in  Dublin, 
and  a  pit)togu&  tt>  Otfieilttt  Id  17<#7  hfe  contributed  to 
Mttoj<exs  vok*&w*  of'  Rabies*  four*  of  gre^t  poetical'  merit, 
*fa.  ttTheTetnpteo#Hy*itett;"  "TheS^rtroWandDfrve;" 
v.  Thg'lfctnate  Sedttder^1'  atod  «  LoVe  and  Vanity ."  In 
1748  he  wrote  a  prologue  to  the  Foundling,  and  a  dramatic 
opera  Entitled  "  Little  John  and  the  Giants;"  This  was 
acted  only  one  night  in  Dublin,  being  then  prohibited  on 
account  of  certain  political  allusions.  On  this  occasion  he 
wrote  "  The  last  speech  of  John  Good,  alias  Jack  the 
Giant  Queller,"  a  satirical  effusion,  not  very  pointed,  and 

«*  BRIO  O -IfE 

mixed  with  political  allegory,  and  a  profusion  of  quotatiatf* 
from  scripture  against  tyrants  and. tyranny..  In  17  4-9,  his 
lc  Earl  of  EsseK,"  a  tragedy,  was  performed  at  Dublin, 
and  afterwards,  in  1760,  at  Drury-lane  theatre,  with  so 
much  preferred  to  the  rival  plays  on  the 
$ame  subject  by  Banks  and  Jones;.  At  what -time  his  other 
dramatic,  pieces  were  written,  or  acted,  if  acted  at  all,  is 

His  biographer  informs  us,  that,  "wearied  at  length 
with  fruitless*  efforts  to  arouse  the  slumbering  genius  of  hi* 
country— disgusted,  with  her  ingratitude-*-and  sick  of  her 
venality,  he  withdrew  to  his  paternal  seat,  and  there,  in 
the^  society  of  the  _rnuses,  and  the  peaceful  bosom  of  do«- 
oiestic  love,  cpnsoled  himself  for  lost  advantages  and  dis** 
appointed  hopes.  An  only  brother,  whom  he  tenderly 
loved,  accompanied  bis  retirement^  with  a  family  almost 
£s  numerous  as  his  own  ;  and  there,  Jbr  many  years,  they 
lived  together  with. uninterrupted  harmony  and  affection  r 
the  nephew  .w^-as  dear  as  the  son — the  uncle  as  revered 
as  the  father— and  the  sister-in-law  almost  a*  beloved  aa 
]the  wife." 

In  1762,  be  published  a  pamphlet  entitled  "The  Trial 
of  the  Roman  Catholics,"  the  object  of  which  was  to  re- 
move  the  politicals  restraints  on  that  class,  and  to  prove 
£hat  thi?  may  b&  done  with  safety.  In  this  attempt,  how+ 
fever,  b)s  ^eal^ed  him  so  far  as  to  question  incontrovertible 
fsLCt&x.  and  even  to  assert  ihat  the  history  of  the  Irish  mas, 
jsacre  in.  1641  is  nothing  but  an  old  wives  fable ;  and  upon 
the  whole  he  leans  wore  to  the  principles  of  the  Roman 
catholic  religion,  than  an  argument  professedly  political 
pr  a  mere  question  of  extended  toleration,  seemed  to  re* 
quire.  HUV  next  work  excited  more  attention  in  England. 
}n  176$.  appeared  the  first  volume  of  the  "Fool  of  Qua* 
lity,  or  the  history  of  the  eajrl  of,  Moreland,"  a  novel,,  re* 
plete  with  knowledge  of  buman  life  and:  manners,  and  in 
which  there, are  many  admirable  traits  of  moral  feeling  and 
propriety,  but  mixed,  as  the  author  advances  towards  the 
p lose,  with,  so  much,  of  religious  discussion,  and  my$terk>ai 

*  These    were   "  The   Contending  but  is  said  to  have  been  the  production 

Brothers,"  the  "  Female  Officer,"  and  of  another  hand/   6f  these,  the  "  *£ 

£he  ■«  Marriage  Gontraot,'*  comedies, ;  male  Officer*'  only  j?  said  to  have  bet* 

"  The    Impostor,"    a    tragedy,   and-  once  acted,  when  Mrs.  Woffington  pep-. 

*'  Cymbeline,"  an  injddiciouft  altera-  sonated  the  officer, '  probably  at  ten 

tieo  from  Shakespeare.  "  Montezuma,"  benefit.       •  '•   •  "X  -.     '  ••*".? 

5  tragedy,  is  printed aqjODg  his  worl^,  ;         ,    ;         ,  .   4.    j-,.] 


•torte*  and  opinions,  as  to  leave  it  doubtful  whether  he  in- 
clined most  to  Behmenism  or  popeiy.  It  became,  how* 
ever,*  when  completed  in  five  volumes,  1770,  a  very  po- 
pular novel,  and  has  often  been  reprinted  since. 

In  1772,  he  published  u  Redemption,"  a  poem,  in  which 
that  great  mystery  of  our  religion  is  explained  and  ampli- 
fied by  bolder  figures  than  are  usually  hazarded.  His 
taste  wan  indeed  evidently  on  the  decline,  add  in  this  as 
well  as  ail  his  later  performances,  he  seems  to  have  yielded 
to  the  enthusiasm  of  the  moment,  without  any  reserve  ill 
favour  of  bis  better  judgment.  In  this  poem,  too,  he  ap- 
pears to  have  lost  his  pronunciation  of  the  English  so  far 
as  to  introduce  rhymes  which  must  be  read  according  to 
the  vulgar  Irish.  His  last  work  was  u  Juliet  Grenville,"  a 
novel  in  three  volumes,  which  appeared  in  1774.  This  is 
very  justly  entitled  "  The  History  of  the  Human  Heart,*1 
the  secret  movements  of  which  few  novelists  have  better 
understood ;  but  there  is  such  a  mixture  of  the  most  sacred 
doctrines  of  religion  with  the  common  incidents  and  chit- 
chat of  the  mchiern  romance,  that  his  best  friends  could 
with  difficulty  discover  among  these  ruins,  some  fragments 
which  indicated  what  his  genius  had  once  been. 
-  In  this  year  (1774)  we  are  told,  that  Garrick  pressed 
him  earnestly  to  write  for  the  stage,  and  offered  to  enter 
into  articles  with  him  at  the  rate  of  a  shilling  per  line  for 
all  be  should  write  during  life,  provided  that  be  wrote  for 
him  alone. '  "  This  Garrick,19  says  bis  biographer,  "looked 
upon  as  an  extraordinary  compliment  to  Mr.  Brooke's  abi- 
lities ;  -  but  he  could  not,  however,  bring  him  over  to  hi* 
opinion,  nor  prevail  with  him  to  accept  of  his  offer ;  on  the 
contrary,  he  rejected  it  with  some  degree  of  haughtiness — 
for  which  Garrick  never  forgave  him.  He  was  then  in  the 
foil  and  flattering  career  to  fortune  and  to  fame,  and  would 
have  thought  it  a  disgrace  to  hire  out  his  talents,  and  tie 
himself  down  to  necessity  n  In  this  story  there  is  enough 
to  induce  us  to  reject  it.  Brooke  was  so  far  from  being  at 
Ibis  time  in  the  full  and  flattering  career  to  fortune  and  to 
^me,  that  be  had  out-lived  both.  And  supposing  that 
there  may  be  some  mistake  in  the  date  of  Garrick's  propo- 
sal, and  that  for  1774  we  should  read  1764,  or  even  1754* 
.the  proposal  itself  is  too  ridiculous  to  bear  examination* 
;  Our  author's  tenderness  of  heart  and  unsuspecting  tenv» 
per  involved  him  in  pecuniary  difficulties.  He  was  ever 
prone  to  give  relief  to  the  distressed,  although  the  imipe* 

*6  B  ft  O  O  K  B. 

dif  te  roaseqoertc^  of  hi?  liberality  was  that  he  wanted  re* 
lief  himself,  and  at  length  was  compelled  to  dispose  of  his 
property,  and  remove  to  Kildare.  Aft^r  living  some  time 
here,  he  took  a  farm  near  his  former  residence.  Where 
this  residence  was,  his  biographers  have  not  mentioned ; 
but  soon  after  his  return,  they  inform  us  that  he  lost  bis 
wife,  to  whom  he  bad  been  happily  united  for  nearly  fifty 
yean?.  The  shock  which  this  calamity  gave  to  a  mind, 
never  probably  very  firm,  and  the  wreck  of  a  family  of 
seventeen  children  now  reduced  to  two,  was  followed  by  a 
State  pf  mental  imbecility  from  which  he  newer  recovered. 
Ttye  confusion  of  his  ideas,  indeed,  bad  been  visible  in 
jftost  of  bis  later  writings,  and  the  infirmities  of  age  com- 
pleted what  his  family  losses  and  personal  disappointments 
had  begun.  His  last  days,  however,  were  cheered  by  the 
hopes  qf  religion,  which  became  brighter  as  he  approached 
the  b^u/  in  which  they  were  to  be  fulfilled.  He  died  Oct; 
"JO,  1783*,  leaving  a  son,  since  dead,  and  a  daughter, 
tb*  $bild  of  his  old  age. 

Hi?  poetical  works  were  collected  in  1778,  in  four  vo~ 
tames  octavo,  printed  very  incorrectly,  and  with  the  ad~ 
dition  of  some  pieces  which  were  not  hm  In  1792  anot- 
fber  edition  was  published  at  Dublin,  by  his  daughter,  who 
jwfocured  some  memoirs  of  her  father  prefixed  to  the  firai 
volume.  In  this  she  informs  naf  she  found  many  difficuK- 
ties.  He  had  lived  to  m  advanced  an  age,  that  most  of  hia 
contemporaries  deputed  before  Win,  audi  this  young  lady 
xegiembered  nothing  of  him  ptevioua  tor  bis  retirement 
from  the  world.  Such;  an  apology  cfcwnet  be  refused,  while 
we  must  yet  regret  that  mm  Brooke  w#s  not  able  to  col- 
lect infprmauon  more  to  be  depended  on,  and  arranged 
with  mo-re  attention  to  date*.  The  oamttgre*  aa  we  find  it, 
lis  confused  and  contradictory. 

From  all,  however,  that  can  now  be  learned,  Brooke 
was  a  «*an  of  a  most  amiable  character  and  ingenuous  tern^ 
per,  and  perhaps  few  men  have  produced  writings  d£  tfar 
same  variety,  the  tendency  of  all  which  is  so  uniformly  in 
favour  of  religious  and  moral  principle.  Yet  even  in  fcbi£ 
there  are  inconsistencies  which  we  know  not  how  "to  ex- 
plain, unless  we  attribute  them  to  an  extraordinary  defect 
in  judgment.  During  a  great  part  of  his  life,  his  religi- 
ous opinions  approached  to  what  are  now  termed  methodise 

*  He  w&s  in  possession  of  the  place  of  barrack- master  of  Mulliitgar,  at  hia 

BROOKE.  5? 

tical,  and  one  difficulty,  in  contemplating  hi*  character, 
is  to  reconcile  this  with  his  support  of  the  stage,  and  his 
writing  those  trifling  farces  we  find  among  his  works.  Per- 
haps it  may  be  said  that  the  necessities  of  his  family  made 
him  listen  to  the  importunity  of  those  friends  who  con* 
sidered  the  stage  as  a  profitable  resource ;  but  by  taking 
such  advice  he  was  certainly  no  great  gainer.  Except  in 
die  case  of  his  "  Gustavu*"  and  '*  Earl  of  Essex,"  there  is 
no  reason  to  think  that  he  was  successful,  and  the  greater 
part  of  his  draiftas  were  never  performed  at  all,  or  printed 
until  1778,  when  he  eould  derive  very  little  advantage, 
from  them.  Nor  can  we  impute  it  to  any  cause,  except  & 
total  want  of  judgment  and  an  ignorance  of  the  public 
taste,  that  he  intermixed  the  most  awful  doctrines  of  reli- 
gion, and  the  lighter  incidents  and  humorous  sketches  of 
vulgar  or  fashionable  life,  in  his  novels.  He  lived,  how- 
ever, we  are  told,  more  consistently  than  he  wrote.  No 
day  passed  in  which  he  did  not  collect  his  family  to  prayer, 
and  read  and  expounded  the  scriptures  to  them  *.  Among 
his  tenants  and  humble  friends  he  was  the  benevolent  and 
genefous  character  which  he  had  been  accustomed  to  de- 
pict in  his  works,  and  while  be  had  the  means,  he  literally 
went  about  doing  good. 

As  a  poet,  he  delights  hjs-  readers  principally  by  occa- 
sional flights  of  a  vivid  imagination,  but  has  in  no  instance 
given  us  a  poem  to  which  criticism  may  not  suggest  many 
reasonable  objections.  The  greater  part  of  his  life,  he 
lived  remote  from  the  friends  of  whose  judgment  he  might 
have  availed  himself,  and  by  whose  taste  his  own  might 
fyive  been  regulated  His  first  production,  Universal* 
Beauty,  has  a  aoble  display  of  fancy  in  many  parts.  It  is 
not  improbable  that  Pope,  to  whom  he  submitted  it,  gave 

*  The  following  anecdote  is  given  being  over,  be  opened  the  bible,  and 

by  bis  biographer,  with  some  regret  preached  extempore  on  the  first  text 

that  he  bad  not  been,  educated  for  the  that  struck  his  eye.     In  the  middle  of 

church.     "  One  Sunday,  while  the  con-  bis  discourse,  the  clergyman  Entered, 

gregation  were  assembled  in  the  rural  and  found  the  whole  congregation  in 

church  of  the  parish  Wt  which  he  lived,  tears.      He  entreated  Mr.  Brooke  to 

they  waited  a  long  time  the  arrival  of  proceed;  but  this  he  modestly  refused ; 

their  clergyman.     At  last,  finding  be  and  the  other  as  modestly  declared, 

was  not  likely  to  come  that  day,  they  that  after  the  testimony  of  superior 

judged  that  some  Occident  bad  detained  abilities,  which   he  perceived  in  the 

him  J  and  being  loth  to  depavt  entirely  moist  eyes  of  ail  present,  be  would* 

without  their  errand,  they  with  one  ac-  think  it  presumption  and  folly  to  hazard 

cord  requested  that  Mr.  Brooke  would  any  thing  of  his  ewn.    Accordingly, 

perform  the  service  for  them,  and  ex-  the  concluding    prayers    alone  were 

pound  a  part  of  the  scriptures — He  said,  and  the  congregation;  dismissed 

consented,  and  the  previous  prayers  for  the  day.1' 

St  BROOK  E. 

him  some  assistance,  and  he  certainly  repaid  his  instructor 
by  adopting  his  manner ;  yet  he  has  avoided  Pope's  moncw 
tony,  and  would  have  done  this  with  more  effect,  if  we  did 
not  perceive  a  mechanical  lengthening  of  certain  lines, 
rather  than  a  natural  variety  of  movement.  On  the  other 
hand,  the  sublimity  of  the  subject,  by  which  he  was  in- 
spired and  which  he  hoped  to  communicate,  sometimes 
betrays  him  into  a  species  of  turgid  declamation.  Har- 
mony appears  to  be  consulted,  and  epithets  multiplied  to 
please  the  ear  at  the  expence  of  meaning.  * 

BROOKE  (JoHn  Charles),  late  Somerset-herald,  was 
the  sou  of  William  Brooke,  M.  D.  of  Fieldhead,  near  Dads* 
worth  in  Yorkshire,  and  a  gentleman  by  descent  He  waft 
born  in  1748,  and. put  apprentice  to  Mr.  James  Kirkby,  a 
chemist,,  in  Bartlett's-buildings,  London ;  but  discovering  a 
strong  turn  to  heraldic  pursuits,  and  having,  by  a  pedigree 
of  the  Howard  family,  which  he  drew,  attracted  the  notice 
'of  the  then  duke  of  Norfolk*  he  procured  him  a  place  in 
the  college  of  arms,  by  the  title  of  Rouge  Croix  pursui- 
vant, in  1775,-  from  which,  in  1778,  he  was  advapced  td 
that  of  Somerset  herald,  which,  office  he  held  at  his  dead*, 
and  by  the  interest  of  the  present  duke  of  Norfolk  he  wa$ 
also  one  of  the  lieutenants  in  the  militia  of  the  West  Riding 
of  Yorkshire.  On  Feb.  3>  1794,  he  was  suffocated,  with 
his  friend  Mr.  Pirigo  of  York,  and  many  other  persons,  in 
attempting  to  get  into  the  pit  at  the  little  theatre  in  the 
llaymarket.  It  did  not  appear  that  he  bad  been  throwtj 
down,  but  was  suffocated  as  he  stood ;  his  countenance 
had  the  appearance  of  sleep,  and  even  the  colour  in  his 
cheeks  remained.  ^He  was  interred,  with  great  respect, 
and  the  attendance  of  the.  principal  members  of  the  college 
and  of  the  society  of  antiquaries,  Feb.  6,  in  a  vault  under 
the  heralds'  seat,  in  the  church  of  St.  Ben  net,  Paul's 
Wharf.  A  mural  monument,  by  Ashton,  has  since  beeii 
placed  over  his  remains  by  Edmund  Lodge,  esq.  Lancaster 
herald.  ^  .     r 

Mr.  Brooke,  by  a  well-regulated   oeconomy,    had  a^ 
quired  about  14,000/.     By  his  will  he  appointed  his  two 
sisters  executrixes  and  residuary  legatees,  and  bequeathe^ 
%his  MSS.  to  the  college  of  arms.     He  made  many  collec- 
tions, chiefly  relative  to  the  county  of  York.     His  father 

inheriting  the  MSS.  of  bis  great  uncle,  tbe^rev.  Johty 

*  > 

*  Johns*!)  an4  Cfealapre's  English  Poet*.  21  igfe.  1810,  gv«. 


JBrooke,  which  he  had  made  as  a  foundation  for  the  topo- 
graphy of  that  great  division  of  the  kingdom,  they  came 
into  his  hands,  and  he  greatly  enlarged  them  by  his  own 
industry,  and  by  copying  the  manuscripts  of  Jennings  and 
TeJIyson,  which  treated  upon  the  same  subject  His  coir 
lections  were  not  confined  to  Britain  ;  but  he  added  much 
to  his  literary  labours  whilst  on  a  tour  to  (he  continent* 
The  whole  shew  his  judgment  as  well  as  application.  Be- 
coming, April  6,  1775,  a  member  of  the  society  of  anti- 
quaries, he  enriched  their  volumes  with  some  curious  pa- 
pers relative  to  the  ancient  seal  of  Robert  baron  Fitz- 
walter,  and  those  of  queens  Catharine  Parr  and  Mary 
d'Este;  illustrations  of  a  Saxou  inscription  in  Kirkdal$ 
church,  in  the  North  Riding  of  Yorkshire,  and  another  in 
Aldborough  church,  in  Hblderness ;  and  of  a  deed  belong- 
ing to  the  manor  of  Nether-Sillington,  in  Yorkshire.  Some 
items  of  his,  signed  J.  B.  appear  in  the  Gentleman's 
Magazine ;  and  the  first  writers  of  the  age  in  history,  bio* 
graphy,  and  topography,  have  been  indebted  to  bim.1 

BROOKE  (Ralph),  York  herald,  whose  real  name  wa? 
Brookesworth,  until  he  changed  it  to  Brooke,  was  bred  to 
the  trade  of  a  painter-stainer,  of  which  cdmpeny  he  be- 
came free,  September  3,  1576,  and  leaving  this,  he  be- 
came an  officer  at  arms.  He  was  so  extremely  worthless 
and  perverse,  that  his  whole  mind  seems  bent  to  malice 
and  wickedness :  un&wed  by  virtue  or  station,  none  were 
secure  from  his  unmerited  attacks.  He  became  a  disgrace 
to  the  college,  a  misfortune  to  his  contemporaries,  and  * 
misery  to  himself.  With  great  sense  and  acquirements,  b$ 
sunk  into  disgracfe  and  contempt.  He  was  particularly 
hostile  to  Camden,  publishing  "  A  Discovery  of  Errors" 
found  in  his  Britannia.  Camden  returned  his  attack 
partly  by  silence,  and  partly  by  rallying  Brooke,  as  entirely 
ignorant  of  his  own  profession,  incapable  of  translating  or 
understanding  the  "  Britannia,"  in  which  he  had  disco- 
vered faults,  offering  to  submit  the  matter  in  dispute  to  the 
earl  Marshal,  the  college  of  heralds,  the  society  of  anti- 
quaries, or  four  persons  learned  in  these  studies.  Irritated 
f  till  mpfe,  he  wrote  a  "  Second  Discovery  of  Errors,"  which 
h£  presented  tp  James  I,  January  1,  1619-20,  who,  on  thet 
4th  following,  prohibited  its  publication,  but  it  was  pub-* 
jjshed  by  Anstis,  in  1723,  in  4 to.     In  it  are  Camden's  *up* 

'  I  Gent  Maf ,  vol.  LXlV.-^Nobfo's  College  of  An*v 

60  BROOKE. 

posed  errors,  with  his  objections,  Camden' d  reply,  and  hw 
own  answers.  In  the  appendix,  in  two  columns,  are  placed 
the  objectionable  passage*  in  the  edition  of  1594,  and  the 
Mime  as  they  stood  in  that  of  1600.  In  1622,  he  published 
a  *ahwlble  work,  dedicated  t$6  James  I.  entitled  "  A  Ca- 
talogue and  Succession  of  Kings,  Princes,  Dukes,  Mar^- 
4pft*e4,  Earls,  and  Viscouflfs  of  this  Realm,  since  the  Nor* 
mm  Coftqftest,  until  1619,  &c."  snfcll  fotto.  In  hi*  ad- 
tltate  to  his  majesty,  he  says,  w  he  had  spent  fifty  yeard* 
kbottr  aiftd  experience,  having  Served  his  majesty  and  the 
late  qt*eCi*  Elizabeth*  of  famotis  memory,  forty  yearsr  and 
rtiore."  That  no  dot**  might  be  entertained  of  his  ability, 
he  s4ioV  he  bald  i#  hi*  custody  the  collections  of  the  princi'- 
psA  heralds  deceased,  before  «ftd  during  his  time,  adding, 
without  ostentation  be  it  spoken,  he  held  his  library  better 
furnished  than  the  office  of  arms.  He  does  hot  neglect  to 
iiftrcat  James  to  prohibit  upstarts  artdf  mountebanks  from 
impoverishing  his  ro*gesty*s  poor  servants,  th6  officers  of 
arms,  who  labour  daily,  and  spend  both  their  bodies  and 
substance  in  doing  their  duty,  tie  was  twice  suspended 
and  imprisoned  for  scandalous  misbehaviour :  the  first 
ttae,  for  his  shameful'  conduct  to  Segar,  Garter  ;  and  in 
¥620,  a  petition  was  exhibited  against  him  and  CresweH 
atf  disturbers  of  the  whole  body  of  herafds.  On  Oct.  15, 
1627,  with  a  view  probably  to  expel  him  the  college,  it 
Wawf  soterttidy  argued,  Whether  be  was  a  herald;  but  the 
chief  barftiv  of  t&e%  exchequer,  Whitfield;  decided  itt  hiia 
favour.  Dec.  4,  he  and  CresweH,  Somerset  herald,  were 
sentenced  to  the  Mfershalsea  for  having  spoken  contempt 
tutttotily  of  the  Earl  Marshal.  CresweH  was  obliged  to  de- 
sign, but  Bro6ke  died  in  bis  office,  universally  despised*, 
Oct.  15,  V62&,  and  wag  buried  in  the  church  of  Reculver 
in  Kcftft. l 

BROOKE,  or  BROKE  (Sir  Robert),  lord:  chief  justice 
df  the  common  pleas  in  the  reign  of  queen  Mary,  and 
author  of  sevetol  books  iti  the  latfr,  was'  son  of  Thomafe 
JBtoeke  of  Claverly  in  Shropshire,  by  Margaret  his  wife!, 
daughter  of  Hugh  Grosvenor  of  Fartnot;  in  that  county. 
He  was  born  at  Claverly,  and  studied  in  the  university  of 
Oxford*  which  was  of  great  advantage  tb  him  when  he 
studied  the  law  in  the  Middle  Temple,  according  to  Mr. 
Wood,  though  Mr.  Stow,  in  his  Annals  under  the  yetf.. 

1  Noble's  College  of  Arms.~Getit  Mag.  LXIlI.— Archfcdtogia,  vol.  I.  p.xix. 


1552,  says  hie  vfes  of  Gray's -inn.     Jiy  bis  prddigous  appli- 
cation and  judgment  fae  became  the  greatest  lawyer  of  his 
lime.     In  1542  he  was  elected  autumn  or  summer  reader 
of  the  Middle  Temple,  and  in  Lent,  1550,  be  was  chosen 
double  reader.     In  1552  he  was  by  writ  called  to  be  Ser- 
jeant at  law;  and  in  1553,  which  was  the  first  of  queen 
Mary's  reign,  he  was  appointed  lord  chief  justice  of  the 
common  pleas,  and  not  of  the  king's  bench,  as  some  have 
affirmed ;  and  about  that  time  he  received  the  honour  of 
knighthood  from  the  queen,  in  whose  reign  he  was  highly 
valued  for  his  profound  skill  in  the  law,  and  his  integrity  it* 
all  points  relating  to  the  profession  of  it.     Mr.  Wood  men- 
tions a  manuscript  in  the  Ashmolean  library  at  Oxford, 
which  informs  us,  that  he  had  likewise  been  common  Ser- 
jeant and  recorder  of  the  city  af  London,  and  speaker  of 
the  house  of  commons ;  and  that  be  died  as  he  was  visiting 
bis  friends  in  the  country,  September  5,  1553,  and  was  in- 
terred in  the  chancel  of  Claverly  church,  with  a  monu- 
ment erected  to  him.     In  his  last  will,  proved  October  12 
the  same  year,  he  remembers  the  church  and  poor  of  Put- 
ney near  London.     He  left  his  posterity  a  good  estate  at 
Madeley  in  Shropshire,  anfi  at  one  or  two  places  in  Suf- 
folk.    He  wrote  "  La  Graunde  Abridgement,"  which  con- 
tains, according  to  Mr.  Wood,  an  abstract  of  the  Year- 
books to  the  reign  of  queen  Mary;  and  Nicolson,  in  his 
"  English  Historical  Library,"  tells  us,  that  in  this  work 
he  followed  the  example  of  Nicholas  Statham,  one  of  the 
barons  of  the  exchequer  in  the- time  of  Edward  IV.  who 
first  abridged  the  larger  arguments  and  tedious  reports  of 
the  Year-books  into  a  short  system  under  proper  heads  and 
common  places  tp  the  reign  of  king  Henry  VI. ;  and  that 
oar  author,  sir  Robert  Brooke,  made  in  his  '<  Graunde 
Abridgement,'' an  alphabetical  absteact  of  all  the  choice 
matters  in  our  law,  as  contained  m  such  commentaries,  re- 
cords, readings,  &c.  and  that  this  work  is  a  general  epitome1 
of  all  that  could  be  had  upon  the  several  heads  there  treated' 
upon.     It  has  had  several  editions,  particularly  in  London 
in  a  small  folio,  15745,  !576,  1586,  &c.  amongst  which  edi- 
tions, says  Nicolson,  (as  it  commonly  fares  with  the  authors 
of  that  profession)  the  eldest  are  still  reckoned  the  best. 
]9e  collected  likewise  the  most  remarkable  cases  adjudged' 
in  the  court  of  common  pleas  from  the  sixth  year  of  kirjg 
Henry  VIII.  to  the  fourth  of  queen  Mary,  which  book  is 
•tftitled  "  Ascuns  novel  Cases,  &c."and  frequently  printed, 

*3  BROOKE. 

particularly  jut  London,  1578,  1604,  1625,  &c.  in  %*<*' 
He  wrote  also  "  A  Reading  on  the  Statute  of  Limitation* 
32  Henry  VIIL  cap.  2,"  London,  1647,  8vo.  Mr.  Wood 
supposes  that  it  had  been  printed  likewise  before  that 
time.  * 

BROOKSBANK,  or  BROOKBANK  (Joseph),  bora  in 
1612,  the  son  of  George  Brooksbank  of  Halifax,  was  en- 
tered a  batler  in  Brazen-nose  college,  in  Michaelmas  term 
1632,  took  a  degree  in  arts,  went  into  orders,  and  had  a 
curacy.  At  length  removing  to  London,  he  taught  school 
i,n  Fleet-street,  and  preached  there.  The  time  of  his 
death  is  not  known.  He  published,  1.  "  Breviate  of  Lilly's 
Latin  Grammar,  &c."  London,  1660,  8vo.  2.  "  The  well- 
tuned  Organ  ;  or  an  exercitation,  wherein  this  question  is 
fully  and  largely  discussed,  Whether  or  no  instrumental 
and  organical  music  be  lawful  in  holy  public  assemblies  ? 
Aifirmatur,"  ibid.  1660,  4to.  3.  "  Rebels  tried  and  cast*, 
in  three  Sermons,1'  ibid.  1661,  12mo.f 

BROOME  (William)  was  born  in  Cheshire,  as  is  said, 
of  very  mean  parents.  Of  the  place  of  his .  birth,  or  the 
first  part  of  his  life,  we  have  not  been  able  to  gain  any  in- 
telligence. He  was  educated  upon  the  foundation  at  Eton, 
and  was  captain  of  the  school  a  whole  year,  without  any 
vacancy,  by  which  he  might  have  obtained  a  scholarship  at 
King's  college.  Being  by  this  delay,  such  as  is  said  to  have 
happened  very  rarely,  superannuated,  he  was  sent  to  St* 
John's  college  by  the  contributions  of  his  friends,  where 
he  obtained  a  small  exhibition.  At  his  college  he  Jived 
^  for  some  tigae  in  the  same  chamber  with  the  well-known 
JjFprd,  t)y  whom  Dr.  Johnson  heard  him  described  as  a  con- 
"tractfjd  scholar  and  a  mere  versifier,  unacquainted  with  life^ 
and  qpskilful  in  conversation.  His  iiddiction  to,  metre  was 
then  such,  that  his  companions  familiarly  called  him  Pott. 
When  he  had  opportunities  of  mingling  with  mankind,  he 
cleared  himself,  as  Ford  likewise  owned,  from  great  part 
of  his  scholastic  rust. 

He  appeared  nearly  in  the  world  as  a  translator  of  the 
Iliads  into  prose,  in  conjunction  with  Ozetl  and  Oldis- 
fworth.  How  their  several  parts  were  distributed  i&.npt 
known.  This  is  the  translation  of  which  Ozell  boasted  a& 
superior,  in  Tolaftd's  opinion,  to  that  of  Pope :  it  has  long 

<   VGen.  Diet  vol.  X.  p.  547.— Ath.  Ox.  vol,  L— Tanner. 
»    *Ath  Ox.  vol.  Il.~Wmtson?s  Halifax*  •  -      **. 

»  '  V  ...  i^^  .  y 

Broome.  cs 

stace  vanished,  and  is  how  in  no  danger  from  the  critics. 
He  was  introduced  to  Mr.  Pope,  who  was  then  visiting  sir 
.John  Cotton  at  Madingiey,  near  Cambridge,  and  gained 
so  much  of  his  esteem,  that  he  was  employed  to  make  ex- 
tracts from  Eustathius  for  the  notes  to  the  translation  of 
the  Iliad ;  and  in  the  volumes  of  poetry  published  by 
Lintot,  commonly  called  Pope's  Miscellanies,  many  of  his 
early  pieces  were  inserted.     Pope  and  Broome  were  to  be 

{ret  more  closely  connected.     When  the  success  of  the 
had  gave  encouragement  to  a  version  of  the  Odyssey, 
Pope,  weary  of  the  toil,  called  Fenton  and  Broome  to  his 
assistance ;  and,  taking  only  half  the  work  upon  himself, 
divided  thej  other  half  between  his  partners,  giving  four 
books  to  Fenton,  and  eight  to  Broome.     Fenton's  books 
ire  enumerated  in  Dr.  Johnson's  Life  of  him.    To  the  lot 
4f  Broome  fell  the  2d,  6th,  8th,   11th,  12th,   1 6th,   iSth, 
and   23d ;  together  with  the  burthen  of  writing  all  the 
notes*.     The  price  at  which  Pope  purchased  this  assist- 
ance was  three  hundred  pounds  paid  to  Fenton,  and  five 
hundred  to  Broome,  with  as  many  copies  as  hte  wanted  for 
his  friends,  which  amounted  to  one  hundred  more.     The 
4 payment  made  to    Fenton   is  known    only   by  hearsay; 
Broome's  is  very  distinctly  told  by  Pope,  in  the  notes  to 
the  Dunciad:     It  is  evident  that;  according  to  Pope's  own 
estimate,   Broome  was  unkindly  treated.     If 'four  books 
could  merit  three  hundrecf  potthd$>    eight,    and  alt  the 
notes,  equivalent  at  least  to  four,  had  certainly  a  right  to 
jfcore  than  six.     Broome  probably  considered  himself  as 
injured,  and  there  was  for  some'  time  more*  than  coldness 
between  him  and  his  employer.     He  always  spoke  of  Pope 
as  too  much  a  loVer  of  money,  and  Pope  pursued  him  with 
avowed  hostility,  for  he  not  only  named  him  disrespectfully 
in  the  "  Dunciad,"  but  quoted  him  more  than  once  in  the 

*  .  *  "As  this  translation  it  a  eery  id-  .though  Pope,  in  *t>  advertisement  pre- 

portant  event  in  poetical  history,  the  fixed  afterwards  to  a  new  volume  of  his 

reader  has  a  right  to  know  upon  what  works,  claimed  only  twelve.     A  natu* 

^grounds  I  establish  my  narration: — That  ral  curiosity  after  the  real  conduct  of 

the  version  was  not  wholly  Pope's,  was  so  great  an  undertaking,    incited  me 

,  always  known ;  he  bad  mentioned^  the  once  to  inquire  of  Dr.  Warburton,  who 

'  assistance  of  two  friends  in  his  pro-  told  me,  in  hit  warm  language,  that  he 

*po*d»,  and  at  the  end  of  tfw  work>  thought  the  relation  given  in  the  note 

.•some  account  is  gives  by  Broome  .of  a  lie  ;  but  that  he  was  not  able  to  as* 

^heir  different  parts,  which,  however,  certain  the  several  shares.    The  intel- 

memious  only  five  books  as  written  by  ligenoe  which  Dr.  Warburton  could  not 

the  coadjutors ;  the  fourth,  and  twen-  .  afford  me,  I  obtained  from  Mr.  Lang- 

tieta,  by  Fenton ;  the  sixth,  the  ele«t  ton,  to  whoa  Mr.  Spenoe  had  imparted 

Ttotb,  and  U&e  eighteenth,  by  himself:  it.'*                               Dr.  Jobwson.    ' 

6*  BROOME. 

Bathos,  as  a  proficient  in  the  Art  of  Sinking ;  and  in  hi* 
enumeration  of  the  different  kinds  of  poets  distinguished 
for  the  profound,  he  reckons  Broome  among  "  the  parrots 
who  repeat  another's  words  in  such  a  hoarse  odd  tone  as 
makes  them  seem  their  owp."  It  has  been  said  that  they 
were  afterwards  reconciled  ;  but  we  are  afraid .  their  peac? 
was  without  friendship.  He  afterwards  published  a  Mis* 
ceilany  of  poems,  and  never  rose  to  very  high  dignity  ia 
the  church.  He  was  some  time  rector  of  Sturston  in  Suf~ 
folk,  where  he  married  a  wealthy  widow ;  and  afterwards, 
when  the  king  visited  Cambridge,  1729*  became  IX.  D. 
He  was,  1733,  presented  by  the  crown  to  the  rectory  of 
Pulham  in  Norfolk,  which  he  held  with  Oakley  Magna 
in  Suffolk,  given  him  by  the  lord  Cornwallis,  to  whom  ho 
was  chaplain,  and  who  added  the  vicarage  of  Eye  in  Suf- 
folk} he  then  resigned  Pulham,  and  retained  the  other 
two.  Towards  the  close  of  his  life  he  grew  again  poetical, 
and  amused  himself  with  translating  odes  of  .Anacreon, 
which  he  published  in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine,  under 
the  na«*e  of  Chester,  He  died  at  Bath,  Nov.  16,  1745* 
and  was  buried  in  the  abbey  church. 

Of  Broome,  says  Dr.  Johnson,  though  it  cannot  be  said 
that  he  was  a  great  poet,  it  would  be  unjust  to  deny  that 
be  was  an  excellent  versifier;  bis  lines  are  smooth  and  so-* 
norous,  and  bis  diction  is  select  and  elegant.  His  rhymes 
are  sometimes  unsuitable,  but  such  faults  occur  but  sel-> 
dom,  and  be  had  such  power  of  words  and  numbers  as 
fitted  him  for  translation ;  but  in  his  original  works,  recol- 
lection seems  to  have  been  his  business  more  than  inven- 
tion. His  imitations  are  so  apparent,  that  it  is  a  part  of 
his  reader's  employment  to  recall  the  verses  of  some  former 
poet.  .  What  he  takes,  however,  he  seldom  makei  worse  ; 
and  be  cannot  be  justly  thought  a  mean  man,  whom  Pope 
chose  for  an  associate,  and  whose  co-operation  was  con- 
sidered by  Pope's  enemies  as  so  important,  that  he  was 
attacked  by  Henley  with  this  ludicrous  distich  : 

*'  Pope  came  off  clean  with  Homer :  but  they  say 
Broome  went  before,  and  kindly  swept  the  way/' 

Broome  also  published  a  coronation  sermon  in  1727* 
and  an  assize  sermon  in  1737. l 

BROSCHI  (Carlo),  better  known  under  the  name  of 
Farinello,  was  born  the  24th  of  January,   1705,  at  Andria, 

1  English  Poets  by  Jotoffon,  fcc,  *-Nkfcolt'f  P+ems,  tol.  IV.— JofeoMft* 
Works.    See  Index. 

BROSC  IM.  65 

in  the  kingdom  of  Naples,  of  a  family  noble,  though  poor. 
From  the  patent  of  his  knighthood  of  the  order  of  Cala- 
trava,  it  appears  that  he  was  indebted  for  the  lasting  agree- 
ableness  of  his  voice,  not  to  a  voluntary  mutilation  from, 
the  thirst  of  gain,  but  that  he  was  obliged  to  undergo  the 
cruel  operation  on  account  of  a  dangerous  hurt  he  received 
in  his  youth,  by  a  fall  from  a  horse.  He  owed  the  first 
rudiments  of  the  singing  art  to  his  father  Salvatore  Brosco, 
and  his  farther  formation  to  the  famous  Porpora.  At  that 
time  there  flourished  at  Naples  three  wealthy  brothers  of 
the  name  of  Farina,  whose  family  is  now  extinct.  These 
persons  vouchsafed  him  their  distinguished  patronage,  and 
bestowed  on  him  the  name  of  Farinello.  For  some  time 
his  fame  was  confined  to  the  convivial  concerts  of  his  pa- 
trons, till  it  happened  that  the  count  of  Schrautenbach, 
nephew  of  the  then  viceroy,  came  to- Naples.  To  cele- 
brate his  arrival,  the  viceroy  and  his  familiar  friend  An- 
tonio Caracciolo,  prince  della  Torella,  caused  the  opera 
of  "  Angelica  and  Medoro"  to  be  represented,  in  which 
Metastasio  and  Farinello  plucked  the  "first  laurels  of  their 
immortal  fame. 

Thus  fortune  united  the  two  greatest  luminaries  that 
have  appeared  on  the  theatre  in  modern  times,  at  the  en- 
trance on  their  career.  Metastasio  was  then  not  more  than 
eighteen,  and  Farinello  not  above  fifteen  years  of  age. 
This  circumstance  gave  birth  to  an  intimacy  between  them, 
which  at  length  was  improved  into  a  cordial  friendship, 
supported  and  confirmed,  as  long  as  they  lived,  by  a  regular 
intercourse  of  epistolary  correspondence. 

Soon  after  Farinello  was  called  to  the  principal  theatres 
in  Italy,  and  every  where  richly  rewarded.  Between  the  • 
years  1722  and  17 $4,  he  gave  proofs  of  his  powers  at 
Naples,  Rome,  Venice,  and  most  of  the  cities  of  Italy; 
and  indeed  more  than  once  in  almost  all  these  places ;  six 
times  at  Rome,  and  at  Venice  seven.  The  report  of  his 
-talents  at  length  found  its  way  across  the  Alps.  Lord  Es- 
sex, the  English  ambassador  at  Turin,  received  a  com- 
mission to  invite  him  to  .London;  where,  for  six  months 
performance,  he  was  paid  1 500/.  At  Rome,  during  the 
run  of  a  favourite  opera,  there  was  a  struggle  every  night 
between  him  and  a  famous  player  on  the  trumpet,  in  a  song 
accompanied  by  that  instrument;  this,  at  first,  seemed 
amicable,  and  rilerely  sportive,  till  the  audience  began  to 
interest  themselves  in  th*  contest,  and  to  take  different  sides. 

Vol*  VIL  F 

to  B'RO  S  C  H  I. 

After  severally  swelling  out  a  note,  in  which  each  manU 
fested  the  power  of  his  lungs,  and  tried  to  rival  the  other 
in  brilliancy  and  force,  they  had  both  a  swell  and  a  shake 
together,  by  thirds,  which  was  continued  so  long,  while 
the  audience  eagerly  waited  the  event,  that  both  seemed 
to  be  exhausted  ;  and,  in  fact,  the  trumpeter  wholly  spent, 
r  gave  it  up,  thinking  however  his  antagonist  as  much  tired 
as  himself,  and  that  it  would  be  a  drawn  battle ;  when 
Farinello,  with  a  smile  on  his  countenance,  shewing  be 
had  only  been  sporting  with  him  all  this  time,  broke  out 
all  at  once  in  the  same  breath,  with  fresh  vigour,  and  not 
only  swelled  and  shook  the  note,  but  ran  the  most  rapid 
and  difficult  divisions,  and  was  at  last  silenced  only  by  the 
acclamations  of  the  audience.  From  this  period  may  be 
dated  that  superiority  which  he  ever  maintained  over  all 
his  contemporaries. 

Scarcely  ever  had  any  singer  a  like  capacity  of  per- 
petually giving  new  accessions  of  force  to  his  voice,  and 
always  with  pleasure ;  and  when  it  had  attained  to  the 
highest  degree  of  energy,  to  keep  it  for  a  long  time  at  that 
pitch  which  the  Italians  call  mezza  di  voce.  While  he 
sung  at  London,  in  the  year  1734,  in  an  opera  composed 
by  his  brother  Riccardo,  at  another  theatre  they  were  per-* 
forming  an  opera  set  to  music  by  Handel,  wherein  Se~ 
nesini,  C  ares  tin  i,  and  the  no  less  celebrated  Cuzzoni,  had 

{>arts.  Farinello  from  the  very  beginning  was  acknowl- 
edged to  have  the  superiority  by  a  mezza  di  voce,  though 
the  rival  theatre  was  favoured  by  the  king  and  the  princess 
of  Orange,  of  whom  the  latter  had  been  Handel's  scholar. 
By  this  inferiority  it  fell  into  a  debt  of  nine  thousand 

The  desire  of  exciting  admiration,  and  of  captivating  the 
ear  mare  than  the  mind  of  an  auditor,  still  adhered  to  him, 
but  his  good  fortune  provided  him  with  an  opportunity  of 
discovering  and  correcting  this  error.  During  his  youth 
he  was  three  times  at  Vienna.  In  the  year  1732  he  wa$ 
there  declared  chamber- singer  to  his  imperial  majesty. 
The  emperor  Charles  VI.  shewed  him  great  affection,  partly 
on  account  of  his  excellency  as  a  singer,  and  partly  also 
because  he  spoke  the  Neapolitan  dialect  with  great  form* 
ality  and  drollery.  The  emperor  was  a  pice  judge  of  singing^ 
and  would  frequently  accompany  him  on  the  harpsichord* 
One  day  he  entered  into  a  friendly  conversation  with 
kirn  on  music,  and  praised  indeed  his  wonderful  force  au4 


BR08CHI.  €7 

dexterity  in  this  art,  but  blamed  the  too  great  affectation 
©fan  excellence  which  does  not  touch  the  heart.  "  Choose,*1 
said  he,  "  a  simpler  and  easier  method  ;  and  be  sure  that, 
with  the  gifts  wherewith  you  are  so  richly  endowed  by  na- 
ture, you  will  captivate  every  hearer."  This  advice  had 
such  an  effect  on  Farinello,  that  from  that  hour  he  struck 
out  into  a  different  manner.  He  confessed,  himself,  to 
Dr.  Burney,  that  the  emperor's  gracious  advice  had  had 
more  effect  upon  him  than  all  the  lessons  of  his  teachers, 
and  all  the  examples  of  his  brother  artists.  Whoever  is 
desirous  of  knowing  more  concerning  the  perfection  he 
bad  reached  in  the  art  he  professed,  will  get  all  the  sa- 
tisfaction he  can  require  on  that  head,  by  perusing  the 
"  Riflessioni  sopra  il  canto  figurato"  of  Giovanni  Baptista 

From  the  moral  failings  to  which  theatrical  performers 
are  commonly  addicted,  he  was  either  totally  free,  or  in- 
dulged them  with  moderation.  At  first  he  was  fond  of 
gaming,  but  after  some  time  he  forsook  it  entirely.  He 
behaved  with  sigular  probity  to  the  managers  of  the  opera. 
As  they  paid  him  richly,  he  made  it  a  point  of  honour  to 
promote  their  interest  as  far  as  it  depended  on  him.  For 
this  reason  he  carefully  avoided  every  thing  that  might  be 
a  hindrance  to  him  in  the  fulfilling  of  his  engagements.  He 
even  set  himself  a  strict  regimen,  and  moderated  himself  in 
his  amusements.  He  was  so  conscientious  on  this  head,  that 
be  would  not  for  any  consideration  be  prevailed  on  to  let  a 
song  be  heard  from  him  out  of  the  theatre  ;  and,  during 
his  three  years  stay  in  England,  he  constantly  passed  the 
spring  season  in  the  country,  for. the  sake  of  invigorating 
his  lungs,  by  breathing  a  free  and  wholesome  air.  In  his 
expences  he  was  fond  of  elegance,  yet  he  indulged  it 
without  extravagance ;  so  that  even  before  he  left  Italy,  he 
had  already  laid  out  a  capital  upon  interest  at  Naples,  and 
bad  purchased  a  country-house,  with  lands  about  it,  si- 
tuated at  the  distance  of  Italian  mile  from  Bologna, 
By  degrees  he  rebuilt  the  mansion  in  a  sumptuous  style, 
itk  hopes  of  making  it  a  comfortable  retreat  for  his  declining 
years :  and  there  he  afterwards  ended  his  life. 

In  the  year  1737,  when  he  had  reached  the  summit  af 
fame,,  he  appeared  for  the  last  time  on  the  stage  at  London ; 
from  whence  he  departed  for  the  court  of  Spain,  whither 
he  was  invited  through  the  solicitations  of  queen  Elizabeth, 
who  had  known  his  excellence  at  Parma.     Her  design  was, 

F  2 

68  B  R  O  S  C  HI. 

by  the  ravishing  notes  of  this  great  master,  to  wean  her 
spouse  king  Philip  V.  from  his  passion  for  the  chace,  trf 
which  his  strength  was  no  longer  adequate.  On, his  way 
to  Madrid,  he  had  the  honour  to  give  a  specimen  of  his 
talents  before  the  French  king  at  Paris J  and  we  are  told 
by  Riccoboni,  that  all  the  audience  were  so  astonished  at 
hearing  him,  that  the  French,  who  otherwise  detested  the 
Italian  music,  began  from  that  time  to  waver  in  their  no- 
tions. He  had  scarcely  set  his  foot  in  Madrid,  but  the 
king  hastened  to  hear  him ;  and  was  so  much  taken  with 
the  agreeableness  of  his  song,  that  he  immediately  settled 
on  him,  by  a  royal  edict,  a  salary  equal  to  what  he  had 
received  in  England,  together  with  an  exemption  from  all 
public  taxes,  as  a  person  destined  to  his  familiar  converse ; 
aijd  granted  him,  besides,  the  court  equipages  and  livery, 
free  of  all  expence.  He  could  not  pass  a  day  without  him ; 
not  only  on  account  of  his  vocal  abilities,  but  more  on  ac- 
count of  the  agreeable  talents  he  possessed  for.  conversa- 
tion. He  spoke  French  and  Italian  elegantly,  had  some 
knowledge  of  the  English  and  German,  and  in  a  short  time 
learnt  the  Castilian.  By  his  courtesy  and  discretion  he 
gained  the  affection  of  every  one.  In  his  converse  he  was 
sincere  to  an  uncommon  degree,  even  towards  the  royal 
personages  who  honoured  him  with  their  intimacy ;  and  it 
was  chiefly  this  that  induced  the  monarch  to  set  so  high 
a  value  on  him.  JH is  first  words,  when  he  waked  in  the 
morning,  were  regularly  these :  "  Let  Farinello  be  told 
that  I  expect  him  this  evening  at  the  usual  hour."  To- 
wards midnight  Farinello  appeared,  and  was  never  dis- 
missed till  break  of  day,  when  he  betook  himself  to  rest, 
in  the  apartments  assigned  him  in  the  palace,  though  he 
had  likewise  a  house  in  the  city.  To  the  king  he  never 
sung  more  than  two  or  three  pieces ;  and,  what  will  seem 
almost  incredible,  they  were  every  evening  the  same. 
Excepting  when  the  king  was  to  go  to  the  holy  sacrament 
on  the  following  day,  Fariuello  was  never  at  liberty  to  get 
a  whole  night's  sleep. 

Farinello  had  as  great  an  affection  for  the  king,  as  that 
prince  had  for  him  ;  and  had  nothing  more  at  heart  than 
to  cheer  and  enliven  bis  spirits  :  and  indeed  herein  he  had 
the  happy  talent  of  succeeding  to  admiration,  though  him- 
self was  inclined  to  melancholy.  Under  Ferdinand,  Philip's 
successor,  he  had  an  ampler  field  for  the  display  of  his  ge- 
nius and  skill.     This  monarch  had  a  good  ear  for  music, 


and  knew  how  to  judge  properly  of  it;  as  he  had  studied 
under  Domenico  Scarlatti,  who  had  likewise  been  tutor  to 
queen  Barbara,  whose  taste  in  music  was  exquisite.  As 
king  Philip  had  given  Farinello  the  charge  of  selecting  re- 
creations and  amusements  suitable  to  his  calm  and  gentle 
disposition,  a  variety  of  new  institutions  were  set  on  foot 
through  his  means  at  court.  Operas  were  only  used  to  be 
performed  on  very  solemn  and  extraordinary  occasions ;  the 
nation  at  large  was  contented  with  comedies.  They  now 
began  to  grow  more  common;  and  Farinello,  though  he 
played  no  part  in  them,  had  the  management  of  the  whole. 
He  possessed  all  the  qualities  that  were  requisite  for  the 
direction  of  an  opera.  For,  with  a  perfect  knowledge  of 
music,  he  had  great  skill  in  painting,  and  made  drawings 
with  a  peft.  He  was  fruitful  in  inventions,  particularly,  of 
such  machines  as  represent  thunder,  lightning,  rain,  hail, 
and  tire  like.  The  celebrated  machinist  Jacob  Bonavera 
formed  himself  under  his  direction.  In  regard  to  the  mo- 
rality of  the  theatre  he-  was  very  conscientious.  Under 
bis  direction  all  went  on  at  the  king's  expence  ;  and  none 
but  persons  in  the  service  of  the  royal  family,  the  ministers 
from  foreign  potentates,  the  nobility,  with  the  principal 
officers  of  state,  and  a  few  others,  by  particular  favour, 
had  admittance.  In  his  country-house  near  Bologna  are 
to  be  seen,  among  other  paintings,  those  from  whence 
Francis  Battagliuoli  copied  the  scenes  in  the  operas  Niteti, 
Didone,  and  Armida. 

Besides  the  choice  and  arrangement  of  the  royal  amuse- 
ments, Farinello  was  employed  in  various  other  matters  that 
required  a  delicate  taste.  Queen  Barbara  having  resolved 
on  an  institution  for  the  education  of  young  ladies,  our 
singer  was  pitched  upon  not  only  to  plan  and  direct  the 
erection  of  the  convent,  and  the  proper  retirade  for  the 
queen  adjoining,  but  he  gave  orders  for  the  making  of  the 
furniture  suitable  to  the  structure  ;  and  the  church  vessels, 
which  he  caused  to  be  executed  with  incredible  alacrity, 
at  Naples,  Bologna,  and  Milan.  He  himself  made  ado- 
nation  to  this  establishment  of  a  picture,  by  the  hand  of  the 
celebrated  MorigUo,  of  St.  John  de  Dio,  founder  of  the 
brethren  of  mercy,  carrying  a  sick  man  on  his  back.  He 
was  likewise  inspector  of  the  music  of  the  royal  chapel ; 
which  he  provided  with  the  most  noted  spiritual  composi- 
tions, by  which  the  chapel  of  his  holiness  at  Rome  is  dis- 
tinguished above  all  others. 

10  B  R  O  8  C  H  I. 

King  Ferdinand  had  purposed  all  along  to  feWard  "thfr 
ingenuity  and  attachment  of  Farinello  by  splendid  promo- 
tions. He  had  already  offered  him  several  posts  of  honbftr,' 
and  at  length  pressed  him  to  accept  of  a  place  in  the  royal 
council  of  finance.  But,  on  his  refusing  them  all,  the 
king  privately  found  means  to  get  from  Naples  the  attes- 
tations of  his  nobility,  that  he  might  honour  him  with  the 
order  of  Calatrava.  One  day,  holding  up  to  him  the  cross 
of  the  order,  he  said  to  him,  "  Let  us  se3  then  whether 
thou  wilt  persevere  in  refusing  every  thing  fchdt  comes 
from  our  hand."  Farinello  fell  on  his  knee  'before  the 
king,  and  begged  him  graciously  to  withhold  this  honour, 
at  least  till  he  could  have  the  proofs  of  the  genuine  no- 
bility of  his  blood  fie  prove  del  sangue)  transmitted  him 
from  home.  "  I  have  already  performed  the  pare  of  a  sur- 
geon," returned  the  king,  "  and  have  found  that  thy  blood 
is  good ;"  and  then  with  his  own  hand  fixed  the  cross  upon 
his  breast.  He  afterwards  received  the  order  with  all  due 
formality  from  the  graud  master,  in  the  convent  of  the 
ladies  of  Comthury  of  Calatrava,  among  the  archives 
whereof  the  originals  of  it  are  preserved. 

The  world  were  not  a  little  surprised  at  the  elevation  of 
Farinello.  But  to  those  who  looked  narrowly  into  his  mo* 
ral  character  it  was  no  wonder  at  all ;  and  they  rejoiced  at 
it.  He  had  nothing  in  him  of  what  are  called  the  airs  of  a 
courtier.  He  enjoyed  the  favour  of  the  monarch  more  in 
being  serviceable  to  others,  than  in  turning  it  to  his  own 
emolument.  When  right  and  equity  spoke  in  behalf  of 
any  one,  that  person  might  be  sure  of  his  interest  with  the 
king ;  but,  if  the  case  was  reversed,  he  was  immoveable  as 
a  rock.  One  of  the  great  men  applied  to  him  once  for  his. 
recommendation  to  be  appointed  viceroy  of  Peru,  and 
offered  him  a  present  of  400,000  piastres  by  way  of  in-, 
ducement.  Another  sent  him  a  casket  filled  with  gold,, 
desiring  no  other  return  than  his  friendship.  He  gene- 
rously spurned  at  the  proposals  of  both.  General  Monte- 
mar  had  brought  with  him  from  Italy  a  great  number  of 
musicians  and  other  artists,  who,  on  the  disgrace  of  that 
officer,  were  all  left  destitute  of  bread.  Farinello  took 
them  into  his  protection,  and  furnished  them  with  the 
means  of  gaining  a  livelihood.  Among  them  was  Jacob 
Campana  Bonavera,  whom  he  placed  as  assistant  to  the 
machinist  Pa  via,  and  afterwards  promoted  him  to  the  in- 
spectorship of  the  royal  theatre.    Theresa  Castellini  of 

B  R  O  S  C  H  I. 

Milan,  the  singer  who  had  heen  called  by  queen  Barbara 
to  Madrid,  and  who  at  that  time  had  a  greater  disposition 
than  qualification  for  the  art,  he  took  under  his  instruction, 
and  completed  her  for  her  employment.  In  the  dreadful 
distresses  that  ensued  upon  the  earthquake  at  Lisbon, 
when  the  vocal  performers  and  dancers  implored  his  as- 
sistance, to  the  collection  he  made  for  them  from  the  royal 
family  and  his  friends,  he  added  two  thousand  doubloons 
from  his  own  private  purse.  Disposed  as  he  was  to  be 
liberal  in  bis  bounty  towards  others,  he  found  it  no  less 
difficult  to  ask  for  any  thing  that  had  reference  to  himself. 
It  was  not  by  his  recommendation,  but  by  his  own  deserts, 
that  his  brother  Riqcardo  was  promoted  to  the  office  of 
commissary  at  war  for  the  marine  department.  This  Ric- 
cardo  died  in  1756,  in  the  flower  of  his  age.  He  had  been 
master  of  the  band  in  the  service  of  the  duke  of  Wurtem- 
berg ;  and  a  musical  work  printed  at  London  is  a  proof  of 
his  force  and  skill  in  composition. 

He  was  also  grateful  and  generous  towards  every  one 
that  had  shewn  him  any  kindness*.  Never  was  he  heard 
to  speak  ill  of  any  man;  and  when  he  was  injured,  he 
magnanimously  overlooked  it.  There  are  even  examples 
of  his  heaping  favours  on  some  that  shewed  themselves 
envious  and  malignant  towards  him.  To  a  Spanish  noble- 
man who  murmured  that  the  king  testified  so  much  muni- 
ficence to  a  castrato,  he  made  no  other  return  than  by 
procuring  for  his  son  a  place  he  applied  for  in  the  army, 
and  delivering  to  him  himself  the  king's  order  feu;  his  ap- 
pointment. He  was  in  general  extremely  circumspect  not 
to  distinguish  himself  by  any  thing  by  which  he  might 
excite  the  envy  and  jealousy  of  the  nation  against  him. 
Hence  it  was,  that  he  constantly  declined  accepting  the 
comthury  of  the  order  of  Calatrava,  which  the  king  had  so 

*  He  frequently  sent  his  former  in- 
structress, Porpora,  considerable  pre- 
sents in  money  to  London,  Vienna,  and 
Naples  ;  but  on  no  account  would  be 
have  her  near  him,  she  was  of  so  im- 
prudent and  loquacious  a  temper.  On 
the  death  of  Antonio  Beroacchi,  he 
had  him  buried  wirh  great  funeral 
pemp.  The  misfortunes  of  Crudeli, 
the  Florentine  poet,  who  bad  addressed 
tome  verses  to  him,  he  took  very  much 
to  heart ;  yet  it  is  by  no  means  probable 
that  he  had  any  share  in  the  forcible 
deliverance  ef  him  from  the  dungeoas 

of  the  inquisition;  By  his  bounty  Tie 
supported  the  family  of  the  painter 
Amiconi,  who  died  much  too  early  fur 
them  that  knew  him  ;  and  that  of  the 
vocal  musician  Scarlatti,  who  had 
fallen  into  poverty  by  indulging-  in 
play.  Free  from  every  spice  of  jea- 
lousy, he  furnished  the  singers  Egi- 
zielle,  Raf,  Atnadari,  Garducci,  Car- 
lani,  and  others,  with  an  opportunity 
of  shewing  their  talents  in  the  presence 
of  the  king,  by  whom,  th.ey  were  richly 



frequently  offered  him;  beseeching  him  rather,  to  bestow 
it  on  one  of  his  deserving  subjects.  His  generous  way  of 
thinking  was  not  unnoticed  by  the  Spaniards.  Every  one 
courted  his  friendship.  The  grandees  of  the  kingdom,  the 
foreign  and  domestic  ministers,  vouchsafed  him  their  visits, 
and  he  was  never  wanting  in  due  respect  for  their  civilities* 
Towards  persons  of  inferior  stations  he  was  always  conde- 
scending and  friendly*. 

To  put  away  all  suspicion  of  self-interested  views,  he 
made  it  a  condition  in  the  disbursements  for  the  $qt$rtain« 
ments  of  the  king  and  queen,  that  all  accounts  should  pass 
through  the  hands  of  a  treasurer  appointed  for  that  pur- 
pose, which  were  always  with  the  utmost  exactitude  en* 
tered  in  a  book.  He  was  zealously  devoted  to  the  Roman 
catholic  religion.  He  kept  his  domestic  chaplain  at  Lon- 
don, as  he  had  obtained  a  permission  from  Benedict  XIV. 
to  have  a  portable  altar  during  his  residence  there,  and  to 
have  mass  celebrated  at  it  in  the. chapel  in  his  house.  To 
this  ecclesiastic  he  always  gave  precedence  on  all  occa- 
sions. Indeed,  while  in  England,  he  ate  flesh  on  Fridays 
and .  Saturdays ;  but  then  he  had  a  licence  for  it  from 
Jtome.  Who  would  have  thought  that  so  brilliant  a  suc- 
cess Would,  be  brought  to  an  end  in  the  course  of  a  very 
short  period?  King  Ferdinand  and  queen  Barbara  were 
both  of  them  in  the  flower  of  their  age  ;  both  healthy  and 
strong.  Yet  death  carried  them  off  in  a  short  space,  one 
after  the  other.  The  queen  went  first,  'and  left  Farineilo 
ner  collection  of  music  and  her  harpsichords,  as  a  token 
of  regard.  The  king,  who  loved  her  tenderly,  fell  into  a 
deep  dejection  of  spirits.  To  get  away  from  the  doleful 
pounds  of  the  death-bells,  be  retired  to  the  pleasure-house 
of  Villa  Viciosa,  where  his  excessive  melancholy,  after  a 
space  of  fourteen  days,  laid  him  on  the  bed  of  sickness. 
Farineilo  was  called  to  him  the  day  after  his  departure 

*  His  taylor  one  day  brought  him 
home  a  new  suit  of  very  rich  clothes. 
Farineilo  was  in  the  act.of  paying  him. 
his  bill,  when  he  was  suddenly  stopped 
by  the  man's  telling  him  that  he  would 
much  rather  he  would  grant  him  ano- 
ther favour  instead  of  it.  "  I  come 
backwards  and  forwards  so  often,  said 
be,  to  your  excellency's  bouse ;  I  have 
90  frequently  the  honour  to  take  your 
orders  and.  try  on  your  clothes  j  but  I 
have  never  had  the  happiness  to  hear 
your  heavenly  strains,  with  the  praise 

whereof  the  whole  court  resounds.  I 
beseech  you  then  not  to  take  it  amiss, 

if  I  ask" He  had  finished  no 

more  of  bis  speech,  when  Farineilo, 
with  a  friendly  smile,  interrupted  him 
by  taking  a  chair  to  the  .harpsichord, 
and  beginning  a  song  with  the  same, 
energy  aud  execution  as  when  he  sang 
before  his  majesty.  This  done,  he  or- 
dered bis  secretary  to  pay  him  double 
the  amount  of  his  bill.  By  such  me* 
tbods  be  gained  the  love  of  all  men, 
both  of  high  and  low  degree. 

B  R  O  S  C  H  L 


from  Madrid,  and  never  quitted  him  till  he  was  no  more. 
He  died  the  10th  of  August,  1759,  of  a  rapid  decline,  in 
the  46th  year  of  his  age,  after  a  sickness  of  eleven  months 
from  the  death  of  the  queen. 

The  loss  of  such  a  friend,  and  the  consequences  of  it, 
were  extremely  distressing  to  Farinello.  The  king  had 
hardly  closed  his  eyes,  but  the  favourite's  apartments  were 
as  solitary  as  a  desert.  Friends  and  acquaintance,  whom 
he  had  loaded  with  benefits,  now  turned  their  backs  upon 
him,  and  a  general  revolution  took  place  in  his  affairs. 
Two  days  after  the  king's  death  he  returned  to  Madrid* 
and  there  remained  till  the  arrival  of  king  Charles  from 
Italy.  He  went  as  fac  as  Saragossa  to  meet  him,  to  thank 
him  for  the  assurance  he  had  given  him  of  continuing  his 
appointment.  The  king  received  him  very  graciously, 
and  confirmed  the  promise  be  had  already  made  him  the 
foregoing  year,  at  the  same  time  adding,  that  he  was  in- 
duced to  this  by  his  moderation  and  discretion,  and  that 
he  was  thoroughly  convinced  that  he  had  never  abused  the 
king's  partiality  for  him.  After  a  stay  of  three  weeks  at 
Saragossa,  he  bent  his  course  towards  Italy,  without  re* 
turning  to  Madrid,  where  he  had  commissioned  a  friend 
to  send  his  baggage  after  him.  In  Italy  his  first  care,  was 
to  wait  upon  don  Philippo  duke  of  Parma,  and  the  king  of 
Naples,  who  gave  him  a  very  gracious  reception^  The 
joy  which  his  old  friends  and  patrons  testified  on  his  re- 
tarn  to  Naples  is  not  to  be  described.  After  remaining 
here  six  months,  he  repaired  to  Naples  by  the  way  of  Bo- 
logna, where  he  passed  the  rest  of  his  days  in  tranquillity*. 

In  the  year  176$,  when  the  emperor  Joseph  II.  w^s 
travelling  through  Bologna,  though  his  stay  was  to  be  but 
short  in  that  place,  one  of  the  first  questions  he  asked  was, 

*  In  the  number  of  his  most  inti- 
mate friends  was  the  celebrated  father 
Martini,  of  the  order  of  Minorites, 
whose  equal  in  respect  to  taste  in  vocal 
performances  rs  not  easily  to  be  found. 
The  learned  world  is  indebted  to  Fari- 
nello for  tbe  appearance  of  his  famous 
**  History  of  Music,"  Bernacchi,  the 
common  friend  of  both,  was  informed 
of  his  intension,  and  at  the  same  time, 
of  bis  irresolution,  on  account  of  the 
numberless  difficulties  he  had  to  sur- 
mount in  so  great  an  undertaking.  He 
made  Farinello, acquainted  with  all  the 
circumstances  of  the  matter ;  who  im* 

mediately  told  him,  that  he  might  give 
father  Martini  to  know,  that  queen  Bar- 
bara had  graciously  condescended  to 
accept  of  bii  dedication  of  his  "  His* 
tory  of  Music."  The  good  man,  who 
had  never  once  thought  of  hoping  for 
Fuch  an  encouragement,  now  deter, 
mined  not  to  disappoint  the  kind  inten- 
tions of  his  friend ;  wrote  a  letter  of 
thanks  to  the  queen,  and  applied  him- 
self to  his  History  with  Unremitted  di- 
ligence. He  was  the  confessor,  the 
counsellor,  and  the  firmest  friend  of 
Farinello  to  the  last  moment  of  bU 

74  B  R  OS  CHI. 

where  Farinello  had  taken  up  his  abode  ?  and  on  being  told 
that  he  dwelt  just  without  the  city,  he  testified  some  dis- 
pleasure ;  and  added,  that  a  man  who  possessed  so  great 
a  force  of  genius,  had  never  injured  any  one,  but  had 
done  all  the  good  that  lay  in  his  power  to  mankind,  was 
worthy  of  every  token  of  respect  that  could  be  paid  him. 
But  the  emperor  on  his  return  stopped  longer  at  Bologna, 
and  Farinello  had  the  honour  of  conversing  with  him  often 
for  a  length  of  time,  and  quite  alone. 

In  the  very  lap  of  ease,  rest  was  a  stranger  to  Farinello' s 
bosom.  As  some  veteran  mariner,  long  aecustomed  to 
great  and  perilous  voyages,  cannot  endure  the  tediousness 
of  abiding  in  harbour,  so  it  was  with  Farinello's  active 
mind.  He  feh  the  effects  of  that  melancholy  to  which  he 
Was  disposed  by  nature,  growing  on  him  from  day  to  day; 
and  which  was  nourished  and  augmented  by  the  continual 
sight  of  the  portraits  of  his  distant  and  for  the  most  part 
deceased  friends,  with  which  his  apartments  were  adorned: 
His  voice  continued  clear  and  melodious  to  the  last.  He 
still  sung  frequently,  and  he  alone  perceived  the  depre- 
dations of  time,  while  his  friends  who  heard  him  observed 
ijo  defect.  During  the  three  last  weeks  of  his  life,  like 
what  is  fabled  of  the  dying  swan,  he  sung  almost  every 
day.  He  died  the  16th  of  September,  1782,  of  a  fever, 
in  the  78th  year  of  bis  age,  without  the  least  abatement  of 
his  intellectual  powers  throughout  his  illness.  He  left  no 
wealth  behind  him  ;  as  while  he  was  in  Spain  he  had  always 
lived  up  to  his  annual  income,  and  what  remained  over  to  him 
while  in  Italy,  he  shared  among  his  relations  and  friends 
and  the  necessitous,  during  his  life-time.  His  land,  his 
pleasure-house  at  Bologna,  and  all  the  rest  of  his  property, 
among  which  were  several  harpsichords  of  great  value,  and 
the  music  he  had  inherited  from  the  queen,  he  left  to  his 
eldest  sister,  who  was  married  to  Giovanni  Domenica 
Bisani,  a  Neapolitan.  His  corpse  was  interred  in  the 
church  of  the  Capuchins,  which  stands  on  a  hill  before 
Bologna.  He  was  of  a  very  large  stature,  strong  built,  of 
a  fair  complexion,  and  a  lively  aspect.  His  picture, 
which  is  to  be  seen  among  the  portraits  and  works  of  the 
famous  vocal  artists  collected  by  father  Martini,  in  the 
library  of  the  minorites  at  Bologna,  is  a  perfect  likeness.1    , 

\  Dr.  Burney's  Travels,  and  Hist*  of  Music— Hawkins's  Hilt,  of  Music, 


BROS  SARD    (Sebastian    de),    an   eminent   French 
musician,    born  in   1660,   in  the  former  part  of  his  life 
had  been  prebendary  and  chapel -master  of  the  cathedral 
church    of    Strasburgh,    but.  afterwards    became    grand 
chaplain  and  cbapel-master  in  the  cathedral  of  Meaux. 
He    published    a  work  entitled   "  Prodromus  Musicalis, 
ou   elevations  et  motets  a  voix  seule,    avec   une   Basse 
continue,"    2   vols.    fol.    the    second    edition    in    1702; 
but  his  most  useful  book  was  his  "  Dictionnaire  de  Mu- 
sique,"  Amst.  1702;  fol.  at  the  end -of  which  is  a  catalogue 
of  authors,  ancient  and  modern,  to  the  amount  of  nine- 
hundred,  who  have  written  on  music,  divided  into  classes^ 
with  many  curious  observations  relating  to  the  history  of 
music,  which  have  been  of  great  service  to  musical  writers* 
and  historians.   Grassineau's  Dictionary,  published  in  P.740,' 
is  not  much  more  than  a  translation  of  Brossard's  work ; 
it  was  also  of  great  service  to  Rousseau,  whose  eloquence 
has  certainly  furnished  us  with  a  more  pleasant  book,  yet* 
Rousseau  is  acknowledged  to  be  most  correct  where  he 
most  closely  copies  Brossard.     Brossard  died  in  1730.  •  He* 
had  a  numerous  library  of  music,  which  he  presented  to' 
Louis  XIV.  who  gave  himself  a  pension  of  1200  livres,  andt 
the  same  sum  to  his  niece.1 

.  BROSSE  (Guy  de  la),  physician  in  ordinary  to  Louis 
XIII.  obtained  from  that  king,  in  1626,  letters  patent  for 
the  establishment  of  the  royal  garden  of  medicinal  plants, 
of  which  be  was  the  first  director.  He  immediately  set 
about  preparing  the  ground,  and  then  furnished  it  with 
upwards  of  2000  plants.  The  list  of  them  may  be  seen  in 
his"  Description  du  jardin  royale,"  1636,  4to.  Richelieu, 
Seguier,  and  Bullion,  contributed  afterwards  to  enrich  it. 
He  composed  a  treatise  on  the  virtues  of  plants,  1628,  8vo, 
and  before  this,  in  1623,  one  on  the  plague.  He  died  in 
1641.  ■ 

BROSSES  (Charles  de),  a  French  writer  of  great 
learning,  was  born  at  Dijon,  in  \1Q9,  and  became  a  coun- 
sellor of  parliament,  in  1730,  and  president  i  mortier  in 
1742.  During  the  leisure  which  his  public  employments 
afforded,  he  cultivated  most  of  the  sciences,  and  was  al- 
lowed to  be  well  acquainted  with  all.  Voltaire  only  has 
attacked  his  literary  reputation,  and  this  his  countrymen 
ascribe  to  the  malice  which  that  writer  was  seldom  anxious 
to  conceal.     Buffon,  on  the  contrary,  regarded  him  as  a ' 


1  More ri. — Hawkins's  Hist,  of  Music. — Diet.  Hist. 
•  Moreri.— Haller  BiW.  But— Diet  Hist 

1*  B  R  O  S  S  £  S. 

scholar  of  the  first  rank,  an  acute  philosopher,  and  an  ori- 
ginal and  valuable  writer;  nor  was  he  less  estimable  in 
private  life.  In  1774  he  was  appointed  president  of  the 
parliament  of  Burgundy,  but  died  soon  after,  at  Paris,  in 
1777,  whither  he  had  come  to  visit  his  married  daughter* 
He  was  a  member  of  the  academy  of  Dijon,  of  the  inscrip- 
tions and  belles  lettres,  and  other  learned  societies.  He 
wrote  :  1.  "  Lettres  sur  la  Decouverte  de  la  ville  d'Hercu- 
laneum,"  1750,  8vo.  2.  "  Histoire  des  Navigations  aux 
Terres  Australes,"  175*5,  2  vols.  4to,  in  which  he  endea- 
voured to  prove  the  existence  of  a  southern  continent, 
which  subsequent  navigators  have  disproved.  3.  *'  Du 
culte  des  dieux  Fetiches,  ou  parallele  de  1'ancienne  ido- 
latrie  avec  celle  des  peuples  de  Nigritie,"  1760,  12mo, 
a  piece  which  has  been  improperly  attributed  to  Voltaire. 
4.  "  Traite  de  la  formation  mecanique  des  Langues," 
1765,  2  vols.  12 mo,  in  which  he  attempts  a  general  ety- 
mological system  founded  on  the  mechanical  formation  of 
articulate  sounds  ;  but  his  countrymen  allow  that  he  leans 
too  much  to  paradox,  which  certainly  has  long  been  an 
extensive  branch  of  French  philosophy.  5.  "  Histoire  de 
la  Republique  Romaine  dans  la  coursduVII  siecle,  par 
Salluste,"  Dijon,  3  vols.  4to.  This  may  be  accounted  his 
principal  work,  and  was  long  his  principal  employment. 
He  was  so  sensible  of  the  loss  of  Sallust's  principal  work, 
that  be  resolved  to  collect  his  fragments  with  greater  care 
than  had  ever  been  employed  before ;  and  by  the  mosi 
accurate  arrangement  to  trace  out  as  near  as  possible  the 
pl$u  and  chief  features  of  that  work,  and  then  to  connect 
these  fragments  in  the  manner  of  Freinshemius  in  his 
"  Fragmenta  Livii."  But  as  De  Brosses  soon  became 
sensible  of  the  difficulty  of  assimilating  his  Latin 'diction 
tp  that  of  Sallust,  he  changed  his  first  design,  and  resolved 
on  translating  both  the  fragments  and  his  author's  histories 
of  the  Catilinarian  and  Jugurthine  wars  into  French,  and 
to  attempt  to  supply  the  lost  work  from  other  ancient 
writers.  The  first  volume  opens  with  a  preface  containing 
remarks  on  the  various  methods  of  writing  history,  and 
some  information  concerning  Roman  names,  ranks,  magis- 
tracies, and  elections.  The  body  of  the  work  itself  begins 
with  a  translation  of,  and  commentary  on,  Sallust's  Jugur- 
thine war.  The -notes  subjoined  to  this  part  treat  chiefly 
of  the  geography  and  population  of  Africa,  and  the  text  is 
illustrated  by  a  map  of  Africa,  a  plan  of  MetelWs  march 

B  R  O  8  8  E  S.  77 

against  Jugurtha,  and  its  illustration  by  a  military  con- 
noisseur.    After  this  follows  the  restoration  of  Sallust's  fivg 
books,  continued  in  vol.  II.  comprizing  the  war  with  Mi- 
thridates  :  a  description  of  the  Pontus  Euxinus,  with  the 
adjacent  countries ;  the  Gladiatorian  war,  raised  by  Spar-* 
tacus,  and  the  war  of  Creta.     The  third  volume  contains  a 
translation  of  the  Catilinarian  war,  with  its  sequel,  illus- 
trated with  historical  and  political  notes ;  Sallust's  two  let- 
ters  to  Caesar^  commonly  styled  "  Orat.  de  Rep.  ordinan- 
ce," which  De  Brosses  considers  a?  genuine ;  a  very  mi- 
nute collection  of  all  the  notices  of  Sallust's  life,  writings, 
gardens,  buildings,  and  even  of  the.  remains  discovered  in 
Jater   times.     The  whole   concludes  with  the  abbfe  Cas- 
sagne's  "  Essay  on  the  Art  of  composing  History,  and  on 
the  works  of^Sallusc"     Industrious  as  M.  de  Brosses  has 
been  in  this  work*,  we  believe  that  in  the  life  of  Sallust,  at 
least,  he  has  been  improved  upon  by  Henry  Stuart,  esq. 
in  bis  late  elaborate  publication,  "  The  works  of  Sallust,9' 
1806,  2  vols.  4to.     Besides  these,  De  Brosses  contributed 
many  learned  papers  to  the  Paris  and  Dijon  memoirs,  but 
bis  family  disown  3  vols,  of  "  Lettres  historiques  et  cri- 
tiques sur  l'ltalie,"  published  in  1799*  in  his  name.  1 

BROSSETTE  (Claude),  of  France,  was  born  at  Lyons 
in  1671*     He  was  at  6rst  a  Jesuit,  but  afterwards  an  ad- 
vocate, a  member  of  the  academy  of  Lyons,  and  librarian 
of  the  public  library  there.     In  1716,  he  published  the 
works  of  Boileau,  in  2  vol?.  4to,   with  historical  illustra- 
tions-:   and,  after  that,  the  works  of  Regnier.      He  re- 
formed the  text  of  both  these  authors  from  the  errors  of 
the  preceding  editions,  and  seasoned  his  notes  with  many 
useful  and  curious  anecdotes  of  men  and  things.     His  only 
fault,  the  fault  of  almost  all  commentators,  is,  that  he  did 
not  use  the  collections  he  had  made  with  sufficient  sobriety 
and  judgment;  and  has  inserted  many  things,  no  ways  ne- 
cessary to  illustrate  ins  authors,  and  some  that  are  even 
frivolous.     He  wrote  also  "  L'Histoire  abr£g£e  ville 
de  Lyon,'9  with  elegance  and  precision,   1711,  4to;  and 
died  there  in  1746.     He  had  a  friendship  and  correspond- 
ence  with   many  of  the   literati,    and   particularly   with 
Rousseau  the  poet,  and  Voltaire.     The  latter  used  to  tell 
him,  that  he  "  resembled  Attic  us,  who  kept  terms,  and 
^ven  cultivated  friendship,  at  the  .same  time  with  Caesar 

*  DkL  HisL    Elogc  in  Hist.  Acfli.  Re;.  Park.  vol.  XUL 

78  B-ROSSfiTTE. 

and  Pompey.".'   The  enmity  between  Rousseau  and  Voir- 
taire  is  well  known. l 

.  BROTIER  (Gabriel),  an  eminent  classical  scholar  and 
editor,  was  born  at  Tanay,  a  small  village  of  the  Niver- 
nois,  i(i  1722,  and  died  at  Paris,  Feb.  12,  1789,  at  the 
age  of  '67.  In  his  youth  he  made  it  his  practice  to  write 
notes  in  every  book  that  he  read ;  and  the  margins  of  seve- 
ral in  his  library  were  entirely  filled  with  them.  Until  his 
l$st  moment  he  pursued  the  same  method  of  study.  All 
tbeee,  he  arranged  wonderfully  in  his  memory;  and  if  it 
had  been  possible  after  his  death  to  have  put  his  papers  in 
that  order  which  he  alone  knew,  they  would  have  furnished 
materials  for  several  curious  volumes.  With  this  method, 
and  continued  labour  for  twelve  hours  a  day,  the  abb£ 
Brotier  acquired  an  immense  stock  of  various  knowledge. 
Except  the  mathematics,  to  which  it  appears  he  gave  little 
application,  he  was  acquainted  with  every  thing ;  natural 
history,  chemistry,  and  even  medicine.  It  was  his  rule 
to  read  Hippocrates  and  Solomon  once  every  year  in  their 
original  languages.  These  \he  said  were  the  best  books 
fpr  curing  the  diseases  of  the  body  and  the  mind.  But  the 
belles-  lettres  were  his  grand  pursuit.  He  had  a  good 
knowledge  of  all  the  dead  languages,  but  particularly  the 
Latin,  of  which  he  was  perfectly  master:  he  was  besides 
acquainted  with  most  of  the  languages  of  Europe.  This 
knowledge,  however  extensive,  was  not  the  only  part  in 
which  he  excelled.  He  was  well  versed  in  ancient  and 
modern  history,  in  chronology,  coins,  medals,  inscriptions, 
and  the  customs  of  ami  qui  ty,  which  had  always  been  ob- 
jects of  his  study.  He  had  collected  a  considerable  quan- 
tity of  materials  for  writing  a  new  history  of  France,  and 
it  is  much  to  be  regretted  that  he  was  prevented  from  un- 
dertaking that  work.  The  akbe'  Brotier  recalls  to  our  re- 
membrance those  laborious  writers,  distinguished  for  their 
learning,  Petau,  Sirmond,  Labbe,  Cossart,  Hardouin,  Sou- 
ciet,  &c.  wjio  have  done  so  much  honour  to  the  college 
of  Louis  XIV.  in  which  he  himself  was  educated,  and  where 
he  lived  several  years  as  librarian  ;  and  his  countrymen 
say  he  is  the  last  link  of  that  chain  of  illustrious  men,  who 
have  succeeded  one  another  without  interruption,  for  near 
two  centuries,  On  the  dissolution  of  the  order  of  Jesuits, 
the  abb£  Brotier  found  an  asylum  equally  peaceful  and 

»  M*r^U~D;ct.  Hift 


agreeable  in  the  house  of  Mr.  de  la  Tour,  a  printer,  emi- 
nent in  his  business)  who  has  gained  from  ail  connoisseur* 
a  just  tribute  of  praise  for  those  works  which  have  come 
from  his  press.     It  was  in  this  friendly  retirement  that  th* 
abbe  Brotier  spent  the  last  twenty-six  years  of  his  life,  and 
that  he  experienced  a  happiuess,  the  value  of  which  he 
knew  how  to  appreciate,  which  arose  from  the  care,  atten- 
tion, and  testimonies  of  respect,  bestowed  upon  him  both 
by  Mr.  and  Mrs.  de  la  Tour.    It  was  there  also  that  h* 
published  those  works  which  will  render  his  name  immor- 
tal ;  an  edition  of  Tacitus,  enriched  not  only  with  notes 
and  learned  dissertations,  but  also  with  supplements,  which 
sometimes  leave  the  reader  in  a  doubt,  whether  the  mo* 
dern  writer  is  not  a  successful  rival  of  the  ancient:  this 
was  first  published  in  1771,  4  vols.  4 to,  and  reprinted  in, 
1776,  in  7  vols.  8vo.     He  published  also  in  1779,  6  vols. 
12 mo,  an  edition  of  Pliny  the  naturalist,  which  is  only  a 
short  abridgment  of  what  he  had  prepared  to  correct  and 
enlarge  the  edition  of  Hardouin,  and  to  give  an  historical 
§eries,  of  all  the  new  discoveries  made  since  the  beginning 
of  this  century;  an  immense  labour,  which  bespeaks  the 
most  extensive  erudition.     To  these  two  editions,  which 
procured  the  abbe  Brotier  the  applauses  of  all  the  literati 
in  Europe,  he  added  in  1778,  8vo,  an  edition  of  Rapin  on 
gardens,  at  the  end  of  which  he  has  subjoined  a  history  of 
gardens,  written  in  Latin  with  admirable  elegance,  and 
abounding  in  the  most  delightful  imagery :  for  the  abb6 
was  not  one  of  those  pedants,  according  to  the  expression 
of  the  poet,   "  heriss^s  de  Grec  &  de  Latin  j"   he  pos- 
sessed a  lively  imagination,  and  a  fine  taste,  with  clearness 
and  perspicuity ;  and  above  all,  a  sound  judgment,  which 
never  suffered  him  to  adopt  in   writing  any  thing  that 
was  not  solid,  beautiful,  and  true.     His  other  works  are, 
I.  "  Examen  de  l'Apologie  de  M.  I'Abbe*  de  Prades,"  1753, 
8vo.     2.  "  Conclusiones  ex  universa  Theologia,"    1754, 
4to.     3.  "  Traite  des  Monnoies  Romaines,  Grecques,  et 
Hebr.  comparers  avec  les  Monnoies  de  France,  pour  1' in- 
telligence de  TEcriture  Sainte,  et  de  tous  les  auteurs  Grec* 
et  Roinains,"  1760,  4to.     4.  "  Prospectus  d'une  edit.  Lat. 
de  Tacite,"    17G1,  5  vols.   4to.   5.  "  Supplementa,  lib.  7. 
10  Anpal.  Taciti,"  1755,  8yo.     6.  "  CI.  viri  de  la  CaiU* 
vita,"   1763,  4to.     7.  "  Phajdri  Fabularum,    lib.  v<  cum 
jiotis  et  suppl.  .access.  Parallel  a  J.  de  la  Fontaine  Fabulae," 
1785,  12mo.    8.  "Memoire  du  Levaut,"  1780,  and  ane.dU 

30  B  R  O  T  I  E  K. 

tion  of  "  Brumoy's  Theatre,"  1785,  13  vols.  8vo.  In  1790 
his  nephew  published  his  "  Parolles  Memorabies,"  a  work 
x>{  which  Mr.  Seward  has  made  great  use  in  his  "  Anec- 

We  shall  conclude  this  account  of  the  amiable  abbe  with 
his  character  as  drawn  by  his  friend  the  abb6  de  Fontenay. 
"  That  intimate  and  sincere  friendship,"  says  he,  u  which 
united  me  to  the  abbe  Brotier,  gratitude  for  the  services 
which  he  did  me,  his  talents  and  his  virtues,  will  always 
endear  his  memory  tome;  and  I  may  justly  say,  that  his 
death,  though  lamented -by  many  good  men,  was  lamented 
by  none  more  deeply  than  by  me."  However  great  may 
have  been  the  merit  of  this  learned  man,  not  less  conspi- 
cuously eminent  for  the  qualities  of  his  heart  than  for  those 
of  his  head,  one  must  have  been  intimate  with  him  to  form 
a  just  and  true  idea  of  his  character.  As  often  as  my  avo- 
cations would  permit,  I  indulged  tayself  in  the  pleasure  of 
his  company,  and  many  delightful  hours  I  have  spent  with 
him.  Humble  and  unassuming,  modest,  and  even  to  a 
degree  of  timidity  that  caused  him  to  blush  when  the  least 
encomium  was  passed  upon  him ;  good-tempered,  plain  in 
his  manner,  and  giving  himself  up  to  society  with  the 
smiles  and  simplicity  of  a  child,  his  conversation  was  en* 
gaging,  aud  always  instructive  when  it  turned  upon  sub- 
jects of  literature  or  science.  Widely  differing  in  this 
respect  from  those  men  of  letters  who  are  misers,  if  we 
may  say  so,  of  their  knowledge,  and  who  seem  to  hoard  it 
only  for  themselves,  or  to  make  an  ostentatious  display  of 
it  in  some  publication,  the  abbe*  Brotier  readily  replied  to 
the  questions  of  those  who  sought  information  from  him, 
and  instructed  those  around  him  with  the  utmost  affability' 
and  condescension.  I  confess,"  continues  the  abbe*  Fon- 
tenay, '<  that  need  of  consulting  him  induced  me  often  to 
visit  him  ;  and  I  can  declare  that  whatever  questions  I  put 
to  him,  I  never  found  him  in  one  instance  wrong.  He 
either  satisfied  me  immediately  respecting  my  queries,  or 
pointed  out  those  books  in  which  I  found  what  I  wanted  to 
know.  He  left  a  nephew  of  the  same  name,  who  is  in  the 
church.  He  is  pursuing  his  yncle's  steps  in  the  same  de- 
partments of  erudition,  and  has  already  published  works 
which  sufficiently  evince  the  progress  he  has  made." ' 

»  Diet.  Hut.— SaxU  Oiwontt  vol.  VIIL 


BROUGHTON  (Hugh),  a  divine  of  great  eminence  for 
his  extensive  knowledge  in  Hebrew  and  rabbinical  learning, 
was  descended  from  an  ancient  family,  and  born  in  1549, 
at  Oldbury,  in  the  county  of  Salop.  Dr.  Ligbtfoot  says, 
that  it  is  uncertain  in  what  school  he  was  instructed  >  in 
grammar,  but,  according  to  the  writers  of  the  life  of  Ber- 
nard Gilpin,  he  was  brought  up  in  the  school  founded  by 
that  excellent  man  at  Houghton,  and  by  him  sent  to  Cam- 
bridge. Gilpin  is  said  to  have  become  acquainted  with  him 
by  accident,  when  he  was  a  poor  boy  travelling  on  the  Ox* 
ford  road,  and  finding  him  a  good  scholar,  took  the  charge 
of  bis  farther  education.  The  biographer  of  Gilpin  adds, 
apparently  upon  slender  foundation,  that  Broughton  acted 
with  ingratitude  to  Gilpin,  when  the  latter  was  old  and 
infirm^  and  persuaded  the  bishop  of  Durham  to  give  him  a 
living  intended  for  Gilpin. 

Ac  Cambridge,  Broughton  became  one  of  the  fellowa  of 
Christ's  college,  and  there  laid  the  first  foundation  of  his 
Hebrew  studies,  under  a  Frenchman,  who  read  upon  that 
tongue  in  the  university.  His  parts  and  learning  soon 
rendered  him  very  conspicuous  at  Cambridge,  and  also 
attracted  the  notice  of  the  earl  of  Huntingdon,  who  be* 
came  a  liberal  patron  to  him,  and  greatly  encouraged  him 
in  his  studies.  From  the  university  he  repaired  to  London, 
where  he  distinguished  himself,  as  a  preacher,  and  in- 
creased the  number,  of  his  friends,  some  of  whom  were  of 
high  rank.  He  still,  however,  continued  to  prosecute  his 
studies  with  the  most  unremitting  assiduity  ;  so  that  he  is 
said  frequently  tp  have  spent  sixteen  hours  out  of  the  four- 
and  -twenty  at  iiis  books  *.        ; 

In  1588,  he  published  a  piece,  entitled  "  The  Consent  * 
of  Scriptures/'  This  was  a  work  in  which  he  was  em- 
ployed several  years;  and  which,  therefore,  he  used  to 
call  his  "  little  book  of  great  pains."  It  is  a  kind  of  scrip- 
ture chronology,  and  scripture  genealogies,  and  appears 
to  have  been  compiled  with  great  labour.  It  was  dedicated 
to  queen  Elizabeth,  to  whom  it  was  presented  by  himself, 
on  her  inauguration  day,  Nov.  17,  1589  f.     He  appears 

*  The  author  of  his  life  in  the  Biog.  there  is  not  some  reason  to  suspect  that 

Brit  takes  no  notice  of  his  having  been  Hutchinson's  Broughton  was1  a  different 

collated  to  a  prebend  of  Durham,  Nov.  person. 

*J»  1578,  and  to  Washington  rectory,  f  Query.  Was  this  the  copy  on  vel- 

May  6,  1580,  when  he  resigned  his  lum  mentioned  by  Mr.  Dibdin  in  his 

prebend.    Hutchinson's  Durham,  vol*  Bibliomania,  and  once  in  Mr.  Tutet's 

u.  p.  209.   But  we  know  not  whether  possession } 

Vol.  VII.  G 





to  have  had  some  assistance  in  it  from  Speed,  who  over- 
looked the  press,  and  compiled  those  genealogies1  which 
are  prefixed  to  the  old  Bibles ;  but  Broughtqn  certainly 
directed  and  digested  them.  Speed  is  said  to  have  owed 
many  obligations  to  Brougbton,  and  had  a  vast  number  of  his 
manuscripts,  which,  for  whatever  reason*  •  he  burnt  But, 
to  return  to  the  "  Consent  of  Scripture ;"  it  excited  much 
attention  at  its  first  publication,  but  was  strongly  opposed 
by  Dr.  Reynolds  at  Oxford.  This  gave  great  offence  to 
Mr.  Broughton,  who  had  a  very  earnest  and  absurd  desire 
to  have  the  dispute  between  him  and  Dr.  Reynolds,  con- 
cerning the  scripture  chronology,  settled  by  public  au- 
thority. He  addressed  on  this  subject  queen  Elizabeth, 
Dr.  Whitgift,  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and  Dr.  Aylmer, 
bishop  of  London.  His  work  was  opposed,  not  only  at 
Oxford,  but  at  Cambridge,  where  Mr.  Lively,  a  professor, 
read  publicly  against  it.  He  was,  therefore,  induced  to 
read  lectures  in  defence  of  his  performance,  which  he  did 
first  in  St.  PauPs,  at  the  east  end  of  the  church,  and  after- 
wards in  a  large  room  in  Cheapside,  and  in  Mara>lane*. 

He  continued  several  years  in  London,*  where  he  pro- 
cured many  friends.  One  of  these  was  Mr.  William 
Cotton,  whose  son  Rowland,  who  was  afterwards  knighted, 
he  instructed  in  the  Hebrew  tongue*  In  1589  Mr.  Brough- 
ton went  over  into  Germany,  accompanied  by  Mr.  Alex- 
ander Top,  a  young  gentleman  who  had  put  himself 
under  his  care,  and  travelled  with  him,  that  he  might 
continually  receive  the  benefit  of  his  instructions.  He  was 
some  time  at  Frankfort,  where  he  had  a  long*  dispute  in 
the  Jewish  synagogue,  with  rabbi  Elias,  on  the  truth  of 
the  Christian  religion.  He  appears  to  have  been  very  so- 
licitous for  the  conversion  of  the  Jews,  and  his  taste  for 

*  "  This  was  his  course  of  teaching 
in  private.  His  auditors  had  every 
ene  of  them  the  Consent  before  him, 
and  he  went  on  still  in  exposition  of  it 
along  with  the  Bible,  and  bad  his  au- 
ditors diligently  read  the  Scriptures, 
and  keep  them  to  the  chronology  of  it : 
and  shewed  what,  and  how  much  they 
should  read  against  their  next  meeting, 
to  be  prepared  for  his  discourse  then, 
.and  withal  handled  the  Genealogies,  as 
the  matter  of  those  scriptures  called 
for  explication  for  that  time  of  the. 
chronology;  that  they  should  under- 
stand  what  scriptures  were  contained 

within  such  a  space  of  time.  And  still 
he  shewed  the  doctrine  of  faith  and 
love  in  Christ  Jesus  in  every  age,  how 
believed  and  practised  by  the  faithful, 
and  who  despised.  And,  in  applica- 
tion, he  would  sum  up  all  in  a  quarter 
of  an  hour,  or  more,  as  the  matter  re- 
quired. Of  these  his  lectures  there 
are  yet  extant  the  notes  of  four-and- 
thirty,  and  the  notes  of  nine  of  his 
sermons,  in  which  he  collated  the  sec- 
tions of  Moses,  and  the  Prophets,  wit  a 
the  New  Testament :  all  taken  from  his 
mouth,  when  he  delivered  them."1'— 
Lightfeot's  preface  to  his  works. 

B  R  O  U  G  H  t  O  N.  ** 

.rabbinical  aad  Hebrew  studies  naturpdly  led  him  to  take 
pleasure  in  the  conversation,  of  those  learned  Jews  whom  he 
occasionally  met  with.  In.  the  course  of  his  travels,  he 
had  also  disputes  with  the  papists ;  but  in  his  contests  both 
with  them  and  with  the  Jews,  be  was  not  very  attentive  to 
the  rules  either  of  prudence  or  politeness.  It  appears, 
that  in  1590  he  was  at  Worms  ;  but  in  what  other  places  ia 
not  mentioned.  In  1591  be  returned  again  to  England, 
and  met  at  London  with  his  antagonist  Or.  Reynolds  ;  and 
they  referred  the  decision  of  the  controversy  between 
them,  occasioned  by  his  "  Consent  of  Scripture,"  to  Dr, 
Whitgift,  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and  Dr.  Aylnjer, 
bishop  of  London.  Another  piece  which  he  published* 
entitled  "  An  Explication  of  the  article  of  Christ's  Descent 
.to  Hell/'  was  a  source  of  much  controversy,  though  his 
opinion  on  this  subject  is  now  generally  received.  Two 
of  his  opponents  in  this  controversy  were  archbishop  Whit* 
gift  and  bishop  Bilson.  He  addressed  on  this  subject 
"  An  Oration  to  the  Geneveans,"  which  was.  first  published 
in  Greek,  at  Mentz,  by  Albinus.  In  this  piece  be  treats 
the  celebrated  Beza  with  much  severity.  In  1592  he  was 
in  Germany  again,  and  published  a  piece  called  "  The 
Sinai  Sight,"  which  he  dedicated  to  the  earl  of  Essex,  and 
had  the  odd  whim  of  having  it  engraved  on  brass,  at  a  con- 
siderable expence.  About  the  year  1596,  rabbi  Abraham 
Reuben  wrote  an  epistle  from  Constantinople  to  Mr. 
Broughton,  which  was  directed  to  him  in  London ;  but 
he  was  then  in  Germany.  He  appears  to  have  continued 
abroad  till  the  death  of  queen  Elizabeth;  and  during  his 
residence  in  foreign  countries,  cultivated  an  acquaintance 
with  Scaliger,  Raphelengius,  Junius,  Pi?torius,  Serrarius, 
and  other  eminent  and  learned  men.  He  was  treated  with 
particular  favour  by  the  archbishop  of  Mentz,  to  whom  he 
dedicated  his  translation  of  the  Prophets  into  Greek.  He 
was  also  offered  a  cardinal's  hat,  if  he  would  have  em- 
braced the  Romish  religion.  But  that  offer  he  refused  to 
accept,  and  returned  again  to  England,  soon  after  the  ac- 
cession of  king  James  I.  In  1603  he  preached  before 
prince  Henry,  at  Oatlands,  upon  the.  Lord's  Prayer.  In 
1607  the  new  translation  of  the  Bible  was  begun  ;  and  Mr. 
Jfroughton's  friends  expressed  much  surprize  that  he  was 
not  employed  in  that  work.  It  might  probably  be  disgust 
on  this  account,. which  again  occasioned  him  to  go  abroad; 
and  during  his  stay  there,  he  was  for  some  time  preacher 

Q  2 


to  the  English  at  Middleburgh.     But  finding  his  health 
decline,  having  a  consumptive  disorder,  which  he  found 
to  increase,  he  returned  again  to  England  in  November, 
1611.     He  lodged   in  London,   during  the  winter,   at  a 
friend's  house  in  Cannon-street ;  but  in  the  spring  he  was 
removed,  for  the  benefit  of  the  air,  to  the  house  of  another 
friend,  at  Tottenhaih  High-cross,  where  he  died  of  a  pul- 
monary consumption  on  the  4th  of  August,  1612,  irt  the 
sixty-third  year  of  his  age.     During  his  illness  he  made 
such 'occasional  discourses  and  exhortations' to  his  friends, 
as  his  strength  would  enable  him;  and  he  appears  to  have 
had  many  friends  and  admirers  even  to  the  last.     His 
corpse  was  brought  to  London,  attended  by  great- numbers 
of  people,  many  of  whom  had  put  themselves  in  mourning1 
for  him  ;  and  interred  in  St.  Anthbtin's  church,  where  his* 
funeral  sermon  was  preached  by  the  rev.  James  Speght, 
B.  D.  afterwards  D.  D.  minister  of  the  church  in  Milk- 
street,  London.     Lightfoot  mentions  it  as  a  report,  that 
the  bishops  would  not  suffer  this  sermOn  to  bis  published ; 
but  it  was  afterwards  printed  at  the  end  of  his  works, 

His  person  was  comely  and  graceful;  and  his  counte- 
nance expressive  of  studiousness  and  gravity.     His  indefa- 
tigable attention  to  his  studies,  gave 'htm' an  air  of  austerity; 
and,  at  times,  there  appears  to  have  been  no  inconsi- 
derable degree  of  moroseness  in  his  deportment u.  notwith- 
standing which,  he  is  represented  as  behaving  in'  a  very 
kind  and  affable  manner  t6  his  friends,  and  asb&ngvery 
pleasant  in  conversation  with  them,  especially  at  his  meals; 
He  would  also  be  free  and  communicative  to  any  persons 
who  desired  to  learn  of  him,  but  very  angry  with  scholars^ 
if  they  did  not  readily  comprehend  his  meaning.     Oped 
impiety  and  profaneness  were  always  opposed  by  him  with 
great   zeal  and  courage.     He  was  much   dissatisfied,  as 
appears  fronrseveral  passages  in  his  works,  that  his  great 
learning  had  not  procured  him  more  encouragement,  and 
he  evidently  thought  that  he  had  a  just  claim  to  some 
considerable  preferment.     He  was  unquestionably  a  man* 
of  very  uncommon  erudition,  but  extremely  deficient  in 
taste  and  judgment.     He  was  also  of  a  testy  and  choleric 
temper,  had  a  high  opinion  of  his  own  learning  and  abi- 
lities, was  extremely  dogmatical,  and  treated  those  who 
differed  from  him  in  opinion  with  much  rudeness  and  scur- 
rility ;  though  some  allowance  must  be  made  for  the  age  in 
which  he  lived,  in  which  that  mode  of  writing  was  much 


more  common  among  divines  and  scholars  than  it  is  at  pre- 
sent. From  the  general  tenor  of  his  life  and  of  his  works, 
and  the  opinion  formed  of  him  by  those  who  were  the  best 
acquainted  with  him,  it  seems  equitable  to  conclude,  that, 
with  all  his  failings,  he  meant  well;  nor  do  we  apprehend 
that  there  is  any  sufficient  ground  for  the  extreme  severity 
with  which  the  late  Mr.  Gilpin  has  treated  him  in  his  "  Life 
of  Bernard  Gilpin.'*  He  translated  the  Prophetical  wri- 
tings into  Greek,  and  the  Apocalypse  into  Hebrew.  He 
was  desirous  of  translating  the  whole  New  Testament 
into  Hebrew,  which,  he  thought  would  have  contributed 
much  to  the  conversion  of  the  Jews,  if  he  had  met  with 
proper  encouragement,  And  he  relates,  that  a  learned 
Jew  with  whom  he  conversed,  once  said  to  him,  "  O  that 
you  would  set  over  all  your  New  Testament  into  such  He- 
brew as  you  speak  to  me,  you  should  turn  all  our  nation/' 
Most  of  his  works  were  collected  together,  and  printed  at 
London  in  1662,  under  the  following  title:  "  The  Works 
of  the  great  Albionean  divine,  renowned  in  many  nations 
for  rare  skill  in  Salems  and  Athens  tongues,  and  familiar 
•acquaintance  with  all  Rabbinical  learning,  Mr.  Hugh 
•Brrfughton."  This  edition  of  his  works,  though  bound  in 
one  large  volume,  folk),  is  divided  into  four  tomes.  Dr. 
Lightfoot,  who  was  himself  a-  great  master  of  Hebrew 
and  -  rabbinical  .learning,  says*  that  in  the  writings  of 
Brougbton,  "  the  serious  and  impartial  student  of  them 
will  find  these  two  things.  First,  as  much  light  given  in 
scripture,  especially  in  the  difficultest  things  thereof,  as  is 
to  be  found  in  any  oue  author  whatsoever ;  nay,  it  may  be, 
in  all  authors  together.  And,  secondly,  a  winning  and 
enticing  enforcement  to  read  the  scriptures  with  a  serious- 
ness ami  searching  more  than  ordinary.  Amongst  those 
that  have  studied  his  books,  multitudes  might  be  named 
that  have  thereby  grown  proficients  so  far,  as  that  they 
have  attained  to  a  most  singular,  and  almost  incredible 
-skill  and  readiness,  in  his.  way,  in  the  .understanding  of 
the  Bible,  though  otherwise  unlearned  men.  Nay,  some 
such,  that,  by  the  mere  excitation  of  his  books,  have  set 
£o  the  study  of  the  Hebrew  tongue,  and  come  to  a  very 
great  measure  of  knowledge  in  it ;  nay,  a  woman  might  be 
named  that  hath  done  it.  This  author's  writings  do  carry 
with  them,  I  know  not  what,  a  kind  of  holy  and  happy 
fascination,  that  the  serious  reader  of  them  is  won  upon, 
by  a  sweet  violence!   to  look  in   the  scripture  with  all 

86  broughton; 

possible  scrutraoasness,  and  cannot  choose.  Let  any  one 
but  set  to  read  him  in  good  earnest,  and,  if  be  find  not, 
that  he  sees  much  more  in  scripture  than  ever  he  could 
see  before,  and  that  he  is  stirred  up  to  search  much  more 
narrowly  into  the  scripture  than  ever  he  was  before,  he 
misseth  of  that  which  was  never  missed  of  before  by  any 
that  took  that  course,  if  multitude  of  experiences  may 
have  any  credit.*'  It  will  justly  be  thought  in  the  present 
age,  that  Dr.  Lightfoot  formed  too  high  an  opinion  of  the 
value  of  Broughtoa's  writings;  but  in  whatever  estimation 
they  may  now  be  held,  the  celebrity  of  Broughton  in  his 
own  time,  and  his  extraordinary  learning,  gave  him  a  rea- 
sonable claim  to  some  memorial  in  a  work  of  this  kind. 
Many  of  his  theological  MSS.  are  preserved  in  the  British 
Museum,  of  which  a  list  is  given  in  Ayscough's  catalogue. l 

BRQUGHTON  (Richard),  a  popish  ecclesiastical  his- 
torian,  was  born  at  Great  Stukely  in  Huntingdonshire,  and 
studied  for  some  time  at  Oxford,  but  it  does  not  appear 
that  he  entered  any  college,  and  only  seems  to  have  re- 
sided there  for  the  purpose  of  consulting  the  public  library. 
He  received  his  regular  education  at  the  English  college 
at  Rheims,  and  took  priest's  orders  in  1593.  He  was  after- 
wards sent  into  England  as  a  missionary,  and  promoted  the 
popish  interest  as  far  as  lay  In  his  power,  without  giving 
public  offence.  <  He  died  in  1634,  and  was  buried  in  the 
church  of  Great  Stukely.  His  principal  works  were,  "  An 
Ecclesiastical  History  of  Great  Britain  ;  from  the  Nativity 
to  the  conversion  of  the  Saxons,"  Doway,  1633,  fol.  re- 
plete with  legendary  matter ;  "  A  True  Memorial  .of  the 
ancient,  most  holy,  and  religious  state  of  Great  Britain, 
&c.  in  the  time  of  the  Britons,  and  primitive  church  of. 
the  Saxons,"  1650,  8vo;  and,  "  Monastioon  Britannicum," 
1655,  8vo.* 

BROUGHTON  (Thomas),  a  learned  divine,  and  one 
of  the  original  writers  of  the  Biographia  Britannica,  was 
"born  at  London,  July  J,  1704,  in  the  parish  of  St.  An- 
drew, Holborn  ;  of  which  parish  his  father  was  minister. 
At  an  early  age  he  was  sent  to  Eton-school,  where  he  soon 
distinguished  himself  by  the  acuteness  of  his  genius  and 
the  studiousness  of  his  disposition.  Being  superannu- 
ated joii  this  foundation,  be  removed,  about  1722,  to  the 

l  Biqg.  Brit— Strype*i  Whitgift,  p.  81,  382/  431,  481,  499,  516,  526,  589, 
?fcere  there  are  many  curious  particulars  illustrative  of  Broughton's  history* 
•  Alfa.  Ox.  vol.  1.— Dodd'9  €h.  Hist,  vol  IIL— Fuller's  WerUtiet. 

B  »  O  U  G  HT  O  N.  S7 

university  of  Cambridge ;  and,  for  the  sake  of  a  scholar* 
ship,  entered  himself  of  Gonville  and  Caius  college.  Here 
two  of  the  principal  objects  of  hi*  attention  were,  the  ac- 
quisition ,  of  the  knowledge  of  the  modern  languages,  and 
the  study  of  the  mathematics,  under  the  famous  professor 
Sanderson.  May  28,  1727,  Mr.  Broughton,  after  taking 
the  degree  of  B.  A.  was  admitted  to  deacon's  orders.  .  In 
the  succeeding  year,  Sept..  22,  he  was  ordained  priest,  and 
proceeded  to  the  degree  of  M.  A.  At  this  tiiqe  he  re* 
moved  from  the  university  to  the  curacy  of  Offley  in  Hert- 
fordshire. In  1739,  he  was  instituted  to  the  rectory  of  Ste- 
pington,  otherwise  Slibington,  in  the  county  of  Huntingdon, 
on  the  presentation  of  John  duke  of  Bedford,  and  was  ap- 
pointed one  of  that  nobleman's  chaplains.  Soon  after,  he  was 
chosen  reader  to  the  Temple,  by  which  means  he  became 
known,  to  bishop  Sherlock,  then  master  of  it,  who  con- 
ceived so  high  an  opinion  of  our  author's  merit,  that,  in  1 744, 
this  eminent  prelate  presented  Mr.  Broughton  to  the  valu- 
able vicarage  of  Bedminster,  near  Bristol,  together  with 
the  chapels  of  St.  Mary  Redcliff,  St.  Thomas,  and  Abbot's 
Leigh,  annexed.  Some  short  time  after,  he  was  collated, 
by  the  same  patron,  to  the  prebend  of  Bedminster  and 
Redcliff,  in  the  cathedral  of  Salisbury.  Upon  receiving 
this  preferment,  he  removed  from  London  to  Bristol,  where 
he  married  the  daughter  of  Thomas  Harris,  clerk  of  that 
city,  by  whom  he  had  seven  children,  six  of  whom  sur- 
vived him.  He  resided  on  his  living  till  his  death,  which 
happened  Dec.  21,  1774,  in  the  71st  year  of  his  age.  He 
was  interred  in  the  church  of  St.  Mary  Redcliff. 

From  the  time  of  Mr.  Broughton's  quitting  the  univer- 
sity, till  he  was  considerably  advanced  in  life,  he  was  en- 
gaged in  a  variety  of  publications ;  and  some  little  time 
before  his  death,  composed  "  A  short  view  of  the  principles 
Upon  which  Christian  churches  require,  of  their  respective 
.  clergy,  Subscription  to  established  Articles  of  Religion ;" 
but  this  work  never  appeared  in  print*  He  possessed, 
likewise,  no  ineousiderable  talent  for  poetry,  as  is  evident 
from  many  little  fugitive  pieces  in  manuscript,  found 
among  his  papers ;  and  particularly,  from  two  unfinished 
tragedies,  both  written  at  the  age  of  seventeen.  During 
his  residence  in  London,  he  enjoyed  the  esteem  and  friend- 
ship of  most  of  the  literary  men  of  his  time.  He  was  a 
great  lover  of  music,  particularly  the  ancient ;  which  in- 
troduced him  to  the  knowledge  and  acquaintance  of  Mr. 


Handel/  whom  he  fumisbed  with  the  words  for  many  of 
his  compositions.  In  his  public  character,  Mr.  Brougbton 
was  distinguished  by  an  active  zeal  for  the  Christian  cause, 
joined  with  moderation.  In  private  life,  be  was  devoted 
to  the  interests  and  happiness  of  bis  family ;  and  was  of  » 
mild,  cheerful,  and  liberal  temper.  This  disposition,  which 
is  not  always  united  with  eminent  literary  abilities,  at- 
tended him  to  his  grave.  In  1778,  a  posthumous  volume 
of  sermons,  on  select  subjects;  was  published  by  his  son, 
the  rev.  Thomas  Broughton,  M.  A.  of  Wadbam  college, 
Oxford,  and  vicar  of  Tiverton,  near  Bath.     « 

The  following  is  a  list  of  his  publications,  but  we  have 
not  .been  able  to  recover  the  dates  of  all  of  them : 
1.  *'  Christianity  distinct  from  the  Religion  of  Nature,  in 
three  parts ;  in  answer  to  Christianity  as  old  as  the  Crea- 
tion."    2:  u  Translation  of  Voltaire's  Tepnple  of  Taste." 

3.  "Preface  to  his  father's  letter  to  a  Roman  catholic." 

4.  "  Alteration  of  Dorrel  on  the  Epistles  and  Gospels  from 
a  Popish  to  a  Protestant  book,"  2  vols.  8vo.  5.  Part  of 
the  new  edition*  of  Bayle's  Dictionary  in  English,  cor- 
rected: with  a  translation  of  the  Latin  and  other  quota- 
tions; 6.  "  Jarvis's  Don  Quixote ;"  the  language  tho- 
roughly altered  and  corrected,  and  the  poetical  pajts  new 
translated.  7.  "  Translation  of  the  mottoes  of  the  Spec- 
tator, Guardian,  and  Freeholder."  8.  "  Original  poems 
and  translations,  by  John  Dry  den,  esq"  now  first  collected 
and  published  together,  2  vols.  9.  "  Translation  of  the 
quotations  in  Addison's  Travels,  by  him  left  untranslated." 
10.  "  The  first  and  third  Olynthiacs,  and  the  four  Philip- 
pics of  Demosthenes"  {by  several  hands),  revised  and  cor- 
rected ;  with  a  new  translation  of  the  second  Olynthiac, 
the  *  oration  de  Pace,  and  that  de  Chersoneso :  to  which 
are  added,  all  the  arguments  of  Libanius,  and  select  notes 
from  Ulpian,  8vo.  Lives  in  the ;  Biographia  Britannica, 
marked  T.  .11."  The  bishops  of  London  and  Winchester 
on  the  sacrament,  compared."  12.  "  Hercules,". a  musi- 
cal drama.  13.  "  Bibliotheca  historico-sacra,  an  Histori- 
cal dictionary  of  all  religions,  from  the  creation  of  the 
world  to  the  present  times,"  1756,  2  vols,  folio.  .14.  "  A 
defence  of  the  commonly-received  doctrine  of  the  Human 
Soul."  15.  "A  prospect  of  Futurity,  in  four  dissertations; 
with  a  preliminary  discourse  on  the  natural  and  moral  eYV» 
dence  of  a  future  state."  l  .   . 

»  Bio$.  Brit  vol.  II.  Preface, 



BROUNCKER  (William),  viscount  Brouncker,  of  .Cas- 
tle Lyons  in  Ireland,  son  of  sir  William  Brouncker,  after- 
wards made  viscount  in  1645,  was  born  about  1620;  and, 
having   received   an   excellent  education,    discovered   an 
early  genius  for  mathematics,  in  which  he  afterwards  be- 
came, very  eminent.     He  was  created  M.  D.  at  Oxford, 
June  23,   1646.     In  1657  and  165,8,  he  was  engaged  in  a 
correspondence,  on   mathematical  subjects  with  Dr.  John 
Wallis,  who  published  the  letters  in  his  "  Commercium 
Epistolicum,"  Oxford,  1658,  4 to.     He,  with  others  of  the 
nobility  and  gentry  who  had  adhered  to  king  Charles  I.  in  . 
and  about  London,  signed  the  remarkable  declaration  pub- 
lished in  April  1660.     After  the  restoration,  he  was  made 
chancellor  to  the  queen  consort,  and  a  commissioner  of  the 
navy.     He  was  one  of  those  great  men  who  first  formed 
the  royal  society,  and,  by  the  charter  of  July   15,   1662, 
and  that    of  April  22,     1663,    was    appointed    the  first 
president  of  it :  which  office  he  held  with  great  advantage 
to  the  society,  and  honour  to  himself,  till  the  anniversary 
election,  Nov.  30,  1677.     Besides  the   offices  mentioned 
already,  he  was  master  of  St.  Katherine's  near  the  Tower 
of  London  ;  his  right  to  which  post,  after  a  long  contest 
between  him  and  sir  Robert  Atkyns,  one  of  the  judges, 
was  determined  in  his  favour,  Nov.  1681.     He  died  at  his 
house  in   St.  James's  street,  Westminster,  April  5,   1684; 
and  was  succeeded  in  his  honours  by  his  younger  brother 
Harry,  who  died  Jan.  1687.     Of  his  works,  notwithstand- 
ing his  activity  in  promoting  literature  and  science,  there 
are  few  extant     These  are :  u  Experiments  on  the  re- 
coiling of  Guns,1'  published  in  Dr.  Sprat's  History  of  the 
Royal  Society ;  "  An  algebraical  paper  upon  the  squaring 
of  the  Hyperbola,"  published  in  the  Philosophical  Trans- 
actions.   (See  Lowthorp's  Abr.  vol.  I.  p.  10,  &c.) ;  "  Se- 
veral Letters  to  Dr.  James  Usher,  archbishop  of  Armagh/' 
annexed  to  that  primate's  life  by  Dr.  Parr ;  and  "  A  trans- 
ition of  the  Treatise  of  Des  Cartes,   entitled  Musicte 
Compendium,"  published  without  his  name,  but  enriched 
with  a  variety  of  observations,  which  shew  that  he  was 
deeply  skilled  in  the  theory  of  the  science  of  music.     Al- 
though he  agrees  with  his  author  almost  throughout  the 
book,  he  asserts  that  the  geometrical  is  to  be  preferred  to 
the  arithmetical  division  ;  and  with  a  view,  as  it  is  pre- 
sumed, to  the  farther  improvement  of  the  "  Systema  Par- 


ticipato,"  be  proposes  a  division  of  the  diapason  by  sixteen 
mean  proportionals  into  seventeen  equal  semitones;  the 
method  of  which  division  is  exhibited  by  him  in  an  alge- 
braic process,  acid  also  in  logarithms.  The  "  Systems 
Participator'  which  is  Mentioned  by  Bontempi,  consisted 
in  the  division  of  the  diapason,  or  octave,  into  twelve  equal 
semitones,  by  eleven  mean  proportionals.  Descartes,  we 
are  informed,  rejected  this  division  for  reasons  which  are 
far  from  being  satisfactory.  Mr.  Park,  in' his  edition  of 
lord  Orford's  "  Royal  aiid  Noble  Authors,"  to  which  we 
are  frequently  indebted,  points  out  an  original  commission, 
among  the  Sloanian  MSS.  from  Charles  II.  dated  White- 
hall, Dec.  15,  1674,  appointing  lord  Brouncker  and  others 
to  inquire  into,  and  to  report  their  opinions  of  a  method  of 
finding  the  longitude,  devised  by  Sieur  de  St.  Pierre.  * 

BROUSSON  (CiAUDi),  a  French  Protestant  and 
martyr,  was  born  at  Nismes,  in  1647,  He  was  an  id vo- 
<sate,  and  distinguished  by  his  pleadings  at  Castres  and 
Toulouse ;  and  it  was  at  his  house  that  the  deputies  of  the 
Protestant  churches  assembled  in  1663  :  where  they  took 
a  resolution  to  continue  to  assemble,  although  their  churches 
were  demolished.  The  execution  of  this  project  occa- 
sioned violent  conflicts,  seditions,  executions,  and  mas- 
aacres,  which  ended  at  length  in  an  amnesty  on  the  part  of 
Lewis  XIV.  Brousson  retired  then  to  Nismes;  but,  fearing 
to  be  apprehended  with  the  principal  authors  of  this  pro- 
ject, who  do  not  seem  to  have  been  comprised  within  the 
amnesty,  he  became  a  refugee  at  Geneva  first,  and  thence 
at  Lausanne.  He  shifted  afterwards  from  town  to  town, 
and  kingdom  to  kingdom,  to  solicit  the  compassion  of 
Protestant  princes  towards  his  suffering  brethren  in  France;* 
Returning  to  his  own  country,  he  travelled  through  se- 
veral provinces,  exercised  some  time  the  ministry  in  the 
Cevennes,  appeared  at  Orange,  and  passed  to  Berne,  in 
order  to  escape  his  pursuers.  He  was  at  length  taken  at 
Oleron,  in  1698,  and  removed  to  Montpellier ;  where, 
being  convicted  of  having  formerly  held  secret  corre- 
spondence with  the  enemies  of  the  state,  and  of  having 
preached  in  defiance  of  the  edicts,  he  was  broke  upon  the 
wheel  the  same  year.  He  was  a  man  of  great  eloquence 
as  well  as  zeal,  greatly  esteemed  among  strangers,  and 
•regarded  as  a  martyr  by  those  of  his  own  persuasion.    The 

*  feiof .  Prit— Atfa.  Ob.  voL  IL— Hawkiat'i  Hist,  of  Music. 


states  of  Holland  added  six  hundred  florins,  as  a  pension 
for  his  widow,  to  four  hundred  which  had  been  allowed  to 
her  husband.  His  writings  being  principally  those  which 
arose  out  of.  the  circumstances  in  which  the  reformed 
church  were  then  placed,  we  shall  refer  to  Moreri  for  the 
exact  titles  and  dates,  and  give  only  the  subjects,  namely: 
1.  "  The  state  of  the  reformed  in  France."  2.  "  Letters 
to  the  French  clergy  in  favour  of  the  reformed  religion/9 
3,  "  Letters  from  the  Protestants  in  France  to  all  other 
Protestants,"  printed  and  circulated  at  the  expence  of  the 
elector  of  Brandenburg.  4.  "  Letters  to  the  Roman  Ca- 
tholics." 5.  "  A  summary  relation  of  the  wonders  wrought 
by  God  in  the  Cevennes  and  Lower  Languedoc,  for  the 
consolation  of  his  church."  6.  A  volume  of  Sermons. 
7.  "  Remarks  on  Amelotte's  translation  of  the  New  Tes- 
tament ;"  and  some  religious  tracts,  which  he  published 
for  circulation  in  France. l 

BROUSSONET  (Peter  Augustus  Maria),  an  eminent 
French  naturalist,  was  born  at  Montpellier,  Feb.  28,  1761, 
where  his  father  was  a  reputable  schoolmaster,  and  soon 
discovered  in  him  an  insatiable  thirst  of  knowledge,  which 
we  may  conclude  he  assisted  him  in  gratifying.  At  the 
early  age  of  eighteen  he  was  appointed  by  the  university 
of  Montpellier  to  fill  a  professor's  chair,  and  six  years  after 
he  was  admitted  a  member  of  the  academy  of  sciences  by 
an  unanimous  vote,  a  case  which  had  not  occurred  from 
the  foundation  of  that  learned  body,  but  their  choice  ap- 
peared amply  justified  by  the  several  dissertations  on  na- 
tural history,  botany,  and  medicine,  which  he  published.  It 
was  bis  earnest  wish  to  establish  the  system  of  .Linnseus  more 
extensively  in  France.  With  this  view,  as  well  as  for  his  own 
improvement,  he  went  to  Paris,  and  examined  the  collec- 
tions and  museums,  but  not  finding  sufficient  materials  for 
his  purpose,  he  determined  to  visit  the  most  celebrated 
foreign  collections,  and  came  first  to  England,  where  he 
was  admitted  an  honorary  member  of  the  royal  society,  and 
where  he  began  his  labours  on  the  celebrated  work  on 
fishes.  On  his  return  to  Paris,  he  was  appointed  perpetual 
secretary  of  the  society  of  agriculture,  which  the  intendant 
Berthier  de  Sauvigny  resigned  for  him.  In  1789  he. was 
appointed  a  member  of  the  electoral  college  of  Paris,  and 
Kke  die  other  electors,  was  to  supply  such  vacancies  as 

*  DtaerwDicUHist. 


were  occasioned  by  any  interruptions  in  the  exercise  of  the? 
office  of  magistracy ;  and  the  day  it  was  his  torn  to  go  to 
the  Hotel  de  Ville,  he  saw  his  friend  and  protectbr,  Ber- 
thier,  barbarously  murdered  by  the  pop uface.  Broussonet 
was  then  ordered  to  superintend  the  provisions  of  the  ca* 
pital,  and  was  frequently  in  danger  of  his  life  at  that  tur- 
bulent period.  In  1791  he  had  a  seat  in  the  legislative 
assembly,  but  quitted  Paris  the  year  following  for  his 
native  city,  from  which  be  was  soon  obliged  to  make  his 
escape,  and  after  many  dangers,  arrived  at  Madrid,  where 
he  was  gladly  received,  and  liberally  assisted  by  the  lite- 
rati of  that  city.  There,  however,  the  French  emigrant* 
were  so  enraged  at  his  having  filled  any  office  under  the 
revolutionary  government,  th&t  they  obliged  him  to  leave 
Madrid,  and  soon  after,  Lisbon,  to  which  he  had  removed: 
At  hist  he  had  an  opportunity  of  going  out  as  physician  to 
an  embassy  which  the  United  States  sent  to  the  emperor 
of  Morocco,'  and  on  this  occasion, 'his  friend  sir  Joseph 
Banks,  hearing  of  his  distresses,  remitted  him  a  credit  for 
a  thousand  pounds.  After  his  arrival  at  Morocco,  he  em- 
ployed all  his  leisure  hours  in  extending  his  botanical 
Knowledge,  and  learning ;  that  his  native  country  was  re- 
covering from  its  late  anarchy,  he  solicited  and  obtained 
permission  to  return,  when  the  directory  appointed  him 
consul  at  the  Canaries.  In  consequence  of  this  he  resided 
for  two  years  at  Teneriffe.  In  1796,  on  his  return,  he 
was  admitted  a  member  of  the  Institute,  and  again  became 
professor  of  botany  at  Montpellier,  with  the  direction  of 
the  botanical  garden.  He  was  afterwards  chosen  a  mem- 
ber of  the  legislative  body,  but  died  July  27,  1807,  at 
Montpellier,  of  an  apoplectic  stroke.  It  •  was  to  him  that 
France  owes  the  introduction  of  the  Merino  sheep,  and 
Angola  goats.  His  publications  are :  K  "  Varies  positioned 
circa  Respirationem,"  Montpellier,  1778.  2*  "  Ichthyo- 
logia,  sistens  Piscium  descriptiones  et  icones,"  London, 
1782,   containing   descriptions  of  the  most    rare  fishes; 

3.  ."  Essai  sur  l'histoire  naturelle  del  quelques  especes  de 
Moines,  decrites  a  la  maniere  de  Linnie,"  1784,  8vd. 
This  is  the  translation  only  of  a  Latin  satire  on  the  monks, 
the  original  of  which  appeared  in   Germany,   in   1783. 

4.  *  Ann6e  rurale,  ou  calendrier  a Tusage  des  culrivateursj" 
Paris,  1787-8,  2  vols.  12mx>.  5.  "  Notes  pour  servir  a 
l'histoire  de  Tecole  de  medicine  de  Montpellier  pendant 
l'an  VI."  Montpellier,   1795,  8vOr  »  6.  <«  La  Feuille  dm 

B  R  O  U  S  S  O  N  E  T.  »» 

wdtivateur,"  1788,  and  following  years,  8  vols.  4to,  which 
he  conducted  with  Messrs.  Parmentier,  Dubois,  and  Le- 
febure.  He  contributed  also  a  great  many  dissertations  to 
the  academy  of  sciences,  •  the  society  of  agriculture,  &c. 
and  left  many  works  in  manuscript.  * 

BROUWER,  or  BRAUWER  (Adrian),   a  celebrated 
painter,  according  to  some,  was  born   at  Oudenarde,  in 
Flanders,  or  according  to  others,  at  Haerlem,  in  Holland, 
in  1608.     His  parents  were  of  the  poorer  sort.    His  mother 
sold  to  the  country  people  bonnets  and  handkerchiefs,  on 
which  Adrian,    when  almost  in  infancy,    used  to .  paint 
flowers  and  birds,  and  while  thus  employed,  was  disco- 
vered by  Francis  Hals,  an  eminent  artist,  who,   charmed 
with  the  ease  and  taste  he  displayed  in  his  art,  proposed  to 
take  him  as  an  apprentice,  and  Brouwer  did  not  long  he* 
sitate  about  accepting  such  an  offer.     His  master  soon 
discovered  his  superior  talents,  and  separated  him  from 
his  companions,  that  he  might  profit  the  better  by  him, 
locked  him  up  m  a  garret,  and  compelled  him  to  work, 
while  he  nearly  starved  him,  but  some  pieces  he  painted  by. 
stealth,  which  probably  irritated  his  jailor  to  be  more  watch- 
ful of  him.    By  the  advice,  however,  of  Adrian  Van  Ostade, 
one  of  his  companions,  he  contrived  to  make  his  escape, 
and  took  refuge  in  a  church.  ;  There,  almost  naked,  and 
not  knowing  where  to  go,  he  was  recognised  by  some  per- 
son, who  brought  him  back  to  his  master,  and  by  means  of 
a  suit  of  clothes  and  some  caresses,  effected  a  temporary 
reconciliation  ;  but  being  again  subjected  to  the  same  mer- 
cenary and  tyrannical  usage,  he  made  his  escape  a  second, 
time,  and  went  to  Amsterdam,  where  he  had  the  happiness 
to  find  that  his  name  was  well  known,  and  that  his  works 
bore  a  great  price.    A  picture  dealer  with  whom  he  lodged, 
gave  him  an  hundred  ducatoons-for  a  painting  represent- 
ing gamesters,  admirably  executed,  which  Brouwei*,  who 
had  never  possessed  so  much  pioney*  spent  in  a  tavern 
in  the   course  of  ten   days.     He  then  returned  to   his 
employer,    and  when  asked  what  he  had  done  with  his 
money,  answered  that  he  had  got  rid  of  it,  that  he  might 
be  more  at  leisure;   and  this  unfortunate  propensity  to 
alternate  work<and  extravagance  marked  the  whole  of  his 
future  life,  and  involved  him  in  many  ridiculous  adventures 
and  embarrassments  unworthy  of  a  man  of  genius.    As 

*  Diet.  Him 


soon  as  he  had  finished  any  piece,  he  offered  it  for  sale4, 
and  if  it  did  not  produce  a  stipulated  price,  he  burnt  it, 
and  began  another  with  greater  care.  Possessing  a  vein  of 
low  humour,  and  engaging,  both  sober  and  drunk,  in  many 
droll  adventures,  he  removed  from  Amsterdam  to  Antwerp, 
where  be  was  arrested  as  a  spy,  and  committed  to  prison. 
This  circumstance  introduced  him  to  an  acquaintance  with 
the  duke  d'Aremberg,  who,  having  observed  his  genius,  by 
some  slight  sketches  drawn  with  black  lead  while  in  cus- 
tody, requested  Rubens  to  furnish  him  with  materials;  for 
painting.  Brouwer  chose  for  his  subject  a  groupe  of  sol- 
diers playing  at  cards  in  a  corner  of  the  prison ;  and  when 
the  picture  was  finished,  the  duke  himself  was  astonished, 
and  Rubens,  when  lie  saw  it,  offered  for  it  the  sum  of  600 
guilders.  The  duke,  however,  retained  it,  and  gave  the 
painter  a  much  larger  sum.  Upon  this,  Rubens  procured 
his  release,  and  received  him  into  his  house ;  but,  unin- 
fluenced by  gratitude  to  his  benefactor,  he  stole  away,  and 
returned  to  the  scenes  of  low  debauch,  to  which  he  had 
been  formerly  accustomed*  Being  reduced  to  the  neces- 
sity of  flying  from  justice,  he  took  refuge  in  France ;  and, 
having  wandered  through  several  towns,  he  was  at  length 
constrained  by  indigence  to  return  to  Antwerp,  where  he 
was  taken  ill,  and  obliged  to  seek  relief  in  an  hospital ;  and 
in  this  asylum  of  self-procured  poverty  and  distress  he  died 
in  his  32d  year.  Rubens  lamented  his  death,  and  procured 
for  him  an  honourable  interment  in  the  church  of  the  Car- 

Such  were  the  talents  of  Brouwer,  that,  in  the  course  of 
p,  dissipated  life,  he  attained  to  distinguished  excellence  iu 
the  style  of  pointing  which  he  adopted.  His  subjects  were 
taken  from  low  life,  and  copied  after  nature ;  such  as 
droll  conversations,  feasts,  taverns,  drunken  quarrels,  boors 
playing  and  disputing  at  cards,  or  surgeons  dressing  the 
>vounded.  His  expression,  however,  is  so  lively  and  cha- 
racteristic ;  the  management  of  bia  colours  so  surprising ; 
and  truth  was  united  with  exquisite  high  finishing,  correct* 
ness  of  drawing,  and  wonderful  transparence,  to  such  a 
degree,  that  his  paintings  are  more  valuable,  and  afford 
higher  prices,  than  many  works  of  the  mos,t  eminent  ma&r 
ters.  Some  of  his  best  works  are  found  at  Dusseldorp.  His 
drawings  are  dispersed  in  the  various  cabinets  of  Europe* 
Several  of  his  designs  have  been  engraved  ;  and  we  have 
some  few  etchings  by  himself  of  subjects  usually  repre- 


rented  ia  bis  pictures,  which  are  signed  with  the  initials  of 
his  name,  H.  B. ;  Adrian  being  spelled  with  an  H. ' 

BROWER  (Christopher),  a  learned  Jesuit,  was  born 
at  Arnheim  in  1559,  and  entered  among  the  Jesuits  at  Co-* 
logne  ill  1580,  among  whom  he  was  distinguished  for  his 
talents.  He  taught  philosophy  at  Treves,  was  afterwards 
rector  of  the  college  of  Fulde,  and  chiefly  employed  at  his 
leisure  hours  in  composing  his  works,  which  procured  him 
great  reputation,  and  the  esteem  of  many  men  of  learning, 
especially  cardinal  fiaronius,  who  often  mentions  Brower  in 
his  annals  of  the  church,  with  high  praise.  He  died  at 
Treves  June  2,  1617.  His  writings  are,  1.  An  edition  of 
"  Venaotius  Fortunatus,"  with  notes  and  additions,  Co- 
logne, 1624,  4to.  2.  "  Scholia  on  the  poems  of  Rabanus 
Maurus,"  in  vol.  VI.  of  the  works  of  Maurus.  3.  "  Anti- 
quitatea  Foldenses,"  1612,  4 to.  4.  "  Sidera  illustrium  et 
S.  S. .  Virorum  qui  Germaniam  rebus  gestis  ornarunt," 
Mentz,  1616,  4tot  5.  "  Historia  Episcoporum  Trevereu- 
sium,  &c."  Cologne,  1626.  He  had  also  a  principal  hand 
in  the  u  Antiquities  and  Annals  of  Treves,9'  1626,  £  vols, 
folio,  and  reprinted  1670;  but  some  antiquaries  are  of 
opinion  that  in  his  anxiety  to  give  correct  copies  of  certain 
ancient  documents,  he  took  liberties  with  the  originals 
which  tend  to  lessen  the  authority  of  his  transcripts.  • 

BROWN  (James),  an  English  traveller  and  scholar,  the 
son  of  James  Brown,  M.  D.  (who  died  Nov.  24,  1733),  was 
born  at  Kelso,  in  the  shire  of  Roxburgh,  in  Scotland,  May 
23,  1709,  and  was  educated  under  Dr.  Freind  at  Westmin- 
ster-school, where  he  made  great  proficiency  in  the  Latin 
and  Greek  .classics.  In  the  latter  end  of  1722,  he  went 
with  his  father  to  Constantinople,  and  having  a  great  apti- 
tude for  the  learning  of  languages,  acquired  a  competent 
knowledge  of  the  Turkish,  vulgar  Greek,  and  Italian  ;  and 
on  his  return  home  in  1725,  made  himself  master  of  the 
Spanish  tongue.  .  About  the  year  1732,  he  first  started  the 
idea  of  a  very  useful  book  in  the  mercantile  world,  although 
not  deserving  a  place  in  any  literary  class, "  The  Directory," 
-or  list  of  principal  traders  in  London ;  and  having  taken 
some  pains  to  lay  the  foundation  of  it,  he  gave  it  to  the 
late  Mr.  Henry  Kent,  printer  in  Finch-lane,  Corn  bill,  who 
continued  it  from  year  to  year,  aud  acquired  an  estate  by  it. 

1  Argenville,  vol.  III. — Descamps*  voL  II.— Pilkington.-— Strutt, 
*  Moreri.— -Foppen  Bibl.  Belg. 

86  BROWN. 

In  1741,  Mr.  Brown  entered  into  an  agreement  with 
twenty-four  of  the  principal  merchants  of  London,  mem- 
bers of  the  Russia  Company,  as  their  chief  agent  or  factor, 
for  the  purpose  of  carrying  on  a  trade,  through  Russia,  to 
and  from  Persia,  and  he  sailed  for  Riga  Sept,  29.     Thence 
he  passed  through  Russia,  down  the  Volga  to  Astracan,  and 
sailed  along  the  Caspian  sea  to  Reshd  in  Persia,  where  he 
established  a  factory,  in  which  he  continued  near  four  years. 
During  this  time,  he  travelled  in  state  to  the  camp  of 
Nadir  Shah,  commonly  known  by  the  name  of  Kouli  Khan, 
with  a  letter  which  had  been  transmitted  to  him  from  the 
late  George  II.  to  that  monarch.    While  he  resided  in  this 
country,  he  applied  himself  much  to  the  study  of  that  lan- 
guage, and  made  such  pro&ciency  in  it  that,  after  his  re- 
turn home,  he  compiled  a  very  copious  "  Persian  Dic- 
tionary and  Grammar,"  with  many  curious  specimens  of 
their  writing,  which  is  yet  in  manuscript.     But  not  being  * 
satisfied  with  the  conduct  of  some  of  the  merchants  in  Lon- 
don, and  being  sensible  of  the  dangers  that  the  factory  was 
constantly  exposed  to  from  the  unsettled  and  tyrannical 
nature  of  the  government  of  Persia,  be  resigned  his  charge 
to  the  gentlemen  who  were  appointed  to  succeed  him,  re- 
turned to  London  Dec.  25,  1746,  and  lived  to  be  the  last 
survivor  of  all  the  persons  concerned  in  the  establishment 
of  that  trade,    having  outlived  his  old  friend  Mr.  Jonas 
Han  way  above  two  years.     In  May  1787,  he  was  visited 
with  a  slight  paralytic  stroke,  all  the  alarming  effects  of 
which  very  speedily  vanished,  and  he  retained  his  wonted 
health  and  chearfulness  till  within  four  days  of  his  death, 
when  a  second  and  more  severe  stroke  proved  fatal' Nov. 
30,   1788.      He  died  at  his  house  at  Stoke  Ne win gton; 
where  he  had  been  an  inhabitant  since  1734,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  his  worthy  son  James  Brown,  esq.  F.  S.  Ar.  now 
of  St.  Alban's.     Mr.  Lysons  informs  us  that  the  elder  Mr; 
Brown  published  also  a  translation  of  two  "  Orations  of 
Isocrates"  without  his  name.  He  was  a  man  of  the  strictest 
integrity,  unaffected  piety,  and  exalted,    but  unostenta- 
tious benevolence ;  of  an  even,  placid,  chearful  temper, 
.  which  he  maintained  to  the  last,  and  which  contributed  to 
lengthen  his  days.     Few  men  were  ever  more  generally 
esteemed  in  life,  or  more  respectfully  spoken  of  after  death 
by  all  who  knew  him. l 

*  Gent.  Maf.  1788.— Lysont's  Environs,  vol  III. 

BROWN.  *7 

BROWN  (John),  an  ingenious  English  writer,  descend- 
ed From  the  Browns  of  Colstown  near  Haddington  in  Scot- 
land, was  born  in  Northumberland,  Nov.  5,  1715,  at  Roth- 
bury,  of  which  place  his  father  was  curate,  but  removed 
almost  immediately  after  to  the  vicarage  of  Wigton  in 
Cumberland,  where,  at  a  grammar-school,  he  received  the 
first  part  of  his  education  ;  and  was  thence  removed,  May 
8,  1732,  to  St.  John's  college  in  Cambridge.  He  remained 
here,  till  in  1735  he  took  the  degree  of  B.  A.  then  returned 
to  Wigton,  and  soon  after  went  into  orders.  His  first  set* 
tlement  was  in  Carlisle,  being  chosen  a  minor  canon  and 
lecturer  in  the  cathedral  there.  This  situation  he  after- 
wards resigned,  on  being  reproved  for  omitting  the  Atha-> 
nasian  creed,  which  it  is  said  was  merely  accidental.  Hid 
pride,  however,  was  hurt,  and  next  Sunday  he  read  the 
creed,  out  of  course,  and  immediately  after  resigned.  In 
1739  he  took  a  M.  A.  degree  at  Cambridge.  In  the  rebel- 
lion of  1745,  he  acted  as  a  volunteer  at  the  siege  of  Car- 
lisle, and  behaved  himself  with  great  intrepidity ;  and,  after 
the  defeat  of  the  rebels,  when  some  of  them  were  tried  at 
Carlisle  in  1746,  he  preached  two  excellent  sermons  in  the 
cathedral,  "  on  the  mutual  connection  between  religious 
truth  and  civil  freedom ;  and  between  superstition,  tyranny, 
irreligion,  and  licentiousness."  These  are  to  be  found  in 
the  volume  of  hisisermons. 

Thus  distinguished,  he  fell  under  the  notice  of  Dr. 
Osbaldeston ;  who,  when  raised  to  the  see  of  Carlisle,  made 
him  one  of  his  chaplains  :  he  had  before  obtained  for  him. 
from  the  chapter  of  Carlisle  the  living  of  Moreland  in 
Westmoreland.  It  is  probably  about  this  time  that  he  wrote 
his  poem- entitled  "Honour;"  to  shew,  that  true  honour 
can  only  be  founded  in  virtue :  it  was  inscribed  to  lord' 
Lopsdale.  His  next  poetical  production,  though  not  im- 
mediately published,  was  his  "  Essay  on  Satire,"  in  three 
parts,  afterwards  addressed  to  Dr.  Warburton,  who  intro- 
duced him  to  Mr.  Allen  of  Prior  Park  near  Bath.  While 
at  Mr.  Allen's  he  preached  at  Bath,  April  22,  1750,  a  ser-i 
mon  for  promoting  the  subscription  towards  the  general 
hospital  in  that  city,  entitled  "  On  the  pursuit  of  false 
pleasure,  and  the  mischiefs  of  immoderate  gaming  ;'*  and 
there  was  prefixed  to  it,  when  published,  the  following 
advertisement:  "In  justice  to  the  magistrates  of  ihe  city 
of  Bath,  it  is  thought  proper  to  inform  the  reader,  that 
the  public  gaming-tables  were  by  them  suppressed  there, 

Vol..  VII.  H 

$8  BROWN. 

soon  after  the  preaching  of  this  sermon."  The  year  after, 
appeared  the  "  Essay  on  Satire,"  prefixed  to  the  second 
volume  of  Pope's  Works  by  Warburton  ;  with  which  it  still 
continues  to  be  printed,  as  well  as  in  Dodsley's  collection. 

Brown  now  began  to  make  no  small  figure  as  a  writer ; 
and  in  1751,  published  his  "  Essays  on  Shaftesbury's  Cha- 
racteristics," 8vo,  a  work  written  with  elegance  and  spirit, 
a'ud  so  applauded  as  to  be  printed  a  fifth  time  in  1 764. 
This  was  suggested  to  him  by  Warburtou,  and  to  Warbur- 
ton by  Pope,  who  told  Warburton  that  to  his  knowledge 
the  Characteristics  had  done  more  barm  to  revealed  reli- 
gion in  England  than  all  the  works  of  infidelity  put  toge- 
ther. He  is  imagined  to  have  had  a  principal  hand  in 
another  book,  published  also  the  same  year,  and  called 
"  An  essay  on  musical  expression  ;"  though  the  avowed 
author  was  Mr.  Charles  Avison.  (See  Avison.)  In  1754* 
he  printed  a  sermon,  "  On  the  use  and  abuse  of  externals 
in  religion  :  ppeached  before  the  bishop  of  Carlisle,  at  the 
consecration  of  St.  James's  church  in  Whitehaven,  and  .soon 
after  he  was  promoted  to  Great  Horkesley  in  Essex  ;  a  liv- 
ing conferred  upon  him  by  the  late  earl  of  Hardwicke.  His 
next  appearance  was  as  a  dramatic  writer.  In  1755,  hi* 
tragedy  "  Bajrbarossa,"  was  produced  upon  the  stage,  and 
afterwards  his  "  Athelstan"  in  1756.  These  tragedies 
were  acted  with  considerable  success,  under  the  manage- 
ment of  Garrick ;  and  the  former  long  remained  what  is 
called  a  stock- piece,  notwithstanding  many  critical  objec- 
tions offered  to  it  in  the  publications  of  the  time*. 

Our  author  had  taken  his  doctor  of  divinity's  degree  in 
1755.  In  1757,  came  out  his  famous  work,  "  An  Estimate 
of  the  manners  and  principles  of  the  times,"  8vo ;  of  which 
seven  editions  were  printed  in  little  more  than  a  year,  and 
it  was  perhaps  as  extravagantly  applauded,  and  as  extra- 
vagantly censured,  as  any  book  that  was  ever  written.  The 
design  of  it  was  to  show,  that  "  a  vain,  luxurious,  and 
«elfish  effeminacy,  in  the  higher  ranks  of  life,  marked  the 
character  of  the  age;  and  to  point  out  the  effects  and 
sources  of  this  effeminacy."  And  it  must  be  owned,  that, 
in  the  prosecution  of  it,  the  author  has  given  abundant 
proofs  of  great  discernment  and  solidity  of  judgment,  a 

*  "  I  am  grieved  that  either  these  <  clergyman   in   these  times,  to  make 
unrewarding    times,    or    his    love    of     connexions  with  players."  Warburtou'^ 
poetcy,  or  his  love  of  money,  should     Letters,  Jan.  31,  1755-6. 
iave  made  him  overlook  the  duty  of  a 

BROWN,  9$ 

deep  insight  into  human  nature,  an  extensive  knowledge 
of  the  world  ;  and  that  he  has  marked  the  peculiar  features 
of  the  times  with  great  justness  and  accuracy.  The  great 
objection  was,  that  a  spirit  of  self-importance,  dogmatical - 
ness,  and  oftentimes  arrogance,  mixed  itself  in  what  he 
says ;  and  this  certainly  did  more  towards  sharpening  the 
pens  of  his  numerous  adversaries,  and  raised  more  disgust 
and  offence  at  him,  than  the  matter  objected  to  in  his  work, 
for  it  may  be  added  that  those  who  wrote  against  him  were 
not  men  of  the  first  rank  in  literature,  and  could  have  done 
little  against  him  without  the  aid  of  those  personalities 
which  arise  from  the  temper  of  an  author.  In  1758  he 
published  a  second  volume  of  the  Estimate,  &c.  and* 
afterwards,  "  An  explanatory  defence  of  it,  &c." 

Between  the  first  and  second  volume  of  the  Estimate,  he 
republished  Dr.  Walker's  "  Diary  of  the  Siege  of  London- 
derry ;"  with  a  preface,  pointing  out  the  useful  purposes 
to  which  the  perusal  of  it  might  be  applied.   He  was,  about 
this  time,  presented  by  the  bishop  of  Carlisle,  Dr.  Osbal- 
deston,  to  the  vicarage  of  St.  Nicholas  in  Newcastle  upon 
Tyne,  resigning  Great  Horkesley  in  Essex ;  and  was  mad$ 
one  Of  the  chaplains  in  ordinary  to  his  present  majesty. 
These  were  all  the  preferments  our  author  ever  received  ; 
and,  as  this  was  supposed  to  be  no  small  mortification  to  a 
man  of  Dr.  Brown's  high  spirit,  so  it  was  probably  this 
high  spirit  which  was  the  cause  of  it;  for  such  was  bis  tem- 
per that  he  never  could  preserve  his  friends  longj  and  he 
had  before  this  time  quarrelled  with  Warburton  and  lord 
Hardwicke.     In  1760  he  published  an  additional  dialogue 
of  the  dead,  between  "  Pericles  and  Aristides,"  being  a 
sequel  to  a  dialogue  of  lord  Lyttelton' s  between  "  Pericles 
and  Cosmo."     This  is  supposed  by  some  to  have  been  de- 
signed as  a  vindication  of  Mr.  Pitt's  political  character, 
against  some  hints  of  disapprobation  by  lord  Lyttelton; 
while  others  have  not  excluded  a  private  motive  of  resent- 
ment.    It  is  said  that  lord  Lyttelton  in  a  numerous  and 
mixed  company  neglected  to  take  notice  of  our  author  in 
so  respectful  a  manner  as  he  thought  he  deserved ;  and  in 
revenge,  weak  enough  certainly,    he  composed  the  dia- 
logue.    His  next  publication  was  "The  Cure  of  Saul,"  a 
sacred  ode ;  which  was  followed  the  same  year  by  a  "  Dis* 
sertation  on  the  rise,  union,  and  power,  the  progression*, 
separations,   and  corruptions  of  poetry  and  music,"  4to» 
This  is  a  pleasing  performance,  displays  great  ingenuity, 

H  2 

106  BROWN, 

and*  though  not  without  mistakes,  very  instructing  as  tvefl 
as  amusing.  "  Observations"  were  printed  upon  it  by  an 
anonymous  writer,  and  Dr.  Brown  defended  himself  in  "Re- 
marks." He  published  in  8vo,  1764,  the  "  History  of  the 
rise  and  progress  of  Poetry  through  its  several  species  :'* 
being  the  substance  of  the  above  work  concerning  poetry 
only,  fQr  the  benefit  of  classical  readers  not  knowing  in 
music.  The  same  year,  he  printed  a  volume  of  "Ser- 
mons," most  of  which  had  been  printed  separately;  and  in 
1765,  "Thoughts  on  Civil  Liberty,  Licentiousness, and  Fac- 
tion ;"  a  piece,  drawn  up  with  great  parade,  and  assuming 
a  scientific  form,  with  an  intention  to  censure  the  op- 
posers  of  administration  at  that  time.  A  sermon  on  the* 
"  Female  character  and  education,"  preached  the  16th  of 
May,  1765,  before  the  guardians  of  the  asylum  for  deserted 
female  orphans. 

His  last  publication,  in  1766,  was  a  "  Letter  to  the  rev. 
Dr.  Lowfrb,"  occasioned  by  his  late  letter  to  the  right  rev. 
author  of  the  "  Divine  Legation  of  Moses."  Dr.  Lowth 
had  pointed  at  Dr.  Brown,  as  one  of  the  extravagant  flat- 
terers and  creatures  of  Warburton  ;  and  Dr.  Brown  defend- 
ed himself  against  the  imputation,  as  an  attack  upon  his 
moral  character.  To  do  him  justice,  he  had  a  spirit  too 
#trong  and  independent,  to  bend  to  that  literary  subjection 
which  the  author  of  the  Divine  Legation  expected  from  his 
followers.  He  insisted  upon  the  prerogative  of  his  own 
opinion ;  to  assent  and  dissent,  whenever  he  saw  cause,  in 
the  most  unreserved  manner :  and  this  was  to  Dr.  Brown, 
as  it  was  to  many  others,  the  cause  of  misunderstanding 
with  Warburton.  Besides  the  works  mentioned,  he  pub- 
lished a  poem  on  "  Liberty,"  and  some  anonymous 
pamphlets.  At  the  end  of  his  later  writings,  he  advertised 
an  intention  of  publishing  "Principles  of  Christian  Legisla- 
tion," but  was  prevented  by  death.  He  ordered,  however, 
by  his  will,  that  the  work  should  be  published  after  his  de- 
cease * ;  but  it  was  left  too  imperfect  for  that  purpose. 
The  last  memorable  circumstance  of  his  life  was  his  in- 
tended expedition  to  Russia.     While  Dr.  Dumaresque  re- 

•  The  reason  of  this  delay  having  imperfect  for  publication,  and  that  a 

fceen  somewhat  illiberally  conjectured  satisfactory   apology  was  sent  to  the 

iin  the  last  edition  of  our   Dictionary,  editors  of  the  Biog.  Britannica,  who* 

it  is  but  justice  to  one  of  his  executors  in  its  place,,  substituted   a  paragraph 

to  refer  «ur  readers  to  his  letter  in  the  of  their  own,  not  quite  so  well  founded. 

dent.  Mag.  vol.  LXI.  p.  995,  in  which  See  al&o  the  plan  of  the  work,   vok 

they  will  find  that  the  work  was  left  too  LXU.  p,  9. 

BROWN,  *0i 

*ided  in  Russia,  1765,  whither,  having  been  chaplain  to 
our  factory  at  St.  Petersburg  from  1747  to  1762,  he  had 
been  invited  the  year  before  by  the  empress,  to  assist  in 
the  regulation  of  several  schools  she,  was  about  to  estab- 
lish; a  correspondent  in  England  suggested  the  idea  tQ 
htm  of  communicating  the  affair  to  Dr.  Brown,  as  a  pro- 
per person  to  consult  with,  because  he  had  published  soma 
jgermons  upon  education.  This  brought  on  a  correspond- 
ence between  Dr.  Dumaresque  and  Dr.  Brown  ;  the  result 
of  which,  being  communicated  to  the  prime  minister  at 
St.  Petersburg,  was  followed  by  an  invitation  from  the  em- 
press to  Dr.  Brown  also.  Dr.  Brown,  acquainting  the  Rus* 
sian  court  with  his  design  of  complying  with  the  empress' * 
Invitation,  received  an  answer  from  the  minister,  signify- 
ing how  pleased  her  imperial  majesty  was  with  his  inten- 
tion, and  informing  him,  that  she  had  ordered  to  be  re- 
mitted to  him,  by  her  minister  in  London,  1000/.  in  order 
to  defray  the  expences  of  his  journey.  All  the  letters 
which  passed,  the  plans  which  were  drawn  by  Dr.  Brown, 
and,  in  short,  every  thing  relating  to  this  affair,  may  be 
seen  at  large  under  his  article  in  the  "  Biographia  Britan- 
nic a,"  as  communicated  to  the  author  of  it  by  Dr.  Duma* 

In  consequence  of  the  above  proceedings,  while  he  was 
ardently  preparing  for  his  journey,  and  almost  on  the  point 
of  setting  out  for  St.  Petersburg,  the  gout  and  rheumatism, 
to  which  he  was  subject,  returned  upon  him  with  violence, 
and  put  a  stop  to  the  affair  for  the  present,  to  his  no  small 
disappointment.  This  disappointment  concurring  with  his 
ill  state  of  health,  was  followed  by  a  dejection  of  spirits, 
which  terminated  in  his  putting  an  end  to  his  life,  at  his 
lodgings  in  Pall-mall,  Sept  23,  1766,  in  his  51st  year. 
He  cut  the  jugular  vein  with  a  razor,  and  died  immediately. 
He  had,  it  seems,  a  constitutional  tendency  to  insanity,  and 
from  his  early  life  had  been  subject  at  times  to  disorders  in 
the  brain,  at  least  to  melancholy  in  its  excess  ;  of  which  he 
used  to  complain  to  his  friends,  and  to  "  express  t\is  fears, 
that  one  time  or  another  some  ready  mischief  might  present 
itself  to  him,  at  a  time  when  be  was  wholly  deprived  of1  his 

Dr.  Brown  was  a  man  of  uncommon  ingenuity,  but  un- 
fortunately tinctured  with  an  undue  degree  of  self-opinion, 
and  perhaps  the  bias  of  his  mind  to  insanity  will  assign  this 
best  cause,  as  well  as  form  the  best  excuse,  for  this.     H* 

102  BROWN. 

^genius  was  extensive ;'  for,  besides  bis  being  so  elegant  a 
prose  writer  in  various  kinds  of  composition,  he  was  a  poet, 
a  musician,  and  a  painter.     His  learning  does  not,  how- 
ever, appear  to  have  been  equal  to  his  genius.     His  inven- 
tion was,  indeed >  inexhaustible;  and  hence  he  was  led  to 
form  magnificent  plans,  the  execution  of  which  required  a 
greater  depth  of  erudition  than  he  was  possessed  of.  In  di- 
vinity, properly  so  called,  as  including  an  extensive  know- 
ledge of  the  controverted  points  of  theology,  and  a  critical 
Acquaintance  with  the  Scriptures,  he  was  not  deeply  con- 
versant.    All  we  can  gather  from  his  sermons  is,  that  his 
ideas  were  liberal,  and  that  he  did  not  lay  much  stress  on 
ihp  disputed  doctrines  of  Christianity.     His  temper,  we 
are  told,  was  suspicious,  and  sometimes  threw  him  into  dis- 
agreeable altercations  with  his  friends  ;  but  this  arose,  in  a 
great  measure,  if  not  entirely,  from  the  constitutional' dis- 
order described  above,  a  very  suspicious  turn  of  mind  Be- 
ing one  of  the  surest  prognostics  of  lunacy.     He  has  been 
charged  with  shifting  about  too  speedily,  with  a  view  to 
preferment;  and  it  was  thought,  that  his  " Thoughts  on 
Civil  Liberty,    Licentiousness,  and  Faction,"  seemed  to 
have  something  of  this  appearance.     He,  However,  in  that 
performance  endeavoured  to  remove  the  objection,  by  ob- 
serving, that,  if  he  had  indirectly  censured  those  whom  he 
had  formerly  applauded,  he  never  was  attached  to  men,  but 
measures ;  and  that,  if  he  had  questioned  the  conduct  of 
those  only  who  were  then  out  of  power,  he  had  heretofore 
questioned  their  conduct  with  the  same  freedom,  when  in 
the  fulness  of  their  power.     Upon  the  whole,  Dr.  Brown's 
defects,  which  chiefly  arose  from  a  too  sanguine  tempera- 
ment of  constitution,  were  compensated  by  many  excel- 
lencies and  virtues.     With  respect  to  his  writings,  they 
are  all  of  them  elegant.     Even  those  which  are  of  a  more 
temporary  nature  may  continue  to  be  read  with  pleasure, 
as  containing  a  variety  of  curious  observations ;  and  in  his 
Estimate  are  many  of  those  unanswerable  truths  that  can 
never  be  unseasonable  or  unprofitable. * 

BROWN  (John),  a  Scotch  artist,  the  Son  of  a  gold* 
"Bmith  and  watchmaker,  was  born  in  1752  at  Edinburgh, 
and  was  early  destined  to  take  up  the  profession  of  a  pain- 
ter.    He  travelled  into  Italy   in  1771,   and  during  the 

1  Biog.  Brit. — Gent  Mag.  vol  LXI.  and  LXH. — Warburton's  Letters,  4to 

edit  p.  26,  58,  124,  133,  J52, 188,  2Q4,  22},  238,. 240,  282, 

BROWN.  103 

course  of  ten  years  residerice  there,  the  pencil  afcd  crayon 
were  ever  in  his  band,  and  the  sublime  thoughts  of  Ra- 
phael and  Michael  Angelo  ever  in  his  imagination.  By 
continual  practice  he  obtained  a  correctness  and  elegance 
of  contour,  rarely  surpassed  by  any  British  artist,  but  be 
unfortunately  neglected  the  mechanism  of  the  pallet  till 
his  taste  was  so  refined  that  Titian,  and  Murillo,  and  Cor- 
reggio  made  his  heart  to  sink  within  him  when  he  touched 
the  canvass.  When  he  attempted  to  lay  in  his  colours^ 
the  admirable  correctness  of  his  contour  was  lost,  and  he 
had  not  self-sufficiency  to  persevere  till  it  should  be  re- 
covered in  that  tender  evanescent  outline  which  is  so  dif- 
ficult to  be  attained  even  by  the  most  eminent  painters. 
At  Rome  he  met  with  sir  William  Young  and  Mr.  Townley ; 
who,  pleased  with  some  very  beautiful  drawings  done  by 
him  in  pen  and  ink,  took  him  with  them,  as  a  draftsman, 
into  Sicily.  Of  the  antiquities  of  this  celebrated  island  he 
took  several  very  fine  views  in  pen  and  ink,  exquisitely 
finished,  yet  still  preserving  the  character  and  spirit  of  the 
buildings  he  intended  to  represent.  He  returned  some 
years  afterwards  from  Italy  to  his  native  town,  where  he 
was  much  belbved  and  esteemed,  his  conversation  being 
extremely  acute  and  entertaining  on  most  subjects,  but 
peculiarly  so  on  those  of  art ;  and  his  knowledge  of  music 
being  very  great,  and  his  taste  in  it  extremely  just  and 
refined.  Lord  Monboddo  gave  hinp  a  general  invitation  to 
his  elegaht  and  convivial  table,  and  employed  him  in 
making  several  drawings  in  pencil  for  him.  Mr.  Brown, 
however,  in  1786,  came  to  London,  and  was  caressed  by 
scholars  and  men  of  taste  in  that  metropolis,  where  he  was 
very  much  employed  as  a  painter  of  small  portraits  in  black 
lead  pencil,  which  were  always  correctly  drawn,  and  ex- 
hibited, with  a  picturesque  fidelity,  the  features  and  cha- 
racter of  the  person  who  sat  to  him. 

Mr.  Brown  was  not  only  known  as  an  exquisite  drafts- 
man, he  was  also  a  good  philosopher,  a  sound  scholar,  and 
endowed  with  a  just  and  refined  taste  in  all  the  liberal  and 
polite  arts,  and  a  man  of  consummate  worth  and  integrity. 
Soon  after  his  death  his  "  Letters  on  the  Poetry  and  Music 
of  the  Italian  Opera,"  12mo,  were  published.  They  were 
originally  written  to  his  friend  lord  Monboddo,  who  wished 
to  have  Mr.  Brown's  opinion  on  those  subjects,  which  have 
so  intimate  a  connection  with  his  work  on  the  Origin  and 
Progress  of  Language ;  and  who  was  'so  pleased  with  the 

i04  BROW  N. 

style  and  observations  contained  in  them,  that  he  wrote 
an  introduction,  which  was  published  with  them,  in  one 
volume,  I2Q10,  1789,  for  the  benefit  of  his  widow.  The 
letters,  written  with  great  elegance  and  perspicuity,  are 
certainly  the  production  of  a  strong  and  fervid  mind,  ac- 
quainted with  the  subject ;  and  must  be  useful  to  most  of 
the  frequenters  of  the  Italian  opera,  by  enabling  them  to 
understand  the  reasons  on  which  the  pleasure  they  receive 
at  that  musical  performance  is  founded,  a  knowledge  in 
which  they  are  generally  very  deficient.  Not  being  written 
for  publication,  they  have  that  spirit  and  simplicity  which 
every  man  of  genius  diffuses  through  any  subject  which  he 
communicates  in  confidence,  and  which  he  is  but  too  apt 
to  refine  away  when  he  sits  down  to  compose  a  work  for 
the  public.  Lord  Monboddo,  in  the  fourth  volume  of  the 
Origin  and  Progress  of  Language,  speaking  of  Mr.  Brown, 
says,  "  The  account  that  I  have  given  of  the  Italian  lan- 
guage is  taken  from  one  who  resided  above  ten  years  in 
Italy ;  and  who,  besides  understanding  the  language  per- 
fectly, is  more  learned  in  the  Italian  arts  of  painting, 
sculpture,  music,  and  poetry,  than  any  man  I  ever  met 
with.  His  natural  good  taste  he  has  improved  by  the  study 
of  the  monuments  of  ancient  art,  to  be  seen  at  Rome  and 
Florence ;  and  as  beauty  in  all  the  arts  is  pretty  much  the 
same,  consisting  of  grandeur  and  simplicity,  variety,  de- 
corum, and  a  suitableness  to  the  subject,  I  think  he  is  a 
good  judge  of  language,  and  of  writing,  as  well  as  of 
painting,  sculpture,  and  music."  A  very  well- written  cha- 
racter in  Latin,  by  an  advocate  of  Edinburgh,  is  appended 
to  the  Letters.  Mr.  Brown  left  behind  him  several  very 
highly-finished  portraits  in  pencil,  and  many  very  exqui- 
site sketches  in  pencil  and  in  pen  and  ink,  which  he  had 
taken  of  persons  and  of  places  in  Italy  ;  particularly  a  book 
of  studies  of  heads,  taken  from  the  life,  an  inestimable 
treasure  to  any  history  painter,  as  a  common-place  book 
for  his  pictures,  the  heads  it  contained  being  all  of  them 
Italian  ones,  of  great  expression,  or  of  high  character. 
He  was  so  enraptured  with  his  art,  and  so  assiduous  in  the 
pursuit  of  it,  that  he  suffered  no  countenance  of  beauty, 
grace,  dignity,  or  expression,  to  pass  him  unnoticed ;  and 
to  be  enabled  to  possess  merely  a  sketch  for  himself,  of 
any  subject  that  struck  his  fancy,  he  would  make  a  present 
of  a  high-finished  drawing  to  the  person  who  permitted  his 
bead  to  be  taken  by  him.    The  characteristics  of  his  hand  * 

BROWN.  10* 

were  delicacy,  correctness,  and  taste,  as  the  drawings  he 
made  from  many  of  Mr.  Townley's  best  statues  very  plainly 
evince.  Of  his  mind,  the  leading  features  were  acuteness, 
liberality,  and  sensibility,  joined  to  a  character  firm,  vi- 
gorous, and  energetic.  The  last  efforts  of  this  ingenious 
artist  were  employed  in  making  two  very  exquisite  draw- 
ings', the  one  from  Mr.  Townley's  celebrated  bust  of  Ho- 
mer, the  other  from  a  fine  original  bust  of  Pope,  supposed 
to  have  been  the  work  of  Rysbrac.  From  these  drawings 
two  very  beautiful  engravings  have  been  made  by  Mr.  Bar- 
tolozzi  and  his  pupil  Mr.  Bovi.  After  some  stay  in  Lon- 
don, his  health,  which  had  never  been  robust,  yielded  to 
extraordinary  application,  and  he  was  forced  to  try  a  sea- 
voyage,  and  return  on  a  visit  to  Edinburgh,  to  settle  his 
father's  affairs,  who  was  then  dead,  having  been  some  time 
before  in  a  state  of  imbecility.  On  the  passage  from 
London  to  Leith,  he  was  somehow  neglected  as  he  lay 
sick  on  his  hammock,  and  was  on  the  point  of  death 
when  he  arrived  at  Leith.  With  much  difficulty  he  was 
brought  up  to  Edinburgh,  and  laid  in  the  bed  of  his  friend 
Runciman,  the  artist,  who  had  died  not  long  before  in  the 
same  place.  Here  he  died,  Sept.  5,  1787.  His  portrait 
with  Runciman,  disputing  about  a  passage  in  Shakspeare's 
Tempest,  is  in  the  gallery  at  Dryburgh  abbey.  This  was 
the  joint  production  of  Brown  and  Runciman  before  the 
death  of  the  latter  in  1784.  * 

BROWN  (John),  a  clergyman  of  the  church  of  Scot- 
land, who  long  kept  an  academy  for  the  education  of 
young  men  for  the  ministry  among  the  class  called  Se- 
ceders  in  that  country^  was  born  in  1722,  in  a  village 
called  Kerpoo,  in  the  county  of  Perth.  His  *parents  died 
when  he  was  very  young,  leaving  him  almost  destitute, 
but  by  some  means  he  contrived  to  obtain  books,  if  not 
regular  education,  and  by  dint  of  perseverance  acquired  a 
considerable  knowledge  of  Latin,  Greek*  and  Hebrew, 
with  which  last  he  was  critically  conversant.  H#  could 
also  read  and  translate  the  French,  Italian,  German,  Ara- 
bic, Persian,  Syriac,  and  Ethiopic,  but  his  favourite  stu- 
^  dies   were  divinity,   and  history   both   ecclesiastical  and 

civil.  His  principles  being  Calvinistic,  his  reading  was 
much  confined  to  writers  of  that  stamp,  but  he  appears  to 

1  From  the  preceding  edition  of  this  Dictionary,  with  additions  from  Dr,  An* 
Arson's  "  Bee,"  vof.  XV, 

106  BROW  N. 

have  studied  every  controversy  in  which  the  church  has 
been  involved,  with  much  attention.  At  what  time  he  was 
ordained,  does  not  appear,  but  his  extensive  learning 
pointed  him  out  to  the  associate  synod,  or  synod  of  se- 
ceders,  as  a  fit  person  to  be  their  professor  of  divinity, 
and  train  up  young  men,  who  had  had  a  previous  educa- 
tion, for  the  office  of  the  ministry  within  their  pale.  His 
residence  was  at  Haddington,  where  he  was  preacher  to  a 
numerous  congregation  of  the  seceders.  At  one  time  he 
received  a^  pressing  invitation  from  the  Dutch  church  in 
the  province  of  New  York,  to  be  their  tutor  in  divinity, 
which  he  declined.  He  died  June  19,  1787.  His  princi- 
pal works  are,  1.  An  edition  of  the  Bible,  called  "  The 
Self-interpreting  Bible/'  from  its  marginal  references, 
which  are  far  more  copious  than  in  any  other  edition,  Lon- 
don, 1791,2  vols.  4to,  and  since  reprinted.  2.  "  Dictionary 
of  the  Bible,  on  the  plan  of  Calmet,  but  principally  adapted 
to  common  readers;  often  reprinted,  2  vols.  Svo.  3.  "Ex- 
plication of  Scripture  Metaphors,"  1 2mo.  4.  "  History  of 
the  Seceders,"  eighth  edition,  1802,  12mo.  5.  "The 
Christian  Student  and  Pastor,"  1781,  an  abridgment  of  the 
Lives  of  Pious  Men.  6.  "  Letters  on  the  Government  of 
the  Christian  Church."  7.  "  General  History  of  the 
Church,"  1771,  2  vols.  l2mo,  a  very  useful  compendium 
of  church  history,  partly  on  the  plah  of  Mosheim,  or 
perhaps  rather  of  Lampe.  After  his  death  appeared  a  vo- 
lume entitled  "  Select  Remains,"  with  some  account  of 
his  life. l 

BROWN  (John),  M.  D.  author  of  what  has  been  called 
the  Brunonian  system  in  medicine,  was  born  in  the  parish 
of  Buncle,  ih  the  county  of  Berwick,  in  the  year  1735,  of 
parents  in  a  mean  situation  in  life,  but,  in  common  with 
the  children  of  other  villagers  in  Scotland,  he  received  his 
education  at  a  grammar-school.  As  his  mind  was  much 
above  the  ra»k  he  was  born  in,  his  progress  in  literature 
was  pipportionably  superior  to  the  rest  of  his  school-fel- 
lows. He  there  imbibed  a  taste  for  letters,  so  that  when 
he  was  afterwards  put  apprentice  to  a  weaver,  instead  of 
attending  to  his  business,  his  whole  mind  was  bent  on  pro- 
curing books,  which  he  read  with*  great  eagerness.  Find- 
ing this  disposition  could  not  be  conquered,  his  father 
took  him  from  thfe  loom,  and  sent  him  to  the  grammar- 

*  Select  Remains,  &c. 

B  B  O  W  N.  i07 

school  at  D arise,  where,  under  the  tuition  of  Mr.  Cruick- 
shanks,  he  made  such  progress  that  he  was  soon  regarded 
*s  a  prodigy.     He  read  all  the  Latin  classics  with  the 
greatest  facility,  and  was  no  mean  prbficieot  in  the  know- 
ledge of  the  Greek  language.     "  His  habits,"  we  are  told, 
,t€  were  sober,    he  was  of  a  religious   turn,    and  was  so 
-strongly  attached  to  the  sect  of  Seceders,  or  Whigs  as  they 
are  called  in  Scotland,  in  which  he  had  been  bred,  that  he 
would  have  thought  his  salvation  hazarded,  if  he  had  at- 
tended the  meetings  of  the  established  church.    He  aspired 
to  be  a  preacher  of  a  purer  religion."     An  accident,  how- 
ever, disgusted  him  with  this  society,  before  he  was  of  an, 
age  to  be  chosen  a  pastor,  for  which  it  appears  he  was  in- 
tended.    Having  been  prevailed  on  by  some  of  his  school- 
fellows to  attend  divine  service  at  the  parish  church  of 
Dunse,  he  was  summoned  before  the  session  of  the  se- 
ceding congregation  to  ansvrer  for  this  offence ;  but  his 
high  spirit  not  brooking  to  make  an  apology,  to  avoid  the 
censures  of  his  brethren,  and  the  ignominy  of  being,  ex- 
pelled their  community,  he  abdicated  his  principles,  and 
professed  himself  a  member  of  the   established  church. 
As  his   talents  for  literature  were   well  known,   he   was 
taken,  at  the  age  of  twenty,  to  the  house  of  a  gentleman 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Dunse,  as  tutor  to  his  son.     Here 
he  did  not  long  reside,  but  went  the  same  year,   1755,  to 
Edinburgh,  where  he  applied  to  the  study  of  divinity,  in 
which  he  proceeded  so  far  as  to  deliver,  in  the  public  hall, 
a  discourse  upon  a  prescribed  portion  of  scripture,  the 
usual  step  preliminary  to  ordination.     But  here  his  theo- 
logical studies  appear  to  have  ended,  and  he  suddenly  left 
Edinburgh,  returned  to  Dunse,  and  officiated*  as  an  usher 
in  the  school  where  he  had  been  educated.     He  now  ex- 
hibited himself  as  a  free-liver  and  free-thinker,   his  dis* 
course  and  manners  being  equally  licentious  and  irregular, 
which  accounts  for  his  dereliction  of  the  study  of  theology. 
At  Dunse  he  continued  about  a  year.     During  this  time, 
a  vacancy  happening  in  one  of  the  classes   in  the  high 
school  at  Edinburgh,  Brown  appeared  as  a  candidate,  but 
was  not  successful.     Soon  after  he  was  applied  to  by  a 
student  in  medicine,  at  Edinburgh,  Jo  put  his  inaugural, 
thesis  into   Latin.     This  he  performed  in  so  superior  a 
manner,  that  it  gained  him  great  reputation  ;  it  opened  to 
him  a  path  which  he  had  not  probably  before  thought  of, 
for  turning  his  erudition  to  profit.     On  the  strength  of 'the 

» » 

10*  BROWN. 

character  procured  him  by  this  performance,  he  returned 
to  Edinburgh,  and  determined  to  apply  to  the  study  of 
medicine.      "  He  bad   now,"  he  said,    "  discovered   his 
strength,  and  was  afabitious  of  riding  in  his  carriage  as  a 
physician."     At  the  opening  of  the  session  he  addressed 
Latin  letters  to  each  of  the  professors,  who  readily  gave 
him  tickets. of  admission  to  their  lectures,  which  be  attended 
diligently  for  several  years  ;  in  the  interim,  teaching  Latin 
to  such  of  the  pupils,  as  applied,  and  assisting  them  in 
writing  their  theses,    or  turning  them  into  Latin.     The 
price,  when  he  composed  the  thesis,    was  ten  guineas; 
when  he  translated  their  compositions  into  Latin,  live.     If 
he  had  been  now  prudent,  or  had  not  indulged  in  the  most 
"   destructive  excesses,    he  might,  it  is  probable,  in  a  fevr 
years,  have  attained  the  eminence  he  promised  himself; 
but  he  marred  all  by  his  intemperance.     In  no  long  time 
after  this,  his  constitution,  which  had  been  hardy  and  ro- 
bust, became  debilitated,  and  he  bad  the  face  and  appear- 
ance of  a  worn-out  debauchee.     His  bad  habits  had  not, 
however,  prevented  his  getting  the  friendship  or  assistance 
of  Dr.  Cullen,   who,    desirous  of  availing  himself  of  his 
talents,  employed  him  as  a  tutor  to  his  sons,  and  made 
use  of  him  as  an  assistant  in  his  lectures  ;  Brown  repeating 
to  his  pupils  in  the  evening,  the  lecture  they  had  heard  in 
the  morning,  and  explaining  to  them  such  parts  as  were 
abstruse  and  difficult.     In    1765  he  married,  and  took  a 
house,  which  was  soon  filled  with  boarders.;    but,  conti- 
nuing his  improvident  course,  he  became  a  bankrupt  at  the 
end  of  three  or  four  years.     He  now  became  a  candidate 
for  one  of  the  medical  chairs,  but  failed  ;  and  as  he  attri- 
buted his  niis$ing  this  promotion  to  Dr.  Cullen,  he  very  un- 
advisedly broke  off  his  connection  with  him,  and  became  the 
declared  enemy  to  him  and  his  system  ;  which  he  had  always 
before  strenuously  defended.  This  probably  determined  him 
to  form,  a  new^ystem  of  medicine,  doubtless  meaning  to  an- 
nihilate that  of  his  former  patron.     As  he  had  read  but  few 
medical  books,  and  was  but  little  versed  in  practice,  his 
theory  must  have  been  rather  the  result  of  contemplation 
than  of  experience.     That  in  forming  it,  he  was  influenced 
by  his  attachment  to  spirituous  liquors,  seems  probable 
from  internal  evidence,  and  from  the  effects  he  attributed 
to  them  of  diminishing  the  number  as  well  as  the  severity 
of  the  fits  of  the  gout,  under  which  he  suffered.  He  always 
found  them  more  severe  and  frequent/  he  says,    when. 

BROWN.  109 

be  lived  abstemiously.  One  of  his  pupils  informed  Dr; 
Beddoes, '"  that  he  was  used,  before  he  began  to  read  his 
lecture,  to  take  fifty  drops  of  laudanum  in  a  glass  of 
whisky ;  repeating  the  dose  four  or  five  times  during  the 
lecture.  Between  the  effects  of  these  stimulants,  and 
voluntary  exertions,  he  soon  waxed  warm,  and  by  degrees 
his  imagination  was  exalted  into  phrenzy."  His  intention 
seems  to  have  been  to  simplify  medicine,  and  to  render 
the  knowledge  of  it  easily  attainable,  without  the  labour 
of  studying  other  authors.  All  general  or  universal  dis- 
eases  were  therefore  reduced  by  him  to  two  great  families 
or  classes,  the  sthenic  and  the  asthenic ;  the  former  de- 
pending upon  excess,  the  latter  upon  deficiency  of  ex- 
citing power.  The  former  were  to  be  removed  by  debili- 
tating, the  latter  by  stimulant  medicines,  of  which  the 
most  valuable  and  powerful  are  wine,  brandy,  and  opium. 
As  asthenic  diseases  are  more  numerous,  and  occur  mucb 
more  frequently  than  those  from  an  opposite  cause,  his 
opportunities  of  calling  in  the  aid  of  these  powerful  stimuli 
were  proportionately  numerous.  "  Spasmodic  and  con- 
vulsive disorders,  and  even  hemorrhages,"  he  says,  "werei 
found  to  proceed  from  debility ;  and  wine,  and  brandyr 
which  had  been  thought  hurtful  in  these  diseases,  he  found 
the  most  powerful  of  all  remedies  in  removing  them." 
When  he  had  completed  his  plan,  he  published  his  theoiy 
or  system,  under  the  title  of  "  Elementa  Medicinae,"  from 
his  preface  to  which  the  preceding  quotations  have  been 
principally  taken.  Though  hejiad  been  eleven  or  twelve 
years  at  Edinburgh,  he  had  not  taken  his  degree  of  doctor; 
and  as  he  was  now  at  variance  with  all  the  medical  pro- 
fessors, not  thinking  it  prudent  to  offer  himself  there,  he 
went  to  St.  Andrew' s,  where  he  was  readily  admitted  to 
that  honour.  He  now'  commenced  public  teacher  of  me- 
dicine, making  his  "  Elementa9'  his  text  book ;  and  con- 
vinced, as  it  seems,  of  the  soundness  of  his  doctrine,  he 
exultingly  demands  (preface  to  a  new  edition  of  the  trans- 
lation of  his  "  Elementa,7'  by  Dr.  Beddoes),  whether  the 
medical  art,  hitherto  conjectural,  incoherent,  and  in  the 
great  body  of  its  doctrines  false,  was  not  at  last  reduced  to 
a  science  of  demonstration,  which  might  be  called  the 
science  of  life  ?  His  method  in  giving*his  lectures  was,  first 
to  translate  the  text  book,  sentence  by  sentence,  and  then 
to  expatiate  upon  the  passage.  The  novelty  of  the  doc- 
trine procured  him  at  first  a  pretty  numerous  class  of  pupils; 

110  BROWN* 

but  as  he  was  irregular  in  his  attendance,  and  his  habits 
of  drinking  increased  upon  him,  they  were  soon  reduced 
in  number,  and  he  became  so  involved  in  his  circum- 
stances, that  it  became  necessary  for  him  to  quit  Edin- 
burgh ;  he  therefore  came  to  London  in  the  autumn  of  the 
year  1786.  Here,  for  a  time,  he  was  received  with  fa- 
vour, but  his  irregularities  in  living  increasing  upon  him, 
he  came  to  his  lodgings,  in  the  evening  of  the  8th  of  Oc- 
tober, in  1788,  intoxicated,  and  taking,  as  it  was  his 
custom,  a  large  dose  of  laudanum,  he  died  in  the  course 
of  the  night,  before  he  had  entered  on  his  career  of  lec- 
turing, for  which  he  was  making  preparations.  He  had 
the  preceding  year  published  "  Observations  on  the  Old 
t  Systems  of  Physic,"  as  a  prelude  to  the  introduction  of  his 
own  ;  but  it  was  little  noticed.  His  opinions  have,  how- 
ever, met  with  patrons  in  Germany  and  Italy,  as  well  as 
in  this  country,  and  several  volumes  have  been  written  on 
the  subject  of  them  ;  but  they  are  now  pretty  generally,1 
and  deservedly,  abandoned. 

In  1796,  Dr.  Beddoes  published  an  edition  of  "The 
Elements  of  Medicine  of  John  Brown,  M.  D  "  for  the  benefit 
of  his  family,  with  a  biographical  preface,  from  which  the 
above  account  was  taken  by  a  learned  gentleman  for  the 
Cyclopaedia.-  Perhaps  from  the  same  materials,  a  more 
favourable  colouring  might  »be  given,  and  has  been  given 
in  Dr.  Gleig's  Supplement  to  the  Encycl.  Britannica,  but 
we  question  if  any  account  can  be  given  more  consistent 
with  truth.  * 

BROWN  (Lancelot),  an  eminent  horticulturist,  and, 
from  a  word  often  employed  by  him  in  laying  out  gardens, 
called  Capability  Brown  *,  was  born  at  Kirkharle,  in  North* 
umberland,  Aug.  1715.  Of  his  education  we  have  no  ac- 
count, but  he  came  early  in  life  to  the  metropolis,  and  was 
employed  by  lord  Cobham  in  improving  the  grounds  at 
Stowe;  and  afterwards  at  Richmond,  Blenheim,  Luton, 
Wimbledon,  Nuneham,  &c.  where  he  improved  orna- 
mental gardening  in  a  very  high  degree,  and  approached 
more  nearly  to  nature  than  his  predecessors.  In  these 
operations  he  frequently  discovered  a  very  highly  culti- 
vated taste,  and  may  be  said  to  have  led  the  fashion  in 

*  There  was  another  garden -surveyor  of  the  same  name,,  and  a  contempo- 
rary,  who  by  way  of  distinction  waa  called  Sense  Brown. 

1  Beddoes1  edit,  as  above. — Reel's  Cyclopaedia. 

BROWN-  111 

horticulture  for  nearly  half  a  century.  He  associated  also 
with  familiarity  with  many  of  his  noble  and  opulent  em- 
ployers, and  realized  a  handsome  fortune.  Irk  1770  he 
served  the  office  of  high  sheriff  for  the  counties  of  Hun- 
tingdon and  Cambridge.'  He  died  suddenly  in  Hertford- 
street,  .  May  -fair,  Feb.  6,  1783,  being  at  that  time  head 
gardener  to  his  majesty,  at  Hampton-court. l 

BROWN  (Robert),  an  English  divine  of  the  sixteenth 
and  beginning  of  the  seventeenth  century,  from  whom  the 
sect  of  the  Brownists  derived  its  name,  was  descended  of 
an  ancient  and  worshipful  family,  says  Fuller,  (one  whereof 
founded  a  fair  hospital  in  Stamford),  and  was  nearly  allied 
to  the  lord-treasurer  Cecil.  He  was  the  son  of  Anthony 
Brown,  of  Tolthorp,  in  Rutlandshire,  esq.  (though  bora 
at  Northampton,  according  to  Mr.  Collier),  and  grandson 
of  Francis  Brown,  whom  king  Henry  VIII.  in  the  eigh- 
teenth year  of  his  reign,  privileged  by  charter  to  wear 
his  cap  in  the  presence  of  himself,  his  heirs,  or  any  of  his 
nobles,  and  not  to  uncover  but  at  his  own  pleasure  ; 
which  charter  was  confirmed  by  act  of  parliament.  Robert 
Brown  studied  divinity  at  Cambridge,  in  Corpus  Christi 
college,  and  was  afterwards  a  schoolmaster  in  South- 
ward He  was  soon  discovered  by  Dr.  Still,  master  of 
Trinity-college,  to  have  somewhat  extraordinary  in  him 
that  would  prove  a  great  disturbance  to  the  church.  Brown 
soon  verified  what  the  doctor  foretold,  for  he  not  only  im- 
bibed Cartwright's  opinions,  but  resolved  to  refine  upon 
his  scheme,  and  to  produce  something  more  perfect  of  his 
own.  Accordingly,  about  the  year  1580,  he  began  to  in- 
veigh openly  against  the  discipline  and  ceremonies  of  the 
church  of  England,  and  soon  shewed  that  he' intended  to 
gQ  much  farther  than  Cartwright  had  ever  done.  In  his 
discourses  the  church  government  was  antichristian  ;  her 
sacraments  clogged  with  superstition;  the  liturgy  had  a 
mixture  of  Popery  and  Paganism  in  it ;  and  the  mission  of 
the  clergy  was  no  better  than  that  of  Baal's  priests  in  the 
Old  Testament.  He  first  preached  at  Norwich,  in  1581, 
where  the  Dutch  having  a  numerous  congregation,  many 
of  them  inclined  to  Anabaptism  ;  and,  therefore,  being  the 
more  disposed  to  entertain  any  new  resembling  opinion, 
he  made  his  first  essay  upon  them ;  and  having  made  some 
progress,  and  raised  a  character  for  zeal  and  sanctity,  he 

*  Gent.  Mag.  fee. 

118  BROWN. 

then  began  to  infect  his  own  countrymen  ;  for  which  pur- 
pose he  called  in  the  assistance  of  one  Richard  Harrison,  a 
country  schoolmaster,  and  they  formed  churches  out  of 
both  nations,  but  mostly  of  the  English.     He  instructed 
his   audience  that   the  church  of  England  was   no  true 
church ;  that  there  was  little  of  Christ's  institution  in  the 
public   ministrations,    and   that  all  good  Christians  were 
obliged  to  separate  from  those  impure  assemblies ;  that 
their  only  way  was  to  join  him  and   his  disciples,  among 
whom  all  was  pure  and   unexceptionable,    evidently  in- 
spired by  the  Spirit  of  God,  and  refined  from  all  alloy  and 
prophanation.     These  discourses  prevailed  on  the  audi- 
ence; and  his  disciples,  now  called  Brownists,  formed  a 
society,  and  made  a  total  defection  from  the  church,  re- 
fusing to  join  any  congregation1  in  any  public  office  of 
worship.    Brown  being  convened  before  Dr.Freake,  bishop 
of  Norwich,   and  other  ecclesiastical  commissioners,    he 
maintained  his  schism,  to  justify  which  he  had  also  written 
a  book,  and  behaved  rudely  to  the  court,  on  which  he  was 
committed  to  the  custody  of  the  sheriff  of  Norwich ;  but 
his  relation,    the  lord  treasurer  Burghley,  imputing  his 
error  aud  obstinacy  to  zeal,  .rather  than  malice,  interceded 
to  have  him  charitably  persuaded  out  of  his  opinions,  and 
released.     To  this  end  he  wrote  a  letter  to  the  bishop  of 
Norwich,    which   procured   his  enlargement.     After  this, 
his  lordship  ordered  Brown  up  to  London,  and  recom- 
mended him  to  archbishop  Whitgift  for  his  instruction  and 
counsel,  in  order  to  his  amendment ;  but  Brown  left  the 
kingdom,  and  settled  at  Middleburgh  in  Zealand,  where 
he  and  his  followers  obtained  leave  of  the  states  to  form  a 
church  according  to  their  own  model,  which  was  drawn  in 
a  book  published  by  Brown  at  Middleburgh  in  1582,  and 
called  "  A  treatise  of  Reformation,  without  staying  for  any 
man."     How  long  he  remained  at   Middleburgh,   is  not 
precisely  known ;  but  he  was  in  England  in   1585,  when 
he  was  cited   to  appear  before  archbishop  Whitgift,   to 
answer  to  certain  matters  contained  in  a  book  published  by 
him,  but  what  this  was,  we  are  not  informed.     The  arch- 
bishop, however,  by  force  of  reasoning,  brought  Brown 
>  at  last  to  a  tolerable  compliance  with  the  church  of  Eng- 
land ;  and  having  dismissed  him,  the  lord  treasurer  Burgh- 
ley sent  him  to  his  father  in  the  country,  with  a  letter  to 
recommend  hint  to  his  favour  and  countenance,  but  from 


dnothet  iettef  of  the  Idrd  treasurer's,  vve  learn  that  Bfowh's* 
errors  had  sunk  so  deep  as  not  to  be  so  easily  rooted  out  i.4 
was  imagined';  and  that  he  soon  relapsed  iftto  his  former  opi- 
nions, knd  shewed  himself  so  incorrigible;  that  his  good  old 
father  resolved  to  own  him  for  his  son  no  longer  than  his  son 
owned  the  church  of  England  for  his  mother  \  and  Brown 
chusiug  rather  to  part  with  his  aged  sire  than  his  n&W  schism i 
he  was  discharged  the  family.  When  gentleness  was  fdiind 
ineffectual,  severity  was  next  practised  ;  and  Brown,  aftef 
wandering  up  and  down,  and  enduring  great  hardships,  at 
length  went  to  live  at  Northampton,  where,  industriously 
labouring  to  promote  his  Sect*  Lindsell,  bishop  of  Peterbo- 
rough, sent  him  a  citation  to  come  before  him,  which  Brown 
refused  to  obey;  for  which  contempt  he  was  excommuni- 
cated. This  proved  the  means  of  his  reformation  ;  for  he  waff 
so  deeply  affected  with  the  solemnity  of  this  censure;  that 
he  made  his  submission,  moved  for  absolution,  and  received 
it ;  and  from  that  time  continued  in  the  communion  of  the 
church,  though  it  Was  not  in  his  power  to  close  the  chasm, 
or  heal  the  wound  he  had  made  in  it.  It  was  towards  the* 
year  1590  that  Brown  renounced  his  principles  of  separa- 
tion, and  Was  soon  after  preferred  to  the  rectory  of 
Achurch,  near  Thrapston  in  Northamptonshire.  Fuller 
does  not  believe  that  Brown  ever  formally  recanted  his1 
opinions,  either  by  word  or  writing,  as  to  the  main  point* 
of  his  doctrine  ;  but  that  his  promise  of  a  general  compli- 
ance with  the  church  of  England,  improved  by  the  coun- 
tenance of  his  patron  and  kinsman,  the  earl  of  Exeter,  pre- 
vailed upon  the  archbishop,  and  procured  this  extraor- 
dinary favour  for  him.  He  adds,  that  Brown  allowed  £ 
salary  for  one  to  discharge  his  cure ;  and  though  he  op- 
posed his  parishioners  in  judgment,  yet  agreed  in  taking 
their  tithes.  He  was  a  man  of  good  parts  and  some  learn- 
ing, but  was  imperious  and  uncontroulable ;  and  so  far 
from  the  Sabbatarian  strictness  afterwards  espdtfsed  by 
tome  of  his  followers,  that  he  led  an  idle  and  dissolute  life. 
In  a  word,  says  Fuller,  he  had  a  wife  with  whom  he  never 
lived,  and  a  church  in  which  he  never  preached,  though 
hexeceived  the  profits  thereof:  and  as  all  the  other  scenes 
of  his  life  were  stormy  and  turbulent,  so  was  his  end  :  fot 
the  constable  of  his  parish  requiring,  somewhat  roughly^ 
the  payment  of  certain  rates,  his  passion  qtoved  him  to 
blows,  of.  which  the  constable  complaining  to  justice  St  - 
John,  he  rather  inclined  to  pity  than  punish  him  but 
.Vol,  VII.  I 

114  B  R  O  W  N. 

Brown  behaved  with  so  much  insolence,  that  be  Wis  sent 
to  Northampton  gaol  on  a  feather-bed  in  a  cart,  being 
very  infirm,  and  aged  above  eighty  years,  where  he  soon 
after  sickened  and  died,  anno  1630,  after  boasting,  "  That 
he  had  been  committed  to  thirty-two  prisons,  in  some .  o£ 
which  he  could  not  see  his  hand  at  noon-day ."  He  was 
buried  in  his  church  of  Achurch  in  Northamptonshire. 

Those  who  are  acquainted  with  the  tenets  and  practice* 
of  some  modern  sects,  will  easily  recognize  in  Brown  their 
founder.  The  Brownists  equally  condemned  episcopacy 
and  presbytery,  as  to  the  jurisdiction  of  consistories, 
classes,  and  synods;  andj  would  not  join  with  any  other  re- 
formed church,  because  they  were  not  sufficiently  assured, 
of  the  sanctity  and  probity  of  its  members,  holding  it  an 
impiety  to  communicate  with  sinners.  Their  form  of 
church-government  was  democraticaL  '  Such  as  desired  to 
be  members  of  their  church  made  a  confession  of  their 
faith,  and  signed  a  covenant  obliging  themselves  to  walk, 
together  in  the  order  of  the  gospel.  The  whole  power  of 
admitting  and  excluding  members,  with  the  decision  of  all. 
controversies,  was  lodged  in  the  brotherhood.  Their 
church  officers  for  preaching  the  word,  and  taking  care  of 
the  poor,  were  chosen  from  among  themselves,  and  sepa* 
rated  to  their  several  offices  by  fasting,  prayer,  and  im- 
position of  hands  from  some  of  the  brethren.  They  did 
not  allow  the  priesthood  to  be  any  distinct  order,  or  to 
give  any  indelible  character ;  but  as  the  vote  of  the  brother- 
hood made  a  man  a  minister,  and  gave  authority  to  preach 
the  word  and  administer  the  sacraments  among  them  ;  so 
the  same  power  could  discharge  hitn  from  his  office,  and 
reduce  him  to  a  mere  layman  again.  As  they  maintained 
the  bounds  of  a  church  to  be  no  greater  than  what  would 
contain  as  many  as  could  meet  together  in  one  place,  and 
join  in  one  communion,  so  the  power  of  their  officers  was 
prescribed  within  the  same  limits.  The  minister  or  pastor 
of  a  church  could  not  administer  the  eucharist  or  baptism 
to  the  children  of  any  but  those  of  his  own  society.  A  lay 
brother  was  allowed  the  liberty  of  giving  a  word  of  exhor- 
tation to  the  people ;  and  it  was  usual  for  some  of  them, 
after  sermon,  to  ask  questions,  and  reason  upon  the  doc 
twines  that  bad  been  preached.  Until  the  civil  war,  they 
were  much  discouraged  in  England ;  but  upon  the  ruin  of 
episcopaoy,  they  quitted  Holland,  and  came  over  to  England, 
where  they  began  to  form  churches  on  their  peculiar 

■*  * 

H  R  O  W  N.  Hi 


,  — *•         »  .         '  * 

model  /The  Presbyterians  complained  of  this  as  an  en- 
eroachifient,  and  insisted  that  the  Independents  should 
come  under  the  Scotch  regulation;  This  the  latter  refused 
to  comply  with,  and  continued  a  distinct  sect,  or  faction  } 
and,  during  the  civil  wars,  became  the  most  powerful 
party ;  and  getting  to  the  head  of  affairs,  most  of  thg 
other  sects,  which  were  averse  to  the  Church  of  England* 
joined  with  them*  and  all  of  them  yielded  to  lose  their 
former  names,  in  the  general  one  df  Independents. 

The  chief  of  Brown's  works  is  a  small  thin  quarto,  printed 
at  Middleburgh  in  1 582,  containing  three  pieces.  The  titlg 
of  the  first  is,  "  A  Treatise  of  Reformation  without  tarrying 
for  any*  and  of  the  wickedness  of  those  preachers  who  will 
not  reform  themselves  ajid  their  charge,  because  they  will 
tarry  till  the  magistrate  command  and  compel  them.  By 
me,  Robert  Brown."  "  A  Treatise  upon  the  23d  chapter 
Of  St  Matthew*  both  for  an  order  of  studying  and  hand- 
ling the  scriptures,  and  also  for  avoiding  the  popish  disor- 
ders, and  ungodly  communion*  of  all  false  Christians,  and 
especially  of  wicked  preachers  and  hirelings."  The  title 
of  the  third  piece  is*  "  A  book  which  sheweth  the  life  and 
manners  of  all  true  Christians,  and  how  unlike  they  are  unto 
Turks  and  papists,  and  heathen  folk.  Also  the  points  and 
parts  of  all  divinity,  that  is*  of  the  revealed  will  and  word 
of  God,  are  declared  by  their  several  definitions  and  divi- 
sions.*7 * 

BROWN  (TttOMAs),  of  facetious  memory,  as  Mr.  Ad* 
dison  says  of  him,  was  the  son  of  a  considerable  farmer  o( 
ShifTnal  in  Shropshire*  and  educated  at  Newport-school  in 
that  county ;  from  whence  he  was  removed  to  Christ* 
church  in  Oxford*  where  he  soon  distinguished  himself  bf 
his  uncommon  attainments  in  literature.  He  had  great 
parts  and  quickness  of  apprehension,  nor  does  it  appear 
that  he  was  wanting  in  application  ;  for  we  are  told,  that 
he  was  very  well  skilled  in  the  Latin,  Greek*  French* 
Italian,  and  Spanish  languages*  even  before  he  was  sent  to 
Oxford.  The  irregularities  of  his  life  did  not  suffer  him 
however  to  continue  long  at  the  university;  but  when 
obliged  to  quit  it,  instead  of  returning  home  to  his  father* 
he  formed  a  scheme  of  going  to  London*  in  hopes  of  mak* 
ing  ids  fortune  some  way  or  other  there.  This  scheme  did 
oot  answer.     He  was  very  soon  in  danger  of  starving ;  upon 

*  Bk>g.   Brit— Fuller'!   and  Collier's  Ecd.  Histories.— -Bfoaheim's  dkto.<ft 
deal's  PucKa**— Strype't  Parker,  p.  326.~Strype,i  WhitfiVp*  32& 




which  he  made  interest  to  be  schoolmaster  of  Kingston 
upon  Thames,  in  which  pursuit  he  succeeded  But  this 
was  a  profession  very  unsuitable  to  a  man  of  Mi*.  Brown's 
turn,  and  a  situation  that  must  needs  have  been  extremely 
disagreeable  to  him ;  and  therefore  we  cannot  wonder, 
that  be.  soon  quitted  his  school,  and  went  again  to  London ; 
where  finding  his  old  companions  more  delighted  with  his 
humour,  than  ready  to  relieve  his  necessities,  he  had  re- 
course to  his  pen,  and  became  an  author,  and  partly  a  li- 
beller, by  profession.  He  published  a  great  variety  of 
pieces,  under  the  names  of  dialogues,  letters,  poems,  &Cw 
in  all  which  he  discovered  no  small  erudition,  and  a  vast 
and  exuberant  vein  of  humour :  for  he  was  in  his  writings, 
as  in  his  conversation,  always  lively  and  facetious.  In  the 
mean  time  he  made  no  other  advantage  of  these  produc* 
tions,  than  what  he  derived  from  the  booksellers;  for 
though  they  raised  his  reputation,  and  made  his  company 
sought  after,  yet  as  he  possessed  less  of  the  gentleman 
than  wits  usually  do,  and  more  of  the  scholar,  so  he  was 
not  apt  to  choose  his  acquaintance  by  interest,  but  was 
more  solicitous  to  be  recommended  to  the  ingenious  who 
might  admire,  than  to  the  great  who  might  relieve  him. 
An  anonymous  author,  who  has  given  the  world  some  ac- 
count of  Mr.  Brown,  says,  that  though  a  good-natured 
man,  he  had  one  pernicious  quality,  which  was,  rather  to 
lose  his  friend  than  his  joke.  He  had  a  particular  genius 
for  satire,  and  dealt  it  out  liberally  whenever  he  could  find 
occasion*  He  is  famed  for  being  the  author  of  a  libel, 
fixed  one  Sunday  morning  on  the  doors  of  Westminster- 
abbey  ;  and  of  many  others  against  the  clergy  and  quality* 
He  used  to  treat  religion  very  lightly,  and  would  often 
say,  that  he  understood  the  world  better,  than  to  have  the 
imputation  of  righteousness  laid  to  his  charge,  yet,  upon 
the  approach  of  death,  his  heart  misgave  him,  as  if  all  was 
not  right  within,  and  he  began  to  express  sentiments  of 
remorse  for  his  past  life. 

Towards  the  latter  end  of  Brown's  life,  we  are  informed 
by  Mr.  Jacob,  that  he  was  in  favour  with  the  earl  of  Dor* 
set,  who  invited  him  to  dinner  on  a  Christmas-day,  with 
Dryden,  and  some  other  men  of  genius ;  when  Brown,  to 
jii£  agreeable  surprise,  found  a  bank  note  of  50/.  under  his 
plate ;  and  Dryden  at  the  same  time  was  presented  with 
another  of  100/.  Brown  died  in  1704,  and  was  interred 
in  the  cloister  of  Westminster-abbey,  near  the  remains  of 


BROWN.  117 

.  Mrs.  Behn,  with  whom  he  was  intimate  in  his  life-time. 
His  whole  works  were  printed  in  1707,,  consisting  of  dia- 
logues, essays,  declamations,  satires,  letters  from  the  dead 
to  the  living,  translations,  amusements,  &c.  in  4  vols.  Much 
humour  and  not  a  little  learning  are,  as  we  have  already- 
observed,  scattered  every  where  throughout  them,  but 
they  are  totally  destitute  of  delicacy,  and  have  not  been 
reprinted  for  many  years.     Dr.  Johnson,  in  his  Life  of 

,  Dryden,  very  justly  says  that  "  Brown  was  not  a  man  de- 
ficient in  literature,  nor  destitute  of  fancy ;  but  he  seems  to 
have  thought  it  the  pinnacle  of  excellence  to  be  a  '  merry 
fellow ;'  and  therefore  laid  out  his  powers  upon  small  jests 
or  gross  buffoonery,  so  that  his  performances  have  little 
intrinsic  value,  and  were  read  only  while  they  were  recom- 
mended by  the  novelty  of  the  event  that  occasioned  them. 
What  sense  or  knowledge  his  works  contain  is  disgraced 
by  the  garb  in  which  it  is  exhibited/' * 

BROWN  (Ulysses  Maximilian  de),  a  celebrated  gene- 
r^l  of  the  eighteenth  century,  was  the  son  of  Ulysses,  baron 
de  Brown,  colonel  of  a  regiment  of  cuirassiers  in  the  ser- 

.  vice  of  the  emperors  Leopold  and  Joseph,  created  in 
1716,  by  the  emperor  Charles  VI.  a  count  of  the  holy  Ro- 
man empire,  his  younger  brother  George  receiving  the 
like  dignity  at  the  same  time,  who  was  general  of  foot, 
counsellor  of  war,  and  a  colonel  of  a  regiment  of  infantry, 
under  Charles  VI.  They  were  of  an  ancient  and  noble 
family  in  Ireland.  The  subject  of  the  present  memoir 
was  born  at  Basle,  Oct.  24,  1705.  After  having  passed 
through  the  lessons  of  a  school  at  Limerick  in  Ireland,  he 
was  called  to  Hungary  at  ten  years  of  age,  by  count 
George  de  Brown,  his  uncle,  and  was  present  at  the  fa- 
mous siege  of  Belgrade  in  1717;  about  the  close  of  the 
year  1723,  he  became  captain  in  his  uncle's  regiment,  and 
then  lieutenant-colonel  in  1725.  He  went  to  the  island  of 
Corsica  in  1730,  with  a  battalion  of  his  regiment,  and  con* 
tributed  greatly  to  the  capture  of  Callansana,  where  he 
received  a  wound  of  some  consequence  in  his  thigh.  He 
was  appointed  chamberlain  to  the  emperor  in  1732,  and 
colonel  in  1734.  He  distinguished  himself  in  the  war  of 
Italy,  especially  in  the  battles  of  Parma  and  Guastalla, 
and  burnt,  in  presence  of  the  French  army,  the  bridge 
which  the  marechal  de  Moailles  had  thrown  across  the 

I  Cftber's  Live*,  *©L  III,— Atk.  Ox.  to).  ll.—Bieg.  JDnuMtifa. 

Hi  BR  O  W  tf, 

Adige.  Being  appointed  general  in  1736,  he  favoured, 
the  year  following,  the  retreat  of  the  army,  by  a  judicious 
manoeuvre,  and  saved  all  the  baggage  at  the  memorable 
day  of  Banjaluca  in  Bosnia,  Aug.  3,  1737.  This  signal 
piece  of  service  procured  him  a  second  regiment  of  infan- 
try, vacant  by  the  death  of  count  Francis  de  Wallis.  On 
his  return  to  Vienna  in  1739,  the  emperor  Charles  Vh 
raised  him  to  the  dignity  of  general-fieUUraarechal-lieute- 
nant,  and  gave  him  a  seat  in  the  Aulic  council  of  war* 
After  the  of  that  prince,  the  fyng  of  Prussia  having 
entered  Silesia,  count  de  Brown,  with  but  a  small  body  of 
troops,  disputed  with  him  every  foot  of  ground  for  the 
space  of  two  months.  He  commanded  in  1741  the  infan- 
try of  the  right  wing  of  the  Austrian  *rmy  at  the  battle  of 
Molvitz ;  and,  though  wounded,  made  a  handsome  retreat. 
He  then  went  into  Bavaria,  where  he  commanded  the  van 
of  the  same  army,  made  himself  master  of  Deckendorf,  and 
took  much  of  the  enemy's  baggage,  and  forced  the  French 
to  quit  the  banks  of  the  Danube,  which  the  Austrian  arm  j 
afterwards  passed  in  perfect  safety ;  *  in  commemoration  of 
wfciqh,  a  marble  pillar  was  erected  on  the  spot,  with  the 
following  inscription  ;  «  Theresise  Austriacse  August®  Duce 
Exercitus  Ca,rolo  Alexandrp  Lotharingico,  septemdecim 
superatis  hostilibus.  Villis,  captoque  Deckendorfio,  reni- 
tentibus  undis,  resistentibus  Gallis,  Duce  Exercitus  Iah 
dovico  Borbonio  Contio,  transivit  hie  Danubium  Ulysses 
Maximilianus,  S.  H,  I.  Cornea  de  Brown,  Lqcumtenens, 
Campi  Marashallus,  Die  5°  Junii,  A.  IX  1743"  The  queen 
of  Hungary  sent  him  the  same  year  to  Worms,  in  quality 
of  her  plenipotentiary  to  the  king  of  Great  Britain :  where 
he  put  the  finishing  hand  to  the  treaty  of  alliance  be- 
tween the  courts  of  Vienna,  London,  and  Turin,  and  she 
declared  him  her  actual  privy  counsellor  at  her  coronation 
qf  Bohemia.  The  count  de  Brown,  in  1744,  followed 
prince  Lobkovitz  into  Italy,  took  the  city  of  Veletri  the 
4th  of  August,  notwithstanding  the  great  superiority  of  the 
enemy  in  numbers,  penetrated  into  their  camp,  defeated 
several  regiments,  and  took  a  great  many  prisoners.  Being 
recalled  to  Bavaria,  he  performed  several  military  exploits, 
and  returned  to  Italy  in  1746.  He  drove  the  Spaniards 
out  of  the  Milanese ;  and,  having  joined  the  army  of  the 
prince  de  Lichtenstein,  he  commanded  the  left  wing  of 
the  Austrian  troops  at  the  battle  of  Placentia,  the  1 5th  of 
June  1746;  and  routed  the  right  wing  of  the  enemy's 


army,  commanded  by  the  marecbal  4e  Maillebois.  After 
this  famous  battle,  the  gaining  of  which  was  due  to  him,  he 
commanded  in  chief  the  army  ordered  against  the  Genoese, 
made  himself  master  of  the  pass  of  la  Bochetta,  though 
defended  by  4000  men,  and  took  possession  of  the  city  of 
Genoa.  Count  Brown  then  went  to  join  the  troops  of  the 
king  of  Sardinia,  and,  in  conjunction  with  him,  took  Mont- 
albano  and  the  territory  of  Nice.  He  passed  the  Var  the 
30th  of  November,  in  opposition  to  the  French  troops*, 
entered  Provence,  and  captured  the  isles  of  Saint-Margue- 
rite and  Saint- Honorat.  He  had  nearly  made  himself 
master  of  all  Provence,  when  the  revolution  at  Genoa  and 
the  army  of  the  marechal  de  Belleisle  obliged  him  to  make 
that  fine  retreat  which  acquired  him  the  admiration  of  all 
good  judges  of  military  tactics.  He  employed  the  rest  of 
the  year  1747  in  defending  the  states  of  the  house  of 
Austria  in  Italy.  The  empress-queen  of  Hungary,  in  re* 
ward  of  his  signal  campaigns  in  Italy,  made  him  governor 
of  Transylvania  in  1749.  In  1752  he  had  the  government 
of  the  city  of  Prague,  with  the  general  command  of  the 
troops  of  that  kingdom*;  and  the  king  of  Poland,  elector 
of  Saxony,  honoured  him  in  1755  with  the  order  of  the 
white  eagle.  The  king  of  Prussia  having  invaded  Saxony 
in  1756,  and  attacked  Bohemia,  count  Brown  marched 
against  him ;  he  repulsed  that  prince  at  the  battle  of  Lo- 
bositz  the  1st  of  October,  although  he  had  but  126,800 
men,  and  the  king  of  Prussia  was  at  the  head  of  at  least 
40,000.  Within  a  week  after  this  engagement,  he  under- 
took that  celebrated  march  into  Saxony,  for  delivering  the 
Saxon  troops  shut  up  between  Pirna  and  Konigstein : 
an  action  worthy  of  the  greatest  general  whether  ancient  or 
modern.  He  afterwards  obliged  the  Prussians  to  retreat 
from  Bohemia ;  for  which  service  he  obtained  the ,  collar 
of  the  golden  fleece*  with  which  he  was  honoured  by 
the  empress  March  6,  1757.  Shortly  after  this  count 
Brown  went  into  Bohemia,  where  he  raised  troops  with  the 
utmost  expedition,  in  order  to  make  head  against  the  king 
of  Prussia,  who  had  entered  it  afresh  at  the  head  of  his 
whole  army.  On  May  6th  was  fought  the  famous  battle  of 
Potshernitz,  or  of  Prague,  when  count  Brown  was  dan- 
gerously  wounded.  Obliged  to  retire  to  Prague,  he  there 
died  of  his  wounds,  the  26th  of  June.  1757,  at  the  age  of 
52.    The  count  was  not  only  a  great  general,  be  wa*  in 

J9P  BROW  N. 

equally  able  negotiator,  and  well  skilled  in  politics.     H$ 
married,  Aug.  15,  1726,  Maria  Pbilippina  countess  of  Mar> 
jinjtz,  of  an  illustrious  and  anqient  family  in  Bohemia,  by 
whom  he  had  two  sons.     The  life  pf  this  e^cgllent  con>r 
mander  was  published  in  two  separate  volumes,  one  in 
(jrerman,  the  other  in  French,  printed  at  Prague  in  1757.? 
BROWNE  (Sja  AtfTtfONY),  an  English  judge,  the  son 
of  sir  We$tpn  Browne  of  Abbess-roding  in  Essex,  was  bora 
in  tl*at  pounty,  and  educated  for  sonie  time  at  Oxford, 
wheqce  he  removed  to  the  Middle  Temple,  where  he  be* 
came  eminent  in  the  law,  and  was  chosen  sunixner  reader 
•in  Jhe  first  of  qupen  Mary,   1553.     The  following  year  he 
was  made  serjeant  at  law,  and  was  the  first  of  the  call. 
Soon  after  he  w$s  appointed  serjeant  to  the  king  and  que£0, 
Philip  and  Mary.     In  1558,  he  was  preferred  to  be  lgrd 
pbief  justice  of  the  common  pleas ;  but  removed   upon 
que^n  Dory's  decease,  to  majse  way  for  sir  James  Dyer, 
for  thqugh  a  Roman  catholic,  and  queen  Elizabeth  might 
pot  chusp  lie  shou]4  preside  in  (bat  eourt,  she  had  such  an, 
opinion  of  Jiis  talents,  that  he  vyas  permitted  to  retain  the 
situation  pf  puisne  op  the  bench  as  long  as  he  1  jvefj.     It  is 
even  said  that  he  refused  the  place  of  lord  keeper,  which 
w§s  offered  to  him,  wheri  the  queen  thought  of  removing 
$}r  Nicholas  Bacon  for  being  concerned  in  Hales's  t>oo]t, 
written  against  the  Scottish  line,  in  favour  of  the  house  of 
Suffolk.     This  hook  sir  Anthony  privately  answered  *,  ox 
made  large  collections  for  an  answer,  which  Leslie,  bishop 
of  Ross,  and  Morgan  Philips  afterwards  use  of,  in, 
the  works  they  published  in  defence  of  the  title  of  Mary 
queen  of  Scots.     Sir  Anthony  Brownp  died  at  bis  house  in 
the  parish  of  South wojd  in  Essex,  May  6,   1567.     The 
only  works  attributed  to  him  were  left  in  MS. :  namely, 
1  •  "  A  Discourse  upon  certain  points  touching  the  Inheri- 
tance of  the  flrown,"  mentioned  already,  and.  2.  "  A  book 
against  Robert  Pud  ley,  earl  of  Leicester,"  mentioned  by. 
Dr.  Mattheyr  Paterson,  in  his  "  Jerusalem  and  Ba\>elf" 
1653,  p.  587,  !>ut  ^ne  object  of  which  we  are  unacquainted 
yath.     Plowden  sajs  of  sir  Anthony,    that  he   was   <c  a, 
judge  of  profoqn4  genius,  and  great  eloquence."  %t 

*  There  seems  some  mistake  here,  sir  Nicholas  Bacon  got  possession  of 
or  at  least  a  want  of  accuracy  in  Dodd,  sir  A.  Browne's  book,  and  wrotg'  an, 
p/  Wood.    It  is  said  by  the  latter  that     answer  to  it. 

}  J/ifo  •«  above.     '  •  Wood's  Ath.  vqL  J^Etodd's  ph.  Hist.  ?ol.  I, 

j'  •»•'*-■' 

BROWNE.  ,  121 

BROWNE  (Edward),  an  eminent  physician,  son  of  sir 
Thomas  Browne,  hereafter  mentioned,  was  born  about 
1642.  He  was  instructed  in  grammar  learning  at  the 
school  of  Norwich,  and  in  1665  took  the  degree  of  bache- 
lor of  physic  at  Cambridge.  Removing  afterwards  to  Mer* 
ton  college,  Oxford,  he  was  admitted  there  to  the  same 
degree  in  1666,  and  the  next  year  created  doctor.  In 
1668,  he  visited  part  of  Germany,  and  the  year  following 
made  a  wider  excursion  into  Austria,  Hungary,  and  Thes~ 
saly,  where  the  Turkish  sultan  then  kept  his  court  at  La* 
rissa.  He  afterwards  passed  through  Italy.  Upon  his  re- 
turn, he  practised  physic  in  London ;  was  made  physician 
first  to  Charles  II.  and  afterwards  in  1682  to  St  Bartholo- 
mew's hospital.  About  the  same  time  he  joined  his  name 
to  those  of  many  other  eminent  men,  in  a  translation  of 
Plutarch's  Liv\es.  He  was  first  censor,  then  elect,  and  trea- 
surer of  the  college  of  physicians;  of  which  in  1705  he 
was  chosen  president,  and  held  this  office  till  his  death, 
which  happened  in  August  1708,  after  a  very  short  illness, 
at  his  seat  at  Northfleet,  near  Greenhithe  in  Kent.  He 
was  acquainted  with  Hebrew,  was  a  critic  in  Greek,  and 
po  man  of  his  age  wrote  better  Latin.  German,  Italian, 
French,  &c.  he  spoke  and  wrote  with  as  much  ease  as  his 
mother  tongue.  Physic  was  his  business,  and  to  the  pro- 
motion thereof  all  his  other  acquisitions  were  referred. 
Botany,  pharmacy,  and  chemistry,  he  knew  and  practised. 
King  Charles  said  of  him,  that  "  he  was  as  learned  as  any 
of  the  college,  and  as  well-bred  as  any  at  court."  He  was 
married,  and  left  a  son  and  a  daughter ;  the  former,  Dr. 
Thomas  Browne,  F.  R.  S.  and  of  the  royal  college  of  phy- 
sicians, died  in  July  1710.  The  daughter  married  Owen 
Brigstock,  of  Lechdenny,  in  the  county  of  Carmarthen, 
esq.  to  whom  the  public  is  indebted  for  part  of  the  post- 
humous works  of  sir  Thomas  Browne. 

Dr.  Browne,  on  his  return  from  his  travels,  published  an 
account  of  some  part  of  them,  and  after  his  second  tour, 
added  another  volume,  1677,  4to.  In  1685,  he  published 
a  new  edition  of  the  whole,  with  many  corrections  and  im- 
provements, a  work  extravagantly  and  absurdly  praised  in 
the  Biographia  Britannica.  His  travels  yield  some  infor- 
mation to  naturalists,  but  little  to  the  philosophical  or 
common  reader.1 

*  Slog .  Brit— Johnson's  I*ife  of  sir  T.  Browne. 

122  BROWNE* 

BROWNE  (George),  the  first  bishop  that  embraced 
and  promoted  the  Reformation  in  Ireland,  was  originally 
an  Austin  friar  of  London.     He  received  his  academical 
education  in  the  house  of  his  order,  near  Halywell,  in 
Oxford,  and  becoming  eminent  for  his  learning  and  other 
good  qualities,  was  made  provincial  of  the  Austin  monks 
in  England.     In  1523  be  supplicated  the  university  for  the 
degree  of  B.  D.  but  it  does  not  appear  that  he  was  then 
admitted.     He  took  afterwards  the  degree  of  D.  D.  in  some 
university  beyond  sea,  and  was  incorporated  in  the  same 
degree  at  Oxford,  in  1534,  and  soon  after  at  Cambridge. 
Before  that  time,  having  read  some  of  Luther's  writings, 
he  took  a  liking  to  his  doctrine ;  and,  among  other  things, 
was  wont  to  inculcate  into  the  people,  "  That  they  should 
make  their  applications  solely  to  Christ,  and  not  to  the 
Virgin  Mary,  or  the  saints."     King  Henry  VIII.  being  in* 
formed  of  this,  took  him  into  his  favour,  and  promoted 
him  to  the  archbishopric  of  Dublin,  to  which  he  was  con- 
secrated March  19,  1534-5,  by  Cranmer,  archbishop  of 
Canterbury,  assisted  by  the  bishops  of  Rochester  and  Sa- 
.  lisbury.     A  few  months  after  his  arrival  in  Ireland,  the 
lord  privy-seal,  Cromwell,  signified  to  him  that  bis  ma- 
jesty having  renounced  the  Papal  supremacy  in  England, 
it  was  his  highness' s  pleasure  that  his  subjects  of  Ireland 
should  obey  his  commands  in  that  respect  as  in. England, 
and  nominated  him  one  of  the  commissioners  for  the  exe- 
cution thereof.     On  November  28,  1535,  he  acquainted 
the  lord  Cromwell  with  his  success;  telling  him  that  be 
had  "  endeavoured,  almost  to  the  danger  and  hazard  of 
his  life,  to  procure  the  nobility  and  gentry  of  the  Irish 
nation  to  due  obedience,  in  owning  the  king  their  supreme 
head,  as  well  spiritual  as  temporal."     In  the  parliament 
which  met  at  Dublin,  May  1,  1536,  he  was  very  instru- 
mental in  having  the  Act  for.  the  king's  supremacy  over 
the  church  of  Ireland  passed ;  but  he  met  with  many  ob- 
stacles in  the  execution  of  it ;  and  the  court  of  Rome  used 
every  effort  to  prevent  any  alterations  in  Ireland  with  regard 
to  religious  matters ;  for  this  purpose  the  pope  sent  over  a 
boll  of  excommunication  against  all  such  as  bad  owned,  or 
should  own,  the  king's  supremacy  within  that  kingdom,  and 
the  form  of  an  oath  of  obedience  to  be  taken  to  his  hotines* 
at  confessions.     Endeavours  were  even  used  to  raise  a  re* 
bellion  there ;  for  one  Thady  6  Birne,  a  Franciscan  friar, 
being  seized  by  archbishop  Browne's  order,  letters  were 

BROWNE,  12* 

found  about  bim,  from  the  pope  and  cardinals  to  O'Neal ; 
in  which,  after  commending  his  own  and  his  father's  faith- 
fulness to  the  church  of  Rome,  be  was  exhorted  "  for  the 
glory  of  the  mother  church,  the  honour  of  St.  Peter,  and 
Eis  own  security,  to  suppress  heresie,  and  his  holiness's 
enemies."    And  the  council  of  cardinals  thought  fit  to  en* 
courage  his  country,  as  a  sacred  island,    being  certain 
while  mother  church  had  a  son  of  worth  as  himself,  and 
those  that  should  succour  him  and  join  therein,  she  would 
never  fall,  but  have  more  or  less  a  holding  in  Britain  in 
spite  of  fyte.    In  pursuance  of  this  letter,  O'Neal  began 
to  declare  himself  the  champion  of  Popery;  and  having 
entered  into  a;  confederacy  with  others,  they  jointly  in- 
vaded the  Pale,  and  committed  several  ravages,  but  were 
soon  after  quelled.     About  the  time  that  king  Henry  VIII. 
began  to  suppress  the  monasteries  in  England  and  Ireland; 
archbishop  Browne  completed  his  design  of  removing  all 
superstitious  reliques  and  images  out  of  the  two  cathedrals 
pf  St.  Patrick's  and  the  Holy  Trinity,  in  Dublin,  and  out 
of  the  rest  of  the  churches  within  his  diocese,  and  in  their 
room  placed  the  Creed,  the  Lord's  Prayer,  and  the  Ten 
Commandments  in  gold  letters.     And  in  1541,  the  king 
having  converted  the  priory  of  the  Holy  Trinity  into  a 
cathedral  church,  consisting  of  a  dean  and  chapter,  our 
archbishop  founded  three  prebends  in  the  same  in  1544, 
namely,  St.  Michael's,  St.  John's,  and  St.  Michan's,  from 
which  time  it  has  generally  been  known  by  the  name  of 
Christ-church.     King  Edward  VI.  having  caused  the  Li- 
turgy to  be  published  in  English,  sent  an  order  to  sir  An- 
thony St,  Leger,  governor  of  Ireland,  dated  February  6, 
1550-1)  to  notify  to  all  the  clergy  of  that  kingdom,  that 
they  should  use  this  book  in  all  their  churches,  and  the 
Bible  in  the  vulgar  tongue.     When  sir  Anthony  imparted  * 
this  order  to  the  clergy  (on  the  1st  of  March),  it  was  ve- 
hemently opposed   by  the   Popish  party,    especially  by 
George  Dowdall,    primate  of   Armagh,    but  archbishop 
Browne  received  it  with  the  utmost  satisfaction ;  and  on 
Easter-day  following  the  Liturgy  was  read,  for  the  first  time 
within  Ireland,  in  Christ -church,  Dublin,  in  presence  of  the 
mayor  and  bailiffs  of  that  city,  the  lord  deputy  St  Leger, 
archbishop' Browne,  &c.     On  this  occasion  the  archbishop 
preached  a  sermon  against  keeping  the  Scriptures  in  the 
Latin  tongue,  and  the  worship  of  images,  which  is  printed 
at  the  end  of  his  life,  and  is  the  only  part  of  his  writing* 

it*  BROWNE. 


extant,  except  the  letters  mentioned  above  *.  But  Dow* 
dall,  in  consequence  of  his  violent  and  unseasonable  oppo- 
sition to  the  king's  order,  was  deprived  of  the  title  of 
primate  of  all  Ireland,  which,  by  letters  patent  bearing 
date  the  20th  of  October,  1551,  was  conferred  on  arch- 
bishop Browne,  and  his  successors  in  the  see  of  Dublin 
for  ever.  However^  he  did  not  long  enjoy  this  dignity, 
for  he  was  deprived  both  of  it  and  his  archbishopric  in 

'  1554,  the  first  of  queen  Mary  I.  under  pretence  that  he 
was  married,  but  in  truth  because  he  had  zealously  pro- 
moted the  Reformation  ;  and  archbishop  Dowdall,  who  bad 
lived  in  exile  during  part  of  the  reign  of  king  Edward  VI. 
recovered  the  title  of  primate,  and  also  the  archbishopric 
of  Armagh,  which  had  been  given  to  Hugh  Goodacre. 
While  archbishop  Browne  enjoyed  the  see  of  Dublin,  the 
cathedral  of  St.  Patrick's  was  suppressed  for  about  the 
space  of  eight  years ;  but  queen  Mary  restored  it  to  its 
ancient  dignity,  towards  the  end  of  the  year  1554.  The 
exact  time  of  archbishop  Browne's  death  is  not  recorded  ;  . 
only  we  are  told  that  he  died  about  the  year  1556.  He 
was  a  man,  says  Usher,  of  a  cheerful  countenance ;  meek 
and  peaceable  :  in  his  acts  and  deeds  plain  and  downright ; 
of  good  parts,  and  very  stirring  in  what  he  judged  to  be 
for  the  interest  of  religion,  or  the  service  of  his  king;  mer- 
ciful and  compassionate  to  the  poor  and  miserable ;  and 
adorned  with  every  good  and  valuable  qualification. 9 

BROWNE  (Joseph),  D.D.  provost  of  Queen's-college, 
Oxford,  was  born  at  a  place  called  the  Tongue,  in  Water- 
millock,  Cumberland,  in  1700,  and  was  baptised  Dec.  19, 
of  that  year.  .  His  father,  George  Browne,  was  a  repu-* 
table  yeoman,  who  was  enabled  to  give  his  son  a  classical 
education  at  Barton  school,  and  afterwards  sent  him  to 

•  Queen's-college,  where  he  was  admitted  a  member  March 
22,  1716-17.  Here  his  good  behaviour  and  rapid  pro- 
gress in  knowledge,  procured  him  many  friends  that  were 
of  great  service  to  him.  In  due  time  he  was  elected  ta- 
berdar  upon  the  foundation;   and  having  gone  through 

*  In  this  sermon,  speaking  of  the  They  shall  hare  no  resting-place  upon 

Jesuits,  archbishop  Browne  says:  "  God  earth,  and  a  Jew  shall  have  mere  fa* 

shall  suddenly  cot  off  this  society,  even  your  than  a  Jesuit."     This  has  not 

by  the  band  of  those  who  have  most  escaped  that  acute  biographer,  rev.  R. 

suoqoured  them,  so  that  at  the  end  Churton,   "  Lives  of  the  Founders," 

tbey  shall  become  odious  to  all  nations,  p.  77. 

1  Biog.  Brit. — Life  and*  Sermon  in  Phenix,  vol.  I,— Harleian  Miscellany,— 
Strype's  Cranmcr,  p.  37,  27*.— Ath.  Ox,  vol.  L 

BROWNE  12* 

that  office  with  honour,  he  took  the  degree  of  M.  A.  Nov. 
4th,  1724,  and  was  chosen  one  of  the  chaplains  of  the 
college.  In  1726  he  published,  from  the  university  press, 
a  most  beautiful  edition  of  cardinal  Barberini's  Latin 
poems,  with  notes  and  a  life  of  the  author,  (who  was  after- 
wards pope  Urban  VIII.)  and  a  dedication  to  his  friencf 
Edward  Hassel,  esq.  of  Dalemajn,  his  friend  and  patron. 
In  April  1731,  he  was  elected  fellow,  and  became  an 
eminent  tutor,  having  several  young  noblemen  of  the  first 
rank  intrusted  to  bis  care.  In  this  useful  and  important 
station  he  continued  many  years,  exercising  strict  dis- 
cipline) and  assiduously  studying  to  promote  the  pros- 
perity of  the  college.  He  took  the  degree  of  D.  D.  July 
9,  1743,  and  was  presented  by  the  provost  and  society  to 
the  rectory  of  Bramshot,  in  Hampshire,  May  1,  1746. 
The  university  also  conferred  upon  him  the  professorship 
of  natural  philosophy  in  1747,  which  be  held  till  his  death. 
At  his  living  at  Bramshot,  he  resided  more  than  ten  years, 
during  which  time  he  was  collated  to  the  chancellorship  of 
Hereford,  and  was  made  a  canon-residentiary  by  the  right 
rev.  lord  James  Beauclerk,  bishop  of  that  diocese,  who 
had  formerly  been  his  pupil. 

Upon  the  death  of  Dr.  Smith,  provost  of  Queen's,  Nov. 
23,  1756,  Dr.  Browne  offered  himself  a  candidate  for  the 
headship,  and  had  for  his  formidable  competitor,  Dr. 
George  Fothergill,  principal  of  Edmund-hall,  who  had 
likewise  been  fellow  of  the  college,  an  eminent  tutor,  and 
a  person  universally  esteemed.  The  election  lasted  three 
days,  and  each  candidate  having  upon  every  day's  scrutiny 
an  equality  of  votes,  both  among  the  senior  and  junior 
fellows,  Dr.  Browne  being  the  senior  candidate,  was,  as 
the  statute  directs,  declared  duly  elected.  This  contest, 
however,  made  no  disagreement  between  the  two  com* 
petitors  ;  they  lived  in  the  same  harmony  and  friendship 
as  before.  In  1759,  Dr.  Browne  was  appointed  vice- 
chancellor,  which  arduous  office,  together  with  that  of  his 
headship,  he  managed  with  great  prudence  and  ability, 
till  March  25,  1765,  when  a  stroke  of  the  palsy  rendered 
him  utterly  incapable  of  business.  Under  this  calamity 
he  languished  till  June  .17,  1767,  when  he  died,  leaving 
the  character  of  being  a  well-bred  man,  a  polite  as  well  as, 
a  profound  scholar,  an  agreeable  companion,  and  a  steady 
friend.  There  was  a  gravity  and  authority  in  his  looks  and 
deportment,  that  reflected  dignity  upon  the  offices  he  sus- 

126  B  R  O  W  NE,- 

tained.  He  continued  vice-chancellor  an  unusual  length 
of  time,  and  presided  at  the  memorable  Encoenia  when  the 
earl  of  Litchfield  was  installed.  It  is  said  that  his  death 
prevented  bis  being  advanced  to  one  of  the  first  vacancies 
on  the  episcopal  bench. l 

BROWNE  (Isaac  Hawkins),  esq.  F.  R.  S.  and  a  very 
ingenious  and  elegant  poet  of  the  last  century,  was  born 
at  Burton-upon -Trent,  January  21,  1705-6  ;  and  was  the 
son  of  the  rev.  William  Browne,  minister  of  that  parish, 
where  be  chiefly  resided,  vicar  of  Winge,  in  Buckings 
hamshire,  and  a  prebendary  of  Litchfield,  which  last  pre-* 
ferment  was  given  him  by  the  excellent  bishop  Hough; 
He  was  possessed,  also,  of  a  small  paternal  inheritance, 
which  he  greatly  increased  by  his  marriage  with  Anne, 
daughter  of  Isaac  Hawkins,  esq.  all  whose  estate,  at  length, 
came  to  his  only  grandson  and  heir-at-law,  the  subject  of 
this  article.  Our  author  received  his  grammatical  edu- 
cation, first  at  Litchfield,  and  then  at  Westminster,  where 
he  was  much  distinguished  for  the  brilliancy  of  bis  parts, 
and  the  steadiness  of  his  application.  The  uncommon 
rapidity  with  which  he  passed  through  the  several  forms 
or  classes  of  Westminster  school,  attracted  the  notice,  and 
soon  brought  him  under  the  direction  of  the  head  master, 
Dr.  Freind,  with  whom  he  was  a  peculiar  favourite.  Mr. 
Browne  stayed  above  a  year  in  the  sixth,  or  head  form, 
with  a  view  of  confirming  and  improving  his  taste  for  clas- 
sical learning  and  composition,  under  so  polite  and  able 
a  scholar.  When  he  was  little  more  than  sixteen  years  of 
age,  he  was  removed  to  Trinity-college,  Cambridge,  of 
which  college  his  father  had  been  fellow.  He  remained 
at  the  university  till  he  had  taken  his  degree  of  M.  A.  and 
though  during  his  residence  there  he  continued  his  taste 
for  classical  literature,  which  through  his  whole  life  was 
his  principal  object  and  pursuit,  he  did  not  omit  the  pe- 
culiar studies  of  the  place,  but  applied  himself  with  vigour 
and  success  to  all  the  branches  of  mathematical  science,' 
and  the  principles  of  the  Newtonian  philosophy.  When 
in  May  1724,  king  George  the  First  established  at  botlt 
universities,  a  foundation  for  the  study  of  modern  history 
and  languages,  with  the  design  of  qualifying  young  men 
for  employments  at  court,  arid  foreign  embassies,  Mr. 
Browne  was  among  the  earliest  of  those  who  were  selected 

*  Hf}tabmfon'&  Hist,  gf  Curaberltnd,  vol.  I.  p.  42S. 


la  be  scholar!  upon  this  foundation.  On  the  death  of  that 
prince,  he  wrote  an  university  copy  of  verses,  which  was 
the  first  of  his  poems  that  had  been  printed,  and  was  much 
admired.  About  the  year  1727,  Mr.  Browne,  who  had 
been  always  intended  for  the  bar,  settled  at  Lincoln's-inn. 
Here  he  prosecuted,  for  several  years,  with  great  attention, 
the  study  of  the  law,  and  acquired  in  it  a  considerable 
degree  of  professional  knowledge,  though  he  never  arrived 
to  any  eminence  in  the  practice  of  it,  and  entirely  gave  it 
up  long  before  his  death.  He  was  the  less  solicitous  about 
the  practice  of  his  profession,  and  it  Was  of  the  less  con- 
sequence to  him,  as  he  was  possessed  of  a  fortune  ade- 
quate to  his  desires ;  which,  by  preserving  the  happy  mean 
between  extravagance  and  avarice,  he  neither  diminished 
nor  increased. 

Mr.  Browne's  application  to  the  law  did  not  prevent  his 
occasionally  indulging  himself  in  the  exercise  of  his  poeti- 
cal talents.  It  was  not  long  after  his  settlement  at  Lin- 
coln Vina  that  he  wrote  his  poem  on  "  Design  and  Beauty," 
addressed  to  Highmore  the  painter,  for  whom  he  had  a 
great  friendship.  In  this,  one  of  the  longest  of  his  poems, 
he  shews  an  extensive  knowledge  of  the  Platonic  philo- 
sophy ;  and  pursues,  through  the  whole,  the  idea  of  beauty 
advanced  by  that  philosophy.  By  design  is  here  meant,* 
in  a  large  and  extensive  sense,  that  power  of  genius  which 
enables  the  real  artist  to  collect  together  his  scattered 
ideas,  to  range  them  in  proper  order,  and  to  form  a  re- 
gular plan  before  he  attempts  to  exhibit  any  work  in  ar- 
chitecture, painting,  or  poetry.  He  wrote  several  other 
poetical  pieces  during  the  interval  between  his  fixing  at 
Lincoln's-inn  and  his  marriage ;  one  of  the  most  pleasing 
and  popular  of  which  was  his  "  Pipe  of  Tobacco,"  an 
imitation  of  Cibber,  Ambrose  Philips,  Thomson,  Young, 
Pope,  and  Swift,  who  were  then  all  living ;  the  peculiar 
manner  of  these  several  writers  is  admirably  hit  off  by  our 
author,  who  evidently  possessed  an  excellent  imitative  ge- 
nius. Indeed,  nothing  but  a  nice  spirit  of  discrimination, 
and  a  happy  talent  at  various  composition,  could  have  en- 
abled him  to  have  succeeded  so  well  as  he  hath  done  in 
the  "  Pipe  of  Tobacco."  The  imitation  of  Ambrose  Philips 
was  not  written  by  our  poet,  but  by  an  ingenious  friend, 
the  late  Dr.  John  Hoadly,  chancellor  of  the  diocese  of 
Winchester,  and  second  son  of  the  bishop.  Dr.  Hoadly, 
however,  acknowledged  that  his  little  imitation  was  altered 

128  BROWNE. 

so  much  for  the  better  by  Mr.  Browne,  that  he  fairly  mad* 
it  his  own. 

On  the  10th  of  February  1743-4,  Mr.  Browne  married 
Jane,  daughter  of  the  rev.  Dr.  David  Trimnell,  archdea- 
con of  Leicester,  and  precentor  of  Lincoln,  and  niece  to? 
the  right  rev.  Dr.  Charles  Trimnell,  bishop  of  Winchester,' 
a  woman  of  great  merit,  and  of  a  very  amiable  temper. 
He  was  chosen  twice  to  serve  in  parliament ;  first  upon  a 
vacancy  in  December  1744,  and  then  at  the  general  elec- 
tion in  1748,  for  the  borough  of  Wenlock  in  Shropshire, 
near  to  which  his  estate  lay.  This  was  principally  owing 
to  the  interest  of  William  Forester,  esq.  a  gentleman  of 
great  fortune  and  ancient  family  in  Shropshire,  who  re- 
commended Mr.  Browne  to  the  electors,  from  the  opinion 
he  entertained  of  his  abilities,  and  the  confidence  he  had 
in  his  integrity  and  principles.  As  Mr.  Browne  had  ob- 
tained his  seat  in  parliament  without  opposition  or  ex- 
pence,  and  without  laying  himself  under  obligations  to 
any  party,  he  never  made  use  of  it  to  interested  or  ambi«« 
tious  purposes.  The  principles,  indeed,  in  which  he  had 
been  educated,  and  which  were  confirmed  by  reading  and 
experience,  and  the  good  opinion  he  had  conceived  of 
Mr.  Pelham's  administration,  led  him  usually  to  support 
£he  measures  of  government ;  but  he  never  received  any 
favour,  nor  desired  any  employment.  He  saw  with  great 
concern  the  dangers  arising  from  parliamentary  influence/ 
and  was  determined  that  no  personal  consideration  should 
biass  his  public  conduct.  The  love  of  his  country,  and  an 
ardent  zeal  for  its  constitution  and  liberties,  formed  a 
distinguishing  part  of  his  character.  In  private  conver- 
sation, Mr.  Browne  possessed  so  uncommon  a  degree  of 
eloquence,  that  he  was  the  admiration  and  delight  of  all 
who  knew  him.  It  must,  therefore,  have  been  expected 
that  he  should  have  shone  in  the  house  of  commons,  as  a 
public  speaker.  But  be  had  a  modesty  and  delicacy  about 
him,  accompanied  with  a  kind  of  nervous  timidity,  which 
prevented  him  from  appearing  in  that  character.  His  case,' 
in  this  respect,  was  similar  to  that  of  the  third  earl  of 
Shaftesbury,  Mr.  Addison,  and  other  ingenious  men.  Dr. 
Johnson  said  of  him,  "  I.  H.  Browne,  one  of  the  first  wits 
of  this  country,  got  into  parliament,  and  never  opened  his* 

In  1754  Mr.  Browne  published  what  may  be  called  hia* 
great  work,  his  Latin  poem  "  De  Animi  Immortalitate, 


BROWNE.  129  \ 


in  two  books,  the  reception  of  which  was  such  as  its  merit  I 

deserved.    It  immediately  excited  the  applause  of  the  most 
polite  scholars,  and  has  been  praised  by  some  of  the  most 
eminent  and  ingenious  men  of  the  age,  by  archbishop 
Herring,  Dr.  E.  Barnard,  R.  O.  Cambridge,  Mr.  Upton, 
bishop    Hoadly,  bishop  Green,  Mr.   Harris,  Dr.  Beattie, 
&c.  &c.     Its  popularity  was  so  great,  that  several  English 
translations  of  it  appeared  in  a  little  time.     The  first  was 
by  Mr..  Hay,  author  of  an  (t  Essay  on  Deformity,*'  and    ■ 
other  pieces ;  and  the  second  in  blank  verse,  by  Dr.  Ri- 
chard Grey,  a  learned  clergyman,  well  known  by  his  "Me- 
moria  Technics,"  and  his  publications  in  scripture  criti- 
cism.    A  third  translation  was  published  without  a  name, 
but  with  a  laboured  preface,  containing  some  quotations 
from   sir  John  Davies's  "  Nosce  Teipsum,"  which  were 
supposed  to  be  analogous  to  certain  passages  in  Mr.  Browne. 
All  these  versions  made  their  appearance  in  the  course  of 
a-  few  months ;  and  there  was  afterwards  printed,  by  am 
unknown  hand,  a  translation  of  the  first  book.    Some  years 
after  Mr.  Browne's  death,  the  "  De  Animi  Immortalitate" 
was  again  translated  by  the  rev.  Mr.  Crawley,  a  clergyman 
in   Huntingdonshire*  and  more  recently  Dr.  John  Lettice, 
published  a  translation  in  blank  verse,  with  a  commentary 
and  annotations,   1795,  8vo:     A  close  and  literal  version 
of  it  in  prose  was  inserted  by  Mr.  Highmore  the  painter 
in  his  publication  which  appeared  in  1766,  entitled  "  Es- 
says moral,  religious,  and  miscellaneous."     But  the  best 
translation  is  that  by   Soame  Jenyns,  esq.  printed  in  his 
Miscellanies,  and  since  published  in  Mr.  Browne's  poems. 
These  testimonies  and  attentions  paid  to  our  ingenious 
author's  principal  production,  are  striking  evidences  of  the 
high  sense  which  was  justly  entertained  of  its  merit.     Not 
to  mention  the  usefulness  and  importance  of  the  subject, 
every  man  of  taste  must  feel  that  the  poem  is  admirable 
for  its  perspicuity,  precision,  and  order;  and  that  it  unite* 
the  philosophical  learning  and  elegance  of  Cicero,  with 
the  numbers,  and  much  of  the  poetry,  of  Lucretius  and 
Virgil.     Mr.  Browne  intended  to  have  added  a  third  book. 
In  these  three  books  he  proposed  to  carry  natural  religion 
as  far  as  it  would  go,  and  in  so  doing,  to  lay  the  true 
foundation  of  Christianity,  of  which  he  was  a  firm  believer. 
But  he  went  no  farther  than  to  leave  a  fragment  of  the 
third  book,  enough  to  make  us  lament  that  he  did  not 
complete  the  whole. 
Vol.  VII.  K 

130  B  R  O  W  N  E. 

Though  Mr.  Browne  was  bred  to  a  profession,  and  sat 
several  years  in  parliament,  he  was  not  so  shining  or  dis- 
tinguished a  character  in  public  as  in  private  life*.  His 
private  life  was  chiefly  divided  between  his  books  and  his 
friends.  His  reading  took  in  a  large  compass;  but  he  had 
the  greatest  delight  in  the  Greek  and  Roman  writers.  Few 
men  formed  so  early  and  lasting  a  taste,  and  acquired  so 
familiar  a  knowledge  of  the  ancient  poets,  philosophers, 
orators,  and  historians,  particularly  those  of  the  purest 
ages ;  and  hence  it  was  that  he  derived  the  happy  art  of 
transfusing  into  the  more  serious  of  his  compositions,  the 
graces  of  their  diction,  and  the  strength  of  their  sentiments, 
without  servile  imitation.  He  was  very  conversant  like- 
wise with  the  best  English  and  Italian  authors.     His  me- 

i        • 
mory  enabled  him  to  retain  every  thing  which  he  had  heard 

or  read ;  and  he  could  repeat,  with  the  greatest  facility 
and  gracefulness,  the  fine  passages  he  had  treasured  up  in 
his  mind.  Having  a  perfect  ear  for  harmony  and  rhythm, 
he  was  an  admirable  reader  both  of  prose  and  verse,  and 
without  having  ever  applied  himself  to  the  practice  of  mu- 
sic, his  natural  taste  rendered  him  a  good  judge  in  that 
delightful  art.  With  these  various  accomplishments,  to 
which  were  added,  a  remarkably  happy  talent  of  telling  a 
story,  a  genuine  flow  of  wit,  as  well  as  eloquence,  a  pe- 
culiar vein  of  humour,  and,  indeed,  an  excellence  in  every 
species  of  conversation,  it  is  not  surprising  that  his  com- 
pany was  almost  universally  sought  for  and  desired.  His 
acquaintance  was  so  courted,  that,  though  his  private  in- 
clination would  have  led  him  to  have  lived  retired,  in  the 
society,  of  a  few  old  friends,  he  became,  at  different  pe- 
riods of  his  life,  intimate  with  all  the  distinguished  men 
of  the  age,    and  with  those  especially,  who  were  most 

*  The  following  anecdote,  which  was  than  any  of  us ;"  at  the  same  time  re- 
related  by  Mr.  James  Close,  a  re-  questing  him  to  favour  the  court  with 
speotable  solicitor  of  Lincoln's-Iim,  is  his  sentiments  on  the  case  in  question, 
highly  honourable  to  Mr.  Browne.  Mr.  Browne,  having  first  modestly  ex- 
During  the  time  that  Mr.  Browne  at-  cused  himself,  was  prevailed  upon  to 
tended  the  chancery  bar,  the  merits  of  comply  with  the  chancellor's  motion, 
a  cause  were  a/gued  before  the  lord-  and  spoke  for  an  hour  on  the  rise  and 
chancellor  Hardwicke,  the  decision  of  tenure  of  gavel- kind,  with  great  leara- 
which  depended  upon  ascertaining  the  ing,  accuracy,  and  precision,  and  with 
rights  and  obligations  of  gavel-kind,  a  particular  application  to  the  matter 
The  counsel  employed  on  each  side  in  hand.  The  chancellor  thanked  him 
having  rather  perplexed  than  thrown  much  for  the  information  himself  and 
light  upon  the  subject,  the  lord-chan-  the  audience  had  received,  and  ex- 
cel lor  said,  "  There  sits  a  gentle-  pressed  his  concern  that  he  had  uot  the 
man  (meaning  Mr.  Browne),  who,  pleasure  of  hearing  him  ofteuer  upon 
I  believe,  knows-  more  of  the  matter  other  subjects.  , 

BROWNE.  131 

eminent, for  their  learning  and  parliamentary  abilities.  His 
particular  friends  were  persons  of  distinguished  merit  and 
virtue.  By  these  he  was  held  in  the  highest  esteem  and 
respect,  and  his  union  with  them  was  never  broken  by  apy 
thing  but  death.  His  fine  feelings,  his  enlarged  and  ex- 
alted sentiments,  and  the  general  excellence  of  his  cha- 
racter, continued  to  render  any  social  connections  with 
him  as  lasting  as  they  were  desirable  and  delightful.  One 
great  object  of  Mr.  Browne's  attention,  during  the  latter 
part  of  his  life,  was  the  education  of  his  only  spn,  to  whom 
he  was  an  excellent  father  and  instructor.  Our  author, 
after  having  laboured  a  considerable  time  under  a  weak  and 
infirm  state  of  health,  died,  of  a  lingering  illness,  at  his 
house  in  Great  Russel -street,  Bloomsbury-square,  '.Lon- 
don, on  the  14th  of  February,  1760,  in  the  fifty-fifth  year 
of  his  age.  In  1768,  the  present  Mr.  Hawkins  Browne 
published  an  elegant  edition,  in  large  octavo,  of  his  father's 
poems ;  upon  which  occasion  he  had  the  satisfaction  of 
receiving  fresh  testimonies  to  their  merit  from  many  emi- 
nent men  then  living.  To  this  edition  is  prefixed  a  very 
fine  head  by  Ravenet  from  a  picture  by  Highmore.  * 

BROWNE  (Moses),  vicar  of  Olney  in  Buckingham- 
shire, and  chaplain  of  Morden  college,  was  born  in  1703, 
and  was  originally  a  pen-cutter.  Early  in  life  be  distin- 
guished himself  by  his  poetical  talents,  and  when  only 
twenty  years  of  age,  published  a  tragedy  called  "  Polidus,'* 
and  a  farce  called  "  All-bedevilled,"  which  were  played 
together  at  a  private  theatre  in  St.  Alban's-street,  neither 
of  much  merit.  He  became  afterwards  a  frequent  contri- 
butor to  the  Gentleman's  Magazine,  and  carried  off  several 
of  the  prizes  .which  Cave^  the  printer  and  proprietor  of  that 
Magazine,  then  offered  for  the  best  compositions.  When 
Cave  published  a  translation  of  Du  H aide's  China,  he  in- 
scribed the  different  plates  to  his-  friends,  and  one  to 
"  Moses  Browne,"  with  which  familiar  designation  Browne 
thought  proper  to  be  offended,  and  Cave,  to  pacify  him, 
directed  the  engraver  to  introduce  Mr.  wnh  a  caret  under' 
the  line.  In  1729,  he  published  his  "Piscatory  Eclogues," 
without  his  name,  which  were  reprinted  in  1739,  among 
his  "  Poems  on  various  subjects,"  8vo,  and  again  in  an  ex- 
tended form,  with  notes,  in  1773.     For  along  time,  how- 

1  Biog.  Brit  communicated  by  his  son. — BpswelPs  Johnson. — Nichols,  Dodg- 
ley,  and  Pearch's  Poems.— See  an  anecdote  of  one  of  his  poems  in  Warburton'a 
Letters,  4to  edit.  p.  31. 

K   2 

132  BROWNE. 

ever,  even  after  his  abilities  vfere  known,  he  remained  in 
poverty,  anil  in  1745,  when  it  appears  be  had  a  wife  and 
seven  children,  we  find  him  applying  to  Dr.  Birch  for  the 
situation  of  messenger,  or  door-keeper,  to  the  royal  society. 
In  1750,  he  published  an  edition  of  Walton  and  Cotton's 
Angler,  with  a  preface,  notes,  and  some  valuable  additions, 
which  was  republished  in  1759  and  1772,  and  in  the  for- 
mer year  drew  him  into  a  controversy  with  sir  John  Haw- 
kins, who  happened  to  be  then  publishing  an  improved 
edition  of  the  same  work.  From  his  poems,  as  well  a& 
from  the  scattered  observations  in  the  "  Angler,"  he  ap- 
pears to  have  been  always  of  a  religious  turn  ;  and  in  1752 
published  in  verse,  a  series  of  devout  contemplations,  en- 
titled "  Sunday  Thoughts,"  which  went  through  a  second 
edition  in  1764,  and  a  third  in  1781.  In  1753,  having 
some  prospect  of  encouragement  in  the  church,  he  took 
orders,  and  soon  after  his  ordination  was  presented  by  the 
earl  of  Dartmouth  to  the  vicarage  of  Olney  in  Bucking- 
hamshire, on  the  cession  of  Mr.  Wolsey  Johnson.  In  1754 
he  published  a  sermon,  preached  at  Olney,  on  Christmas 
day,  entitled  "  The  Nativity  and  Humiliation  of  Jesus 
Christ,  practically  considered*"  In  1755,  he  published  a 
small  quarto  poem,  entitled  "  Percy  Lodge,"  a  seat  of  the 
duke  and  duchess  of  Somerset,  written  by  command  of 
their  late  graces,  in  1749.  In  what  year  he  was  presented 
to  the  vicarage  of  Sutton,  in  Lincolnshire,  we  are  not  in- 
formed ;  but  in  1763,  he  was  elected  to  the  chaplainship  of 
Morden  college  in  Kent,  and  some  time  after  appointed  the 
late  rev.  John  Newton  for  his  curate  at  Olney.  In  1765  he 
published  a  sermon  "  preached  to  the  Society  for  the 
Reformation  of  Manners,"  and  a  few  years  after,  a  "Visi- 
tation Sermon,"  delivered  at  Stony  Stratford.  Besides 
these,  Mr.  Browne  is  said  to  have  published  one  or  two  po- 
litical tracts  ;  and  in  1772,  a  translation  of  a  work  of  John 
Liborius  Zimmerman,  entitled  "The  Excellency  of  the 
knowledge  of  Jesus  Christ,"  London,  12mo.  He  died  at 
Morden  college,  Sept.  13,  1787,  aged  eighty-four.  His 
wife  died  in  1783.  Mr.  Browne  was  a  man  of  some  learn- 
ing and  piety,  but  as  a  poet,  we  fear  he  cannot  be  allowed 
to  rank  higher  than  among  versifiers. l 

BROWNE  (Patrick) j  M.  D.  a  naturalist  of  considera- 
ble eminence,  the  fourth  son  of  Edward  Browne,  esq.  a 

1  Bibliographer,   vol.   IT. — Hawkins's  Life  of  Johnson.-— Gent.   Mag.  vols. 
LVII.  LX1I.  and  JUXIV. — Nichols's  Literary  Anecdotes. 

BROWNE.  135 

gentleman  of  respectable  family,  was  born  at  Woodstock, 
the  paternal  inheritance,  in  the  parish  of  Crossboyne,  and 
county  of  Mayo,  about  1720.  After  receiving  the  best 
education  that  country  could  afford,  he  was  sent  to  a  near 
relation  in  the  island  of  Antigua  in  1737  ;  but  the  climate 
disagreeing  very  much  with  his  constitution,  he  returned 
in  about  a  year  to  Europe,  and  landing  in  France,  went 
directly  to  Paris,  where  he  speedily  recovered  bis  health, 
and  with  the  approbation  of  his  parents  applied  himself 
closely  to  the  study  of  physic,  and  particularly  to  the 
science  of  botany,  tor  which  he  always  had  a  particular 
predilection.  After  five  years  spent  at  Paris,  he  removed 
to  Leyden,  where  he  studied  near  two  years  more,  and 
from  that  university  obtained  his  degree  of  M»  D. — Here 
he  formed  an  intimacy  with  Gronovius  and  Muschen- 
broeck,  and  commenced  a  correspondence  with  Linnaeus 
and  other  eminent  botanists  and  learned  men.  From  Hol- 
land he  proceeded  to  London,  where  he  practised  near  two 
years,  and  thence  went  out  again  to  the  West  Indies,  and 
after  spending  some  months  in  Antigua  and  some  others 
of  the  Sugar  Islands,  he  proceeded  to  Jamaica,  where  he 
spent  his  time  in  collecting  and  preserving  specimens  of 
the  plants,  birds,  shells,  &c.  of  those  luxuriant  soils,  with 
a  view  to  the  improvement  of  natural  history. 

Whilst  in  Jamaica,  his  residence  was  chiefly  in  King- 
ston, and  it  was  he  who  first  pointed  out  the  absurdity  of 
continuing  Spanish-town  the  port  and  capital,  while  rea- 
son plainly  pointed  out  Kingston,  or  in  his  own  words, 
"  the  defects  of  a  port  of  clearance  to  leeward  ;"  and  by 
his  writings  the  governor  and  council  represented  the  mat* 
ter  so  strikingly  to  earl  Granville,  president  of  the  council 
1756,  that  the  measure  was  immediately  adopted,  and 
Kingston  made  the  port  of  clearance,  to  the  very  great 
benefit  of  commerce  in  general,  as  before  that,  when  ships 
were  clearing  out  of  Kingston,  and  ready'  to  weigh 
anchor,  they  were  obliged  to  send  near  seven  miles  to  Spa- 
nish-town, by  which  they  often  suffered  great  inconve- 
nience and  delay. 

At  this  time  he  dlso  collected  materials,  and  made  the 
necessary  observations  (being  a  very  good  mathematician 
and  astronomer)  for  a  new  map  of  Jamaica,  which  he  pub- 
lished in  London,  in  August  1755,  engraved  by  Dr.  Bayly, 
gn  two  sheets,  by  which  the  doctor  cleared  four  hundred 
guineas.     Soon  after  this  (March  1756)  he  published  his 

134  '         BROWNE. 

iS  Civil  and  Natural  History  of  Jamaica,"  in  folio,  orna* 
merited  with  forty-nine  engravings  of  natural  history,  a 
whole  sheet  map  of  the  island,  and  another  of  the  harbour 
of  Port-Royal,  Kingston-town,  &c.  Of  this  work  there 
were  but  two  hundred  and  fifty  copies  printed  by  subscrip- 
tion, at  the  very  low  price  of  one  guinea,  but  a  few  were 
sold  at  two  pounds  two  shillings  in  sheets  by  the  printer. 
Most  unfortunately  all  the  copper-plates,  as  well  as  the 
original  drawings,  were  consumed  by  the  great  fire  in 
Cornhill,  November  7,  1765.  This  alone  prevented  in  his 
life-time  a  second  edition  of  that  work,  for  which  he  made 
considerable  preparations,  by  many  additional  plants,  and 
a,  few  corrections  in  his  several  voyages  to  these  islands, 
for  he  was  six  different  times  in  the  West  Indies ;  in  one 
of  those  trips  he  lived  above  twelve  months  in  the  island 
of  Antigua  :  however,  these  observations  will  we  trust  not 
be  lost  to  the  public,  as  he  sent  before  his  death  to  sir  Jo- 
seph  Banks,  P.  R.  S.  "  A  catalogue  of  the  plants  growing 
in  the  Sugar  Islands,  &c.  classed  and  described  according 
to  the  Linnsean  system,"  in  4to,  containing  about  eighty 
pages.  In  Exshaw's  Gentleman's  and  London  Magazine 
for  June  1774,  he  published  "  A  catalogue  of  the  birds  of 
Ireland,"  and  in  Exshaw's  August  Magazine  following, 
"  A  catalogue  of  its  fish."  In  1788  he  prepared  for  the 
press  a  very  curious  and  useful  catalogue  of  the  plants  of 
the  north-west  counties  of  Ireland,  classed  with  great. care 
and  accuracy  according  to  the  Linnsean  system,  containing 
above  seven  hundred .  plants,  mostly  observed  by  himself, 
having  trusted  very  few  to  the  descriptions  of  others.  This 
little  tract,  written  in  Latin  with  the  English  and  Irish 
names,  might  be  of  considerable  use  in  assisting  to  compile 
a  "  Flora  Hibernica,"  a  work  every  botanist  will  allow  to 
be  much  wanting. 

The  doctor  was  a  tall,  comely  man,  of  good  address  and 
gentle  manners,  naturally  cheerful,  very  temperate,  and  in 
general  healthy ;  but  in  his  latter  years  had  violent  pe- 
riodical fits  of  the  gout,  by  which  he  suffered  greatly  :  in 
the  intervals  of  these  unwelcome  visits,  he  formed  the 
catalogue  of  plants,  and  was  always,  when  in  health,  do- 
ing something  in  natural  history  or  mathematics.  At  a 
very  early  period  he  married  in  Antigua  a  native  of  that 
island,  but  had  no  issue.  His  circumstances  were  mode- 
rate, but  easy,  and  the  poor  found  ample  benefit  from  his 
liberality  as  well  as  professional  skill     He  died  at  Rush- 

BROWNE,  1&5 

brook,  county  of  Mayo,  on  Sunday  August  59,  1790,  and 
was  interred  in  the  family  burial-place  at  Crossboyne. l 

BROWNE  (Petek),  a  native  of  Ireland,  was  at  first 
provost  of  Trinity  college  in  Dublin,  and  afterwards  bisliop 
of  Cork  :  in  the  palace  of  which  see  he  died  in  1735,  after 
having  distinguished  himself  by  some  writings.  1.  "  A 
refutation  of  Toland's  Christianity  not  mysterious."  This 
was  the  foundation  of  his  preferment ;  which  occasioned  him 
to  say  to  Toland  himself,  that  it  was  he  who  had  made  him 
bishop  of  Cork.  2.  "  The  progress,  extent,  and  limits  of 
the  human  understanding/9  1728,  8vo.  This  was  meant 
as  a  supplemental  work,  displaying  more  at  large  the  prin- 
ciples on  which  he  had  confuted  Toland.  3.  "  Sermons," 
levelled  principally  against  the  Socinians,  written  in  a, 
manly  and  easy  style,  and  much  admired.  He  published 
also,  4.  A  little  volume  in  1 2mo,  against  the  "  Custom  of 
drinking  to  the  memory  of  the  dead.1'  It  was  a  fashion 
among  the  Whigs  of  his  time,  to  drink  to  the  glorious  and 
immortal  memory  of  king  William  HI.  which  greatly  dis- 
gusted our  bishop,  and  is  supposed  to  have  given  rise  to 
the  piece  in  question.  His  notion  was  that  drinking  to 
the  dead  is  tantamount  to  praying  for  the  dead,  and  not, 
as  is  really  meant,  an  approbation  of  certain  conduct  or 
principles.  The  only  effect,  however,  was  that  the  whigs 
added  to  their  toast, — "  in  spite  of  the  bishop  of  Cork."  * 

BROWNE  (Simon),  an  able  and  learned  minister  and 
writer  among  the  protestant  dissenters,  and  who  was  re- 
markable for  a  mental  disorder  of  a  most  extraordinary 
kind,  was  born  at  Shepton~Mallet,  in  Somersetshire,  about 
1680.  He  was  instructed  in  grammar  by  the  rev.  Mr. 
Cumming,  who  was  pastor  of  a  congregation  in  that  town  ; 
from  whence  he  was  removed  to  Bridgewater,  and  finished 
his  studies  under  the  care  of  the  rev.  Mr.  Moon  As  he 
possessed  uncommon  parts,  which  had  been  improved  by 
the  most  assiduous  application,  he  was  very  early  thought 
qualified  for  the  ministry ;  so  that  he  began  to  preach  some 
time  before  he  was  twenty  years  of  age.  His  talents  soon 
rendered  him  so  conspicuous  among  the  dissenters,  that  he 
was  chosen  minister  of  a  considerable  qongregation  at 
Portsmouth,  in  which  situation  he  continued  some  years. 
In  1706,  he  published  a  small  treatise,  entitled  "  A  caveat 



1  Burop.  Magazine,  Aug.  1 795. 

•  Preceding  edition  of  this  Dictionary.— Orton's  Letters  to  Stedman,  rol.  I, 
p,  212,  213. 



against  evil  Company."  In  1709,  he  published,  in  one 
volume,  8vo,  "The  true  character  of  the  real  Christian."  He 
discharged  the  duties  of  the  pastoral  office  at  Portsmouth 
with  so  much  fidelity  and  diligence,  as  procured  him  uni- 
versal esteem;  but,  in  1716,  he  removed  to  the  great  re- 
gret of  his  congregation,  in  consequence  of  his  being  in- 
vited to  accept  of  the  pastoral  charge  of  the  congregation 
of  protestant  dissenters  in  the  Old  Jewry,  London,  which 
was-  one  of  the  most  considerable  in  the  kingdom.  la 
1720,  he  published,  in  one  volume,  12mo,  "  Hymns  and 
Spiritual  Songs,  in  three  books."  In  1722,  he  published 
a  volume  of  "  Sermons,"  and  about  the  same  time  a  "  Let- 
ter to  the  rev.  Thomas  Reynolds,"  in  which  he  censures 
that  gentleman  and  other  dissenters  for  requiring  of  their 
brethren  explicit  declarations  of  their  belief  in  the  doc* 
trine  of  the  Trinity.  At  the  Old  Jewry  he  continued  to 
preach  for  about  seven  years  with  the  greatest  reputation, 
and  was  much  beloved  and  esteemed  by  his  congregation^ : 
but,  in  1723,  a  complicated  domestic  affliction,  the  loss  of 
his  wife,  and  of  an  only  son,  so  deeply  affected  him,  that 
be  was  at  first  in  a  state  little  different  from  distraction ;  and 
the  disorder  which  his  imagination  had  sustained  from  the 
shock  that  he  had  received,  at  length  settled  into  a  melan- 
choly of  a  very  extraordinary  nature*.  He  desisted  from 
the  duties  of  his  function,  and  could  not  be  persuaded  to 
join  in  any  act  of  worship,  either  public  or  private.  He 
imagined,  "  that  Almighty  God,  by  a  singular  instance  of 
divine  power,  had,  in  a  gradual  manner,  annihilated  in 
him  the  thinking  substance,  and  utterly  divested  him  of 
consciousness  :  that  though  he  detained  the  human  shape, 
and  the  faculty  of  speaking,  in  a  manner  that  appeared  to 
others  rational,  he  had  all  the  while  no  more  notion  of  what 
he  said  than  a  parrot.     And,  very  consistently  with  this, 

*  As  the  cause  of  Browne's  insanity 
has  been  thought  by  some,  not  ade- 
quate to  the  effect,  the  following  story 
has  been  revived  lately:  **  Mr.  Browne 
being  on  a  journey  with  a  friend,  they 
Mrere  attacked  by  a  highwayman,  who 
presented  a  pistol  and  demanded 
money.  Mr.  B<  being  courageous, 
strong,  and  active,  disarmed  him,  and 
seizing  him  by  the  collar,  they  both 
fell  to  the  ground,  in  the  struggle  to 
.  overpower  him,  Mr.  B.  at  length  get- 
ting uppermost,  placed  hU  knee  on 
the  highwayman's  breast,  and  by  that 

means  confined  him  while  his  compa- 
nion rode  to  town,  at  a  distance,  for 
help  to  secure  him.  After  a  consider- 
able time,  he  returned  with  assistance  ; 
upon  which  J\Ir.  B.  arose  from  off  the 
man  to  deliver  him  up  to  safe  custody, 
but,  to  bis  unspeakable  terror,  the  man 
was  dead."  There  seems  but  slender 
foundation  far  the  story,  but  supposing 
it  true,  it  will'  not  account  much  more 
clearly  for  Mr.  B.'s  insanity,  than  the 
loss  of  bis  wife  and  son.  Protestant 
Dissenters'  Magazine,  vol.  IV.  p.  433. 


he  looked  upon  himself  as  no  longer  a  moral  agent,  a  sub- 
ject of  reward  or  punishment."  He  continued  in  this  per- 
suasion to  the  end  of  his  life,  with  very  little  variation. 
Nothing  grieved  him  more,  than  that  he  could  not  per- 
suade others  to  think  of  bim  as  he  thought  of  himself.  He 
sometimes  considered  this  as  questioning  his  veracity, 
which  affected  bim  in  the  most  sensible  manner;  and  he 
often  took  pains,  by  the  most. solemn  asseverations,  to  re- 
move such  an  imputation.  At  other  times,  and  in  a  more 
gloomy  hour,  he  would  represent  the  incredulity  which  was 
manifested  towards  him,  as  a  judicial  effect  of  the  same 
divine  power  that  had  occasioned  this  strange  alteration  in 
him,  as  if  God  had  determined  to  proceed  against  him  in 
this  way,  and  would  have  no  application  made  in  his  be- 
half. Upon  this  account,  for  a  long  while,  he  was  un- 
willing that  any  prayers  should  be  made  for  him ;  which, 
he  would  say,  could  be  warranted  by  nothing  x  but  a  faith 
in  miracles,  and  even  refused  to  say  grkce  at  table,  or  if. 
urged  to  it,  appeared  in  the  greatest  distress.  At  the  be- 
ginning of  his  disorder,  he  was  so  unhappy  in  himself,  as 
to  have  frequent  propensities  to  deprive  himself  of  life ; 
but  he  afterwards  grew  more  serene,  and  appeared  to  have 
little  or  no  terror  upon  his  mind.  He  considered  himself 
as  one  who,  though  he  had  little  to  hope,  had  no  more  to 
fear,  and  was  therefore,  for  the  most  part,  calm  and  com- 
posed ;  and  when  the  conversation  did  not  turn  upon  him- 
self, as  it  was  generally  rational  and  very  serious,  so  was 
it  often  cheerful  and  pleasant.  But  his  opinion  concern- 
ing himself  occasionally  led  him  into  inconsistencies  ;  and 
when  these  were  pointed  out  to  him,  he  sometimes  ap- 
peared much  puzzled. 

Whilst  he  was  under  the  influence  of  this  strange  frenzy, 
it  was  extremely  remarkable,  that  his  faculties  appeared 
to  be  in  every  other  respect  in  their  full  vigour.  He  con- 
tinued to  apply  himself  to  his  studies,  and  discovered  the 
same  force  of.  understanding  which  had  formerly  distin- 
guished him,  both  in  his  conversation  and  in  bis  writings. 
Having,  however,  quitted  the  ministry,  he  retired  into  the 
country,  to  his  native  town  of  Shepton-Mallet.  Here,  for 
some  time,  he  amused  himself  with  translating  several  parts 
of  the  ancient  Greek  and  Latin  poets  into  English  verse. 
He  afterwards  composed  several  little  pieces  for  the  use  of 
children,  an  English  grammar  and  spelling-book,  an  ab- 
stract of  the  scripture-history,  and  a  collection  of  fables, 



the  two  last  both  in  metre.  With  great  labour  he  also 
amassed  together,  in  a  short  compass,  all  the  themes  of 
the  Greek  and  Latin  tongues,  and  compiled  likewise  a 
dictionary  *  to  each  of  these  works,  in  order  to  render  the 
learning  of  both  those  languages  more  easy  and  compen- 
dious. But  neither  of  these  pieces,  nor  several  others 
which  were  written  by  him  during  his  retirement,  were 
ever  printed.  During  the  last  two  years  of  his  life,  be* 
employed  himself  in  the  defence  of  the  truth  of  Christi- 
anity, against  some  of  the  attacks  which  were  then  made 
against  it;  and  also  in  recommending  mutual  candour  to 
Christians  of  different  sentiments  concerning  the  doctrine 
of  the  Trinity.  In  1732,  he -published,  in  8vo,  "  A  sober 
and  charitable  disquisition  concerning  the  importance  of 
the- Doctrine  of  the  Trinity;  particularly  with  regard  to 
Worship,  and  the  doctrine  of  Satisfaction:  endeavouring  to 
shew,  that  those  in  the  different  schemes  should  bear  with 
each  other  in  their  different  sentiments;  nor  separate  com* 
munions,  and  cast  one  another  out  of  Christian-fellowship 
on  this  account."  The  same  year  he  published,  "  A  fit 
Rebuke  to  a  ludicrous  Infidel,  in  some  remarks  on  Mr. 
Woolston's  fifth  Discourse  on  the  Miracles  of  our  Saviour. 
With  a  preface  concerning  the  prosecution  of  such  writers 
by  the  civil  powers.'*  It  was  in  the  same  year  also  that 
he  published  his  "  Defence  of  the  Religion  of  Nature, 
and  the  Christian  Revelation,  against  the  defective  account 
of  the  one,  and  the  exceptions  against  the  other,  in  a 
book,  entitled,  Christianity  as  old  as  the  Creation.9'  In  all 
these  pieces,  though  written  in  his  retirement,  with  little 
assistance  from  books,  or  learned  conversation,  he  yet  dis- 
played considerable  extent  of  knowledge,  and  of  argu- 
mentative powers.  But  to  the  last  of  these  performances „ 
he  prefixed  a  very  singular  dedication  to  queen  Caroline, 
expressive  of  the  unhappy  delusion  under  which  he  la- 
boured ;  and  which  his  friends  prudently  suppressed,  al- 
though it  is  too  ggeat  a  curiosity  to  be  lost  f. 

*  It  is  said,  that  a  friend  once  call-' 
ed  upon  him,,  and  asked  him  what  He 
was  doing  ?  lie  replied,  "  1  am  doing 
nothing  that  requires  a  reasonable  soul  ; 
I  am  making  a  dictionary:  but  you 
know  thanks  should  be  returned  to  God 
for  every  thing,  and  therefore  for  dic- 

f  Dedication  to  queen  Caroline. 

Of  all  the  extraordinary  things  that 
have  been  tendered  to  your  royal  hands, 
since  your  first  happy  arrival  in  Bri- 
tain, it  may  be  boldly  said,  what  now 
bespeaks  your  majesty's  acceptance  is 
the  chief.    Not  in  itself  ipdeed :  it  is  a 



After  his  retirement  into  the  country,  he  could  not  be 
prevailed  upon  to  use  any  kind  of  exercise  or  recreation  ; 
so  that  a  complication  of  disorders,  contracted  by  his  se- 
dentary mode  of  living,  at  length  brought  on  a  mortifica- 
tion in  his  leg,  which  put  a  period  to  his  life,  at  the  close 
of  the  year  1732,  in  the  fifty-second  year  of  his  age.  He 
had  several  daughters,  who  survived  him.     He  was  a  man 

trifle  unworthy  your  exalted  rank,  and 
what  will  hardly  prove  an  entertaining 
amusement  to  one  of  your  majesty's 
deep  penetration,  exact  judgment,  and 
fine  taste ;  but  on  account  of  the  au- 
thor, who  is  the  first  being  of  the  kind, 
and  yet  without  a  name. 

He. was  once  a  man,  and  of  some 
little  name;  but  of  no  worth,  as  his 
present  unparalleled  case  makes  but 
too  manifest:  for,  by  the  immediate 
hand  of  an  avenging  God,  his  very 
thinking  substance  has  for  more  than 
seven  years  been  continually  wasting 
away,  till  it  is  wholly  perished  out  of 
him,  if  it  be  not  utterly  come  to  no- 
thing. None,  no,  not  the  least  re- 
membrance of  its  very  ruins  remains ; 
not  the  shadow  of  an  idea  is  left ;  nor 
any  sense,  so  much  as  one  single  one, 
perfect  or  imperfect,  whole  or  dimi- 
nished, ever  did  appear  to  a  mind 
within  hi  in,  or  was  perceived  by  it. 

Such  a  present  from  such  a  thing, 
however  worthless  in  itself,  may  not  be 
wholly  unacceptable  to  your  majesty, 
the  author  being  such  as  history  can- 
not parallel ;  and  if  the  fact,  which  is 
real  and  no  fiction  or  wrong  conceit, 
obtains  credit,  it  must  be  recorded  as 
the  mo6t  memorable,  and  indeed  asto- 
nishing, event  in  the  reign  of  George  II. 
that  a  tract,  composed  by  such  a  thing, 
was  presented  to  the  illustrious  Caro- 
line :  his  royal  consort  needs  not  be 
added ;  fame,  if  I  am  not  misinformed, 
will  tell  that  with  pleasure  to  all  suc- 
ceeding times. 

He  has  been  informed,  that  your 
majesty's  piety  is  as  genuine  and  emi- 
nent, as  your  excellent  qualities  are 
great  and  conspicuous.  This  can  in- 
deed be  truly  knowu  to  the  great  search- 
er of  hearts  only.  He  alone,  who  can 
look  into  them,  can  discern  if  they  are 
sincere,  and  the  main  iutention  corre- 
sponds with  the  appearance ;  and  your 
majesty  cannot  take  it  amiss  if  such  an 
author  hints,  that  his  secret  approba- 
tion is  of  infinitely  greater  value  than 

the  commendation  of  men,  who  may  be 
easily  mistaken,  and  are  too  apt  to 
flatter  their  superiors*  But,  if  he  has 
been  told  the  truth,  such  a  case  as  his 
will  certainly  strike  your  majesty  with 
astonishment ;  and  may  raise  that  com- 
miseration in  your  royal  breast,  which 
he  has  in  vain  endeavoured  to  excite 
in  those  of  his  friends :  who,  by  the 
most  unreasonable  and  ill-founded  con- 
ceit in  the  world,  have  imagined,  that 
a  thinking  being  could  for  seven  years 
together  live  a  stranger  to  its  own  pow- 
ers, exercises,  operations,  and  state  ; 
and  to  what  the  great  God  has  been 
doing  in  it,  and  to  it. 

If  your  majesty,  in  your  most  re- 
tired address  to  the  king  of  kings, 
should  think  of  so  singular  a  case,  you 
may  perhaps  make  it  your  devout  re- 
quest, that  the  reign  of  your  beloved 
sovereign  and  consort  may  be  renowned 
to  all  posterity  by  the  recovery  of  a 
soul  now  in  the  utmost  ruin,  the  resto- 
ration of  one  utterly  lost,  at  present, 
amongst  men.  And  should  this  case 
affect  your  royal  breast,  you  will  re* 
commend  it  to  the  piety  and  prayers  of 
all  the  truly  devout,  who  have  the  ho- 
nour to  be  known  to  your  majesty  : 
many  such  doubtless  there  are,  though 
courts  are  not  usually  the  places  where 
the  devout  resort,  or  where  devotion 
reigns.  And  it  is  not  improbable,  that 
multitudes  of  the  pious  throughout  the 
land  may  take  a  case  to  heart,  that 
under  your  majesty's  patronage  comes 
thus  recommended. 

Could  such  a  favour  as  this  restora- 
tion be  obtained  from  heaven  by  the 
prayers  of  your  majesty,  with  what 
transport  of  gratitude  would  the  reco- 
vered being  throw  himself  at  your  ma- 
jesty's feet,  and,  adoring  the  divine 
power  and  grace,  profess  himself, 

Madam,  your  majesty's  most  obliged 
and  dutiful  servant, 

Simon  Browne.  ' 

First  printed  by  Dr.  rlajrkesworth. , 
in  the  Adventurer,  No.  88. 

110  BRO.WNE.     • 

pf  extensive  knowledge,  and  very  considerable  learning. 
He  was  well  skilled  in  theology,  his  sentiments  were  libe- 
ral, and  he  was  a  zealous  advocate  for  freedom  of  inquiry. 
He  appears,  from  the  general  tenor  of  his  life,  and  of  his 
writings,  to  have  been  a  man  of  distinguished  virtue,  and 
of  the  most  fervent  piety,  and  to  have  been  animated  by 
an  ardent  zeal  for  the  interests  of  rational  and  practical  re- 
ligion. His  abilities  made  him  respected,  and  his  virtues 
rendered  him  beloved  :  but  such  was  the  peculiarity  of  his 
case,  that  he  lived  a  melancholy  instance  of  the  weakness 
of  human  nature. 

After  Mr.  Browne's  death,  in  1733,  was  published^  in  8vo, 
as  a  separate  piece,  "The  Close  of  the  Defence  of  the 
Religion  of  Nature  and  the  Christian  Revelation  :  in  an- 
swer to  Christianity  as  old  as  the  Creation.  In  an  address 
to  Christian  ministers  and  the  Christian  people."  The 
author  of  Christianity  as  old  as  the  Creation  urges  it  as  an 
argument  against  the  truth  of  the  Gospel  revelation,  that 
it  has  been  productive  of  but  little  good  effect  in  the  lives 
of  Christians,  and  that  it  does  not  appear  that  they  have 
arrived  at  any  higher  state  of  perfection  than  the  rest  of 
mankind.  This  objection  Mr.  Browne  answered  in  his  De- 
fence ;  and  his  Close  of  that  Defence  is  an  earnest  and 
pathetic  exhortation  to  Christian  ministers  and  people,  of 
all  denominations,  not  to  give  so  much  ground  by  their 
conduct  for  such  objections  of  the  deists,  but  to  regulate 
their  lives  in  a  more  exact  conformity  to  the  precepts  of 
the  excellent  religion  which  they  professed.  Besides  the 
works  of  Mr.  Browne  which  have  been  enumerated,  he  also 
published  several  single  sermons ;  and  was  one  of  the  au- 
thors of  the  "  Occasional  Paper,'*  a  kind  of  periodical 
work,  collected  and  published  in  3  vols.  8vo,  Some  of  his 
MSS.  are  in  the  British  Museum,  and  among  them  a  ver- 
sion of  some  of  the  Psalms.  * 

BROWNE  (Thomas),  a  clergyman  of  the  church  of 
England  in  the  seventeenth  century,  was  born  in  the 
county  of  Middlesex  in  1604,  was  elected  student  of  Christ 
church  in  1620,  and  took  the  degrees  in  arts,  that  of  mas- 
ter being  completed  in  1627.  In  1636,  he  served  the  of- 
fice of  proctor,  and  the  year  after  was  made  domestic 
chaplain  to  archbishop  Laud,  and  bachelor  of  divinity. 
Soon  after  he  became  rector  of  St.  Mary,  Aldermary,  Lou* 
»  * 

1  Bipg,  Buti-rAtkey's  Funeral  Sermon.— Adventurer,  No.  88. 

BROWNE,  141 

don,  canon  of  Windsor  in  1639,  and  rector  ofOddtngton 
in  Oxfordshire.  On  the  breaking  out  of  the  rebellion,  he 
was  ejected  from  his  church  in  London  by  the  ruling  party, 
and  retired  to  his  majesty,  to  whom  he  was  chaplain, 
at  Oxford,  and  in  1642  was  created  D.  D.  having  then 
only  the  profits  of  Oddington  to  maintain  him.  He  ap- 
pears afterwards  to  have  been  stripped  even  of  this,  and 
went  to  the  continent,  where  he  was  for  some  time  chap- 
lain to  Mary,  princess  of  Orange.  After  the  restoration, 
he  was  admitted  again  to  his  former  preferments,  but  does 
not  appear  to  have  had  any  other  reward  for  his  losses  and 
sufferings.  He  died  at  Windsor  Dec.  6,  1673,  and  waa» 
buried  on  the  outside  of  St.  George's  chapel,  where  Dr. 
Isaac  Vossiiis,  his  executor,  erected  a  monument  to  his 
memory,  with  an  inscription  celebrating  his  learning,  elo- 
quence, critical  talents,  and  knowledge  of  antiquities. 
Besides  a  sermon  preached  before  the  university  in  1633, 
he  published,,  "  A  Key  to  the  King's  Cabinet;  or  animad- 
versions upon  the  three  printed  speeches  of  Mr.  L'isle, 
Mr.  Tate,  and  Mr.  Browne,  members  of  the  house  of 
commons,  spoken  at  a  common  hall  in  London,  July  1645, 
detecting  the  malice  and  falsehood  of  their  blasphemous  ob- 
servations upon  the  king  and  queen's  letters,"  Oxford, 
1645,  4to.  His  next  publication  was  a  treatise  in  defence 
of  Grotius  against  an  epistle  of  Salmasius,  "  De  posthumo 
Grotii;"  this  he  printed  at  the  Hague,  1646,  8vo,  under 
the  name  of  Simplicius  Virinus,  and  it  was  not  known  to 
be  his  until  after  his  death,  when  the  discovery  was  made 
by  Vossius.  He  wrote  also,  "  Dissertatio  de  Therapeutis 
Philonis  adversus  Henricum  Valesium,"  Lond.  1687,  8vo, 
at  the  end  of  Colomesius'  edition  of  St.  Clement's  epistles ; 
and  he  translated  part  of  Camden's  annals  of  queen  Eliza- 
beth, under  the  title,  "  Tomus  alter  et  idem ;  or  the 
History  of  the  life  and  reign  of  that  famous  princess  Eli- 
zabeth, &c."  London,  1629,  4to.  In  the  Republic  of 
Letters,  volf  VI.  1730,  we  find  published  for  the  first 
time,  a  "  Concio  ad  Clerum,"  delivered  for  his  divinity 
bachelor's  degree  in  1637  ;  the  subject,  "  the  revenues  of 
the  clergy,"  which  even  at  that  period  were  threatened. l 

BROWNE  (Sir  Thomas),  an  eminent  physician  and 
antiquary,  was  born  in  London,  in  the  parish  of  St. 
Michael,  Cheapside,  Oct.  19,  1605.     His  father  wasam'er- 

»  Ath.  Ox,  vol.  II.— Republic  of  Letters*  vol.  VI. 

142  BROWNE. 

chant,  of  an  ancient  family  at  Upton  in  Cheshire.     He  lost 
his  father  very  early,  and  was  defrauded  by  one  of  his 
guardians,  by  whom,  however,  or  by  his  mother,  who  soon 
after  his  father's  death  married  sir  Thomas  Dutton,  he  was 
placed  at  Winchester  school.     In  1623  he  was  removed 
from  Winchester  to  Oxford,  and   entered  a  gentleman- 
commoner  of  Broadgate-hall.   Here  he  was  admitted  to  his 
bachelor's  degree,  Jan.  31,  1626-27,  being  the  firsf  person 
of  eminence  graduated    from   Broadgate-hall,  when   en- 
dowed and  known  as  Pembroke-college.     After  .taking  his 
master's  degree,  he  turned  his  studies  to  physic,  and  prac- 
tised it  for  some  time  in  Oxfordshire,  but  soon  afterwards, 
either  induced  by  curiosity,  or  invited  by  promises,  he 
quitted  his  settlement,  and  accompanied  his  father-in-law, 
who  had  some  employment  in  Ireland,  in  a  visitation  of 
the  forts  and  castles,  which  the  state  of  Ireland  then  made 
necessary.     From  Ireland  he  passed  into  France  and  Italy  ; 
made  some  stay  at  Montpelier  and  Padua,  which  were  then 
the  celebrated  schools  of  physic ;    and,   returning   home 
through  Holland,  procured  himself  to  be  created  M.  D.  at 
J-eyden,  but  when  he'  began  these  travels,  or  when  he 
concluded  them,  there  is  no  certain  account.     It  is,  how- 
ever, supposed  that  he1  returned  to  London  in.  1634,  ajid 
that  the  following  year  he  wrote  his  celebrated  treatise, 
the  "  Religio  Medici,"  which  he  declares  himself  never 
to  have  intended  for  the  press,*  having  composed  it  only 
for  his  own  exercise  and  entertainment.     He  had,  how- 
ever, communicated  it  to  his  friends,  and  by  some  means 
a  copy  was  given  to  a  printer  in  1642,  and  was  no  sooner 
published  than  it  excited  the  attention  of  the  public  by 
the  novelty  of  paradoxes,  the  dignity  of  sentiment,  the 
quick  succession  of  images,  the  multitude  of  abstruse  al- 
lusions, the  subtlety  of  disquisition,  and  the  strength  of 

The  earl  of  Dorset  recommended  this  book  to  the  pe- 
rusal of  sir  Kenelm  Digby,  who  returned  his  judgment 
upon  it,  not  in  a  letter,  but  in  a  book  ;  in  which,  though 
mingled  with  some  positions  fabulous  and  uncertain,  there 
are  acute  remarks,  just  censures,  and  profound  specula- 
tions, yet  its  principal  claim  to  admiration  is,  that  it  was 
written  in  twenty-four  hours,  of  which  part  was  spent  in 
procuring  Browne's  book,  and  part  in  reading  it.  .  This 
induced  sir  Thomas  to  publish  a  more  correct  edition  of 
his  work,  which  had  great  success.     A  Mr.  Merry  weather, 

BROWNE.  143 

of  Cambridge,  turned  it,  not  inelegantly,  into  Latin,  and 
from  his  version  it  was  again  translated  into  Italian,  Ger- 
man, Dutch,  and   French,  and  at  Strasburgh   the  Latin 
translation  was  published  with  large  notes,  by  Lenuus  Ni- 
colaus  Moltfarius.     Of  the  English  annotations,  which,  in 
all  the  editions  from  1644,  accompany  the  book,  the  au- 
thor is  unknown.     Merryweather,  we  are  told,  had'  some 
difficulty  in  getting  his  translation  printed  in  Holland.  The 
first  printer  to  whom  he  offered  it  carried  it  to  Salmasius, 
"  who  laid  it  by  (says  he)  in  state  for  three  months,"  and 
then  discouraged   its  publication :  it  was  afterwards  re- 
jected by  two  other  printers,  and  at  last  was  received  by 
Hackius.     The  peculiarities  of  the  book  raised  the  author, 
as  is .  usual,  many  admirers  and  many  enemies ;  but  we 
know  not  of  more  than  one  professed  answer,  written  un- 
der the  title  of  "  Medicus  Medicatus,"  by  Alexander  Ross, 
which  was  universally  neglected  by  the  world.     Abroad  it* 
was  animadverted  upon  as  having  an  irreligious  tendency, 
by  Guy  Patin,   by  Tobias  Wagner,  by   Muller,  Reiser, 
and  Buddeus,  and  was  put  into  the  Index  pxpurgatorius. 
At  present  it  will  probably  be  thought  that  it  was  both  too 
much  applauded  and  too  much  censured,  and  that  it  would 
have  been  a  more  useful  book  had  the  author's  fancy  been 
more  guided  by  judgment 

At  the  time  when  this  book  was  published,  Dr.  Browne 
resided  at  Norwich,  where  he  had  settled  in  1636,  by 
the  persuasion  of  Dr.  Lushington,  his  tutor,  who  was  then 
rector  of  Barn  ham  Westgate,  in  the  neighbourhood.  It 
is  recorded  by  Wood,  that  his  practice  was  very  extensive. 
In  1637  he  was  incorporated  M.  D.  at  Oxford.  He  mar- 
ried in  1641  Mrs.  Mileham,  of  a  good  family  in  Norfolk,  a 
lady  of  very  amiable  character.  Dr.  Johnson  says  this  mar- 
.  riage  could  not  but  draw  the  raillery  of  contemporary  wits 
upon  a  man,  who  had  been  just  wishing,  in  his  new  book, 
"  that  we  might  procreate,  lika  trees,  without  conjunc- 
tion ;"  and  had  lately  declared,  that  "  the  whole  world 
was  made  for  man,  but  only  the  twelfth  part  of  man  for 
woman,"  and  that  "  man  is  the  whole  world,  but  woman 
only  the  rib  or  crooked  part  of  man."  They  lived  happily, 
however,  together  for  forty -one  years,  during  which  she 
bore  him  ten  children,  of  whom  one  son  and  three  daugh- 
ters outlived  their  parents.     She  survived  him  two  years. 

In  1646,  he  printed  "  Enquiries  into  vulgar  and  com- 
mon Errors,"  small  folio,  a  work,   says  his  biographer, 

J44  BROWN  E. 

^hich,  as  it  arose  not  from  fancy  and  invention,  but  from* 
observation  and  books,  and  contained  not  a  single  discourse 
of  one  continued  tenor,  but  an  enumeration  of  many  un- 
connected particulars,  must  have  been  the  collection  of 
years;  and  the. effect  of  a  design  early  formed,  and  long 
pursued.  It  is,  indeed,  adds  the  same  writer,  to  be? 
wished,  that  he  had  longer  delayed  the  publication,  and 
added  what  tbe  remaining  part  of  his  life  might  have  fur- 
nished. He  published  in  1673  the  sixth  edition,  witH 
some  improvements.  This  book,  like  his  former,  was  re- 
ceived with  great  applause,  was  answered  by  Alexander 
Ross,  and  translated  into  Dutch  and  German,  and  after- 
wards into  French.  It  might,  Dr.  Johnson  thinks,  now  be 
proper  to  reprint  it  with  notes,  partly  supplemental  arid 
partly  emendatory,  to  subjoin  those  discoveries  which  the 
industry  of  the  last  age  has  made,  and  correct  those  mis-' 
lakes  which  the  author  has  committed,  not  by  idleness  oir 
negligence,  but  for  want  of  Boyle's  and  Newton's  phi- 

The  reputation  of  Browne  encouraged  some  low  writer  . 
to  publish,  under  his  name,  a  book  called  "  Nature's  ca- 
binet unlocked,"  translated,  according  to  Wood,  from  the 
physics  of  Magirus,  but  Browne  advertised  against  it.  In 
1658,  the  discovery  of  some  ancient  urns  in  Norfolk  gav6 
him  occasion  to  write  "  Hydriotaphia,  Urn-burial,  or  a 
discourse  of  Sepulchral  Urns,"  8vo,  in  which  he  treats 
with  his  usual  learning,  on  the  funeral  rites  of  the  ancient 
nations  ;  exhibits  their  various  treatment  of  the  dead  ;  and  , 
examines  the  substances  found  in  these  Norfolk  urns. 
There  is,  perhaps,  none  of  his  works  which  better  ex- 
emplifies his  reading  or  memory.  To  this  treatise  was 
added  "  The  Garden  of  Cyrus,  or  the  Quincunxial  lo- 
zenge, or  net-work  plantation  of  the  ancients,  artificially' 
naturally,  mystically  considered."  This  is  a  more  fanciful 
performance  than  the  other,  but  still  it  exhibits  the  fancy 
of  a  man  of  learning.  Besides  these,  he  left  some  papers 
prepared  for  the  press,  of  which  two  collections  have  been  ~ 
published,  the  first  by  Dr.  Thomas  Tennison,  afterwards 
archbishop  of  Canterbury,  in  1684,  8vo,  entitled,  "A 
Collection  of  Miscellaneous  Tracts,"  and  these,  with  what 
had  been  published  in  his  life-time,  were  printed  in  one 
vol.  fol.  in  1686.  In  1690  his  son,  Dr.  Edward  Browne,* 
of  whom  we  have  already  spoken,  published  a  single  tract, 
entitled  "  A  Letter  to  a  friend  upon  occasion  of  tbe  death 


of  his  intimate  friend/'  8vo.  The  second  collection  was 
of  the  "Posthumous  Works,"  edited  in  1722  by  Owen 
Brigstock,  esq.  his  grandson  by  marriage. 

To  the  life  of  this  learned  man,  there  remains  little  to 
be  added,  but  that  in  1665  he  was  chosen  honorary  fellow  • 
of  the  college  of  physicians ;  and  in  1671,  received  at  Nor-  . 
wich  the  honour  of  knighthood  from  Charles  II.  In  his 
seventy-sixth  year,  he  was  seized  with  a  colic,  which,  after 
having  tortured  him  about  a  week,  put  an  end  to  his  life 
at  Norwich,  Oct.  19,  1682.  Some  of  his  last  words  were 
expressions  of  submission  to  the  will  of  God,  and  fearless- 
ness of  death.  He  was  buried  in  the  church  of  St.  Peter, 
Man  croft,  in  Norwich,  with  a  Latin  inscription  on  a  mural 

In  1716  there  appeared  a  book  of  his  in  12mo,  entitled 
"  Christian  Morals,"  published  from  the  original  and  cor- 
rect manuscript  of  the  author,  by  John  Jeffery,  I>.  D.  arch- 
deacon of  Norwich.  It  was  dedicated  by  our  author's; 
daughter,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Littleton,  to  David,  earl  of  Bu- 
chan.  Of  this  a  second  edition  was  published  in  1756  by 
Mr.  John  Payne,  bookseller,  and  one  of  Dr.  Johnson's  early 
patrons,  who  solicited  him  to  write  a  life  of  sir  Thomas. 
This,  of  which  we  have  availed  ourselves  in  the  preceding 
account,  may  be  classed  among  Dr.  Johnson's  best  biogra- 
phical performances,  and  the  present  article  may  be  very 
properly  concluded  with  his  character  of  Browne's  works* 
After  mentioning  the  various  writers  who  have  noticed 
Browne,  he  adds,  "But  it  is  not  on  the  praises  of  others, 
But  on  his  own  writings,  that  he  is  to  depend  for  the  es- 
teem of  posterity;  of  which  he  will  not  easily  be  deprived,  * 
while  learning  shall  have  any  reverence  among  men :  for 
there  is  no  science  in  which  he  does  not  discover  some 
skill ;  and  scarce  any  kind  of  knowledge,  profane  or  sacred, 
abstruse  or  elegant,  which  he  does  not  appear  to  have  cul- 
tivated with  success.  His  exuberance  o^  knowledge,  and 
plenitude  of  ideas,  sometimes  obstruct  the  tendency  of  his 
reasoning,  and  the  clearness  of  his  decisions  :  on  whatever 
subject  he  employed  his  mind,  there  started  up  imme- 
diately so  many  images  before  him,  that  he  lost  one  by 
grasping  another.  His  memory  supplied  him  with  so  many 
illustrations,  parallel  or  dependent  notions,  that  he  was  \ 
always  starting  into  collateral  considerations  :  but  the  spi- 
rit and  vigour  of  his  pursuit  always  gives  delight ;  and  the 
reader  follows  him,  without  reluctance;  through  his  mazes,, 

Vol.  VII.  L 

146  BR  O  W  N  & 

in  themselves  flowery  and  pleasing,  and  ending  at  the 
point  originally  in  view.— To  have  great  excellencies,  and 
great  faults,    *  magna  virtutes    nee  minora  vitia,   is  the 
poesy,'  says  our  author, '  of  the  best  natures.9     This  poesy 
may  be  properly  applied  to  the  style  of  Browne :   it  is' 
vigorous^  but  rugged;  it  is  learned,  but  pedantic;  it  is 
deep,  but  obscure ;  it  strikes,  but  does  not  please ;  it  com- 
mands, but  does  not  allure:  his  tropes  are  harsh,  and  hi* 
combinations  uncouth.     He  fell  into  an  age,  in  which  our 
language  began  to  lose  the  stability  which  it  had  obtained 
in  the  time  of  Elizabeth;  and  was  considered  by  every" 
writer  as  a  subject  on  which  he  might  try  his  plastic  skill, 
by  moulding  it  according  to  his  own  fancy.     Milton,  in 
consequence  of  this  encroaching  licence,  began  to  intro- 
duce the  Latin  idiom ;  and  Browne,  though  he  gave  less 
disturbance  to  our  structures  and  phraseology,  yet  poured 
in  a  multitude  of  exotic  words ;  many,  indeed,  useful  and? 
significant,  which,  if  rejected,  must  be  supplied  by  cir- 
cumlocution, such  as  commensality  for  the  state  of  many 
living  at  the  same  table ;  but  many  superfluous,  as  a  para- 
logical for  an  unreasonable  doubt ;  and  some  so  obscure, 
that  they  conceal  his  meaning  rather  than  explain  it,  as 
arthritic  a  I  analogies  for  parts  that  serve  some  animals  in  the 
place  of  joints. — His  style  is,  indeed,  a  tissue  of  many  lan- 
guages ;  a  mixture  of  heterogeneous  words,  brought  toge- 
ther from  distant  regions,  with  terms  originally   appro- 
priated to  one  art,  and  drawn  by  violence  into  the  service 
of  another.     He  must,  however,  be  confessed  to  have  aug- 
mented our  philosophical  diction ;  and  in  defence  of  his 
uncommon  words  and  expressions,  we  must  consider,  that 
he  had  uncommon  sentiments,  and  was  not  content  to  ex- 
press in  many  words  that  idea  for  which  any  language 
could  supply  a  single  term. — But  his  innovations  are  some- 
times pleasing,  and  his  temerities  happy  :  he  has  many 
verba  ardentia,  forcible  expressions,  which  he  would  never 
have  found,  but  by  venturing  to  the  utmost  verge  of  pro- 
priety ;  and  flights  which  would  never  have  been  reached, 
but  by  one  who  had  very  little  fear  of  the  shame  of  fall- 

The  last  thing  which  Dr.  Johnson  has  done,  in  his  life  of 
sir  Thomas  Browne,  is  to  vindicate  him  from  the  charge 
of  infidelity ;  and  having  fully  shewn  the  falsity  of  this 
accusation,  the  ingenious  biographer  concludes  in  the  fol^ 
lowing  words ;    "  The  opinions  of  every  man  must  be 

BROWNE.  147 

learned  from  himself :  concerning  his  practice,  it  is  safest 
to  trust  the  evidence  of  others.  Where  these  testimonies 
concur,  no  higher  degree  of  historical  certainty  can  be  ob- 
tained ;  and  they  apparently  concur  to  prove,  that  Browne 
was  a  zealous  adherent  to  the  faith  of  Christ,  that  he  lived 
in  obedience  to  his  laws,  and  died  in  confidence  of  his 
mercy."  * 

BROWNE  (William),  an  ingenious  English  poet,  was 
the  son  of  Thomas  Browne  of  Tavistock  in  Devonshire, 
gent,  who,  according  to  Prince,  in  his  Worthies  of  Devon, 
was  most  probably  a  descendant  from  the  knightly  family 
of  Browne  of  Brownes-Ilash  in  the  parish  of  Langtree  near 
Great  Torrington    in  Devonshire.     His  son  was  born  in 
1590,  and  became  a  student  of  Exeter  college,'  Oxford, 
about  the  beginning  of  the  reign  of  James  I.  After  making 
a  great  progress  in  classical  and  polite  literature,  he  re- 
moved to  the  Inner  Temple,  where  his  attention  tothg 
study  of  the  law  was  frequently  interrupted  by  his  de- 
votiotvtothe  muses.     In  his  twenty ithird  year  (1613)  he 
published,  in  folio,  the  first  part  of -his  "Britannia's  Pas* 
torals,"  which,  according  to  the  custom  of  the  time,  was 
ushered  into  the  world  with  so  many  poetical  eulogies, 
that  he  appears  to  have  secured,  at  a  very  early  age,  the 
friendship,  and  favour  of  the  most  celebrated  of  his  con* 
temporaries,  among  whom  we  find  the  names  of  Seldfen 
and  Drayton.     To  these  he  afterwards  added  Davies  of 
Hereford,  Ben  Johson,  and  others.     That  he  wrote  some 
of  these  pastorals  before  he  had  attained  his  twentieth  year, 
has  be£n  conjectured  from  a  passage  in  Book  I.  Song  V. ; 
but  there  is  sufficient  internal  evidence,  independent  of 
these  lines,  that  much  of  them  was  the  offspring  of  a  ju~ 
venile  fancy.     In  the  following  year,  he  published  in  8vo, 
u  The  Shepherd's  Pipe,*'  in  seven  eclogues.    In  the  fourth 
of  these  he  laments  the  death  of  his  friend  Mr.  Thomas' 
Manwood,  under  the  name  of  Philarete,  the  precursor,  as 
some  critics  assert,  of  Milton's  Lycidas.  * 

In  1616,  he  published  the  second  part  of  his  "Britan- 
nia's Pastorals,"  recommended  as  before,  by  his  poetical 
friends,  whose  praises  he  repaid  with  liberality  in  the  body 
of  thfe  work.  The  two  parts  were  reprinted  in  8vo  in 
1625,  and  procured  him,  as  is  too  frequently  the  case, 


1  Life  by  Dr.  Johnso!i.-~Bi6$.  Brit— Ath.  Ox.  vol.  II.— Watson's  Halifax* 
p.  45S. 


148  BROWNE. 

more  fame  than  profit.  About'a  year  before  this,  heap- 
pears  to  have  taken  leave  of  the  muses,  and  returned  to 
Exeter  college,  in  the  capacity  of  tutor  to  Robert  Dor- 
mer, earl  of  Caernarvon,  a  nobleman  who  fell  at  the  battle 
of  Newbury  in  1643,  while  fighting  gallantly  for  his  king, 
£t  the  head  of  a  regiment  of  horse,  and  of  whom  lord  Cla- 
rendon has  given  us  a  character  drawn  with  his  usual  dis- 
crimination and  fidelity.  While  guiding  the  studies  of  this  , 
nobleman,  Browne  was  created  master  of  artst  with  this 
honourable  notice  in  the  public  register,  "  Vir  otnni  hu- 
jnana  literatura  et  bonarum  artium  cognitione  instructus." 

After  leaving  the  university  with  lord  Caernarvon,  be 
found  a  liberal  patron  in  William  earl  of  Pembroke,  of 
whom  likewise  we  have  a  most  elaborate  character  in  Cla- 
rendon, some  part  of  which  reflects  honour  on  our  poet,— 
**  He  was  a  great  lover  of  his  country,  and  of  the  religion 
and  justice,  which  he  believed  could  only  support  it :  and 
his  friendships  were  only  tilth  men  of  those  principles.  And 
as  his  conversation  was  most  with  men  of  the  most  pregnant 
parts  and  understanding ;  so  towards  any  such,  who  needed 
support,  or  encouragement,  though  unknown,  if  fairly  re- 
commended to  him,  he  was  very  liberal."  This  nobleman, 
who  had  a  respect  for  Browne  probably  founded  on  the 
circumstances  intimated  in  the  above  character,  took  him 
into  his  family,  and  employed  him  in  such  a  manner,  ac- 
cording to  Wood,  that  he  was  enabled  to  p'urchase  an  es- 
tate. Little  more,  however,  is  known  of  his  history,  nor 
is  the  exact  time  of  his  death  ascertained.  Wood  finds 
that  one  of  both  his  names,  of  Ottery  St.  Mary  in  Devon- 
shire, died  in  the  winter  of  1645,  but  knows  not  whether 
this  be  the  same.  He  hints  at  his  person  in  these  words, 
"as  he  had  a  little  body,  so  a  great  mind;9'  a  high  charac- 
ter from  this  biographer  who  had  no  indulgence  for  poeti- 
cal failings. 

Browne  has  experienced  the  fate  of.  many  of  bis  con- 
temporaries* whose  fame  died  with  them,  and  whose  writ- 
ings haye  been  left  to  be  revived,  under  many  disadvan- 
tages, by  an  age  of  refined  taste  and  curiosity.  The  civil 
wars  which  raged  about  the  time  of  bis  death,  and  whose 
consequences  continued  to  operate  for  many  years  after, 
diverted  the  public  mind  from  the  concerns  of  poetry.  The 
lives  of  the  poets  were  forgotten,  and  their  works  perished 
through  neglect  or  wantonness.  We  have  no  edition  of 
Browne's  poems  from  1625  to  1772,  when  Mr.  Thomas 

BROWNE,  149 

Davies,  the  bookseller,  was  assisted  by  some  of  his  learned 
friends  in  publishing  them,  in  three  small  volumes.  The 
advertisement,  prefixed  to  the  first  volume,  informs  us  that 
the  gentlemen  of  the  king's  library  procured  the  use  of  the 
first  edition  of  "  Britannia's  Pastorals,"  which  had  several 
manuscript  notes  on  the  margin,  written  by  the  rev.  Wil- 
liam Thomson,  one  of  the  few  scholars  of  his  time  who 
studied  the  antiquities*  of  English  poetry.  Mr.  Thomas 
Wartbn  contributed  his  copy  of  the  "  Shepherd's  Pipe,'* 
which  was  at  that  time  so  scarce  that  no  other  could  be 
procured.  Mr.  Price,  the  librarian  of  the  Bodleian  li- 
brary, sent  a  correct  copy  of  the  Elegy  upon  the  death  of 
Henry  prince  of  Wales,  from  a  manuscript  in  that  repo- 
sitory ;  and  Dr.  Farmer  furnished  a  transcript  of  the  "  Inner 
Temple  Mask"  from  the  library  of  Emanuel  college,  which 
had  never  before  been  printed.  With  such  helps,  a  cor- 
rect edition  might  have  been  expected,  but  the  truth  is, 
that  the  few  editions  of  ancient  poets,  (Suckling,  Marvell, 
Carew,  &c.)  which  Davies  undertook  to  print,  are  ex- 
tremely deficient  in  correctness.  Of  this  assertion,  which 
the  comparison  of  a  few  pages  with  any  of  the  originals 
will  amply  confirm,  we  have  a  very  striking  instance  in  the 
present  work,  in  which  two  entire  pages  of  the  Book  I,  of 
Britannia's  Pastorals  were  omitted. 

His  works  exhibit  abundant  specimens  of  true  inspira-> 
tion ;  .and  had  his  judgment  been  equal  to  his  powers  of 
invention,  or  had  he  yielded  less  to  the  bad  taste  of  his 
age,  or  occasionally  met  with  a  dritic  instead  of  a  flatterer, 
he  would  have  been  entitled  to  a  much  higher  rank  in  the 
class  of  genuine  poets.  His  Pastorals  form  a  vast  store- 
bouse  of  rural  imagery  and  description,  and  in  personifying 
the  passions  and  affections,  he  exhibits  pictures  that  are 
not  only  faithful,  but  striking,  just  to  nature  and  to  feeling, 
and  frequently  heightened  by  original  touches  of  the  pa- 
thetic and  sublime,'  and  by  many  of  those  wild  graces 
which  true  genius  only  can  exhibit.  It  is  not  improbable 
that  he  studied  Spenser,  as  well  as  the  Italian -poets.  To 
the  latter  he  owes  something  of  elegance  and  something 
of  extravagance.  From  the  former  he  appears  to  have 
caught  the  idea  of  a  story  like  the  Faery  Queen e,  although 
.  it  wants  regularity  of  plan ;  and  he  follows  his  great  model 
in  a  profusion  of  allegorical  description  and  romantic  land* 

*50  BROWNE. 

His  versification,  which  is  so  generally  harmonious/  that 
where  he  fails  it  may  be  imputed  to  carelessness,  is  at  the 
same  time  so  various  as  to  relax  the  imagination  with  sper 
ciraens  of  every  kind,  and  he  seems  to  pass  from  the  one 
to  the  other  with  an  ease  that  we  do  not  often  find  among  the 
Writers  of  lengthened  poems.  Those,  however,  who  are 
jn  search  of  faulty  rhimes,  of  foolish  conceits,  of  vulgar 
ideas,  and  of  degrading  imagery,  will  not  lose  their  pains. 
He  was,  among  other  qualities,  a  man  of  humour,  and  his 
humour  is  often  exceedingly  extravagant.  So  mixed,  in- 
deed, is  his  style,  and  so  whimsical  his  flights,  that  we 
are  sometimes  reminded  of  Swift  in  all  his  grossness,  and 
sometimes  of  Milton  in  the  plenitude,  of  his  inspiration. 
Mr.  Warton  has  remarked  that  the  morning  landscape  of 
the  L1  Allegro  is  an  assemblage  of  the  same  objects  which. 
Browne  had  before  collected  in  his  Britannia's  Pastorals, 
B;  IV.  Song  IV.  beginning 

"  By  this  had  chanticlere,"  &c. 

.  It  has  already  been  noticed  that  Phitarete  was  the  pre* 
cursor  of  Lycidas,  but  what  Mr.  Warton  asserts  of  Comus 
deserves  some  consideration.  After  copying  the  exqui- 
site Ode  which  Circe,  in  the  Inner  Temple  Mask,  sings 
as  a  charm  to  drive  away  sleep  from  Ulysses,  Mr.  Warton 
adds,  "  In  praise  of  this  song,  it  will  be  sufficient  to  say 
that  it  reminds  us  of  some  favourite  touches  in  Milton's 
Comus,  to  which  it  perhaps  gave  birth.  Indeed,  one 
cannot  help  observing  here  in  general,  although  the  ob- 
servation more  properly  belongs  to  another  place,  that  a 
masque  thus  recently  exhibited  on  the  story  of  Circe,  which 
there  is  reason  to  think  had  acquired  some  popularity, 
suggested  to  Milton  the  hint  of  a  masque  on  the  story  of 
Comus.  It  would  be  superfluous  to  point  out  minutely 
the  absolute  similarity  of  the  two  characters ;  they  both  deal 
in  incantations  conducted  by  the  same  mode  of  operation, 
and  producing  effects  exactly  parallel." 

Without  offering  any  objection  to  these  remarks,  it  may 
still  be  necessary  to  remind  the  reader  of  a  circumstance 
to  which  this  excellent  critic  has  not  adverted,  namely, 
that  the  Inner  Temple  Mask  appears  to  have  been  exhibited 
about  the  year  1620,  when  Milton  was  a  boy  of  only 
twelve  years  old,  and  remained  in  manuscript  until  Dr. 
Farmer  procured  a  copy  for  the  edition  of  1772  ;  and  that 
Milton  produced  his  Comus  at  the  age  of  twenty-sir.     It 

BROWNE.  151 


remains,  therefore,  for  some  future  conjecturer  to  deter- 
mine on  the  probability  of  Milton's  having  seen  Browne's 
manuscript  in  the  interim. 

Prince  informs  us,  that  "  as  he  had  honoured  his  country 
with  his  sweet  and  elegant  Pastorals,  so  it  was  expected,  and 
he  also  entreated,  a  little  farther  to  grace  it  by  his  drawing 
out  the  line  of  his  poetic  ancestors,  beginning  in  Joseph 
Iscanus,  and  ending  in  himself :  a  noble  design,  if  it 
had-  been  effected."  Josephus  Iscanus  was  Joseph  of 
Exeter,  who  flourished  in  the  thirteenth  century,  and 
wrote  two  epic  poems  in  Latin  heroics.  Had  Browne 
begun  much  later,  he  would  have  conferred  a  very  high 
obligation  on  posterity.  Collections  of  poetry  are  of  very 
ancient  date,  but  very  little  is  known  with  certainty  of  the 
•lives  of  English  poets,  and  that  little  must  now  be  reco- 
vered with  great  difficulty. 

It  yet  remains  to  be  noticed  that  some  poems  of  Browne 
are  supposed  to  exist  in  manuscript.  Mr.  Nichols  thinks 
that  Warburtoh  the  herald  had  some  which  were  sold  with 
the  rest  of  his  .library,  about  the  year  1759,  or  1760. 
Mr.  Park,  also,  in  a  supplementary  note  to  the  Biog. 
Britannica,  brings  proof  that  George  Withers  had  some 
share  in  composing  the  "  Shepherd's  Pipe."  They  were 
contemporaries,  and  nearly  of  the  same  age.  * 

BROWNE  (Sir  William),  a  physician  of  the  last  cen- 
tury, and  a  man  of  a  singular  and  whimsical  cast  of  mind, 
was  born  in  1692,  and  in  1707  was  entered  of  Peter- 
house,  Cambridge,  where  he  took  the  degrees,  B.  A.  1710, 
M.  A.  1714,  and  M.  D.  1721,  and  soon  after  settled  at 
Lynn,  in  Norfolk,  where  he  published  Dr.  Gregory's 
41  Elements  of  catoptrics  and  dioptrics,"  translated  from 
the  Latin  original,  to  which  he  added:  1.  A  method  for 
finding  the  foci  of  all  specula,  as  well  as  lenses  univer- 
sally ;  a9  also  magnifying  or  lessening  a  given  object  by  a 
given  speculum,  or  lens,  in  any  assigned  proportion. 
2.  A  solution  of  those  problems  which  Dr.  Gregory  has 
left  undemonstrated.  3.  A  particular  account  of  micro- 
scopes and  telescopes,  from  Mr.  Huygens ;  with  the  dis- 
coveries made  by  catoptrics  and  dioptrics.  By  an  epigram, 
many  of  which  he  provoked,  he  appears  to  have  been  the 
champion  of  the  fair  sex  at  Lynn,  in  1748.     On  one  oc- 

1  English  Poets,  edit  1810,  rol.  VI.  — Biofr  Brit.  — Gen,  Diet. —Prince's 
Worthies.— Wood's  Athens. 


casion,  a  pamphlet  having  been  written  against  him,  he  nailed 
it  up  against  his  house-door.  Having  acquired  a  competency 
by  his  profession,  he  removed  to  Queeu-square,  Ormond- 
street,  London,    where  he  resided  till  his  death,    which 
happened  March  10,  1774,   at  the  age  of  82.     A  great 
number  of  lively  essays,  both  in  prose  and  verse,  the  pro- 
duction of  his  pen,  were  printed  and  circulated  among  his 
friends.     Among  these  were:    1.  "  Ode  in  imitation  of 
Horace,"  ode  3,  lib.  iii.  addressed  to  the  right  hon.  sir 
Robert  Walpole,  on  ceasing  to  be  minister,  Feb*  6,  1741 ; 
designed,  he  says,  as  a  just  panegyric  on  a  great  minister, 
the  glorious  revolution,  protestant  succession,  and  prin- 
ciples of  liberty.     To  which  was  added  the  original  ode, 
"  defended  in  commentariolo."    It  was  inscribed  to  George 
earl  of  Orford,  as  an  acknowledgement  of  the  favours  con- 
ferred by  his  lordship  as  well  as  by  his  father  and  grand- 
father.    On  the  first  institution  of  the  militia,  our  author 
was  appointed  one  of  the  earl's  deputy-lieutenants,  and 
was  named  in  his  lordship's  first  commission  of  the  peace. 
2.    Opuscula  varia  utriusque  linguae,  medicinam ;   medi- 
corum collegium ;  literas,  utrasque  academies ;  empiricos, 
eorum  cultores;  solicitatorem,  praestigiatorem ;  poeticen, 
criticen  ;    patronum,    patriam  ;    religionem,    libertatem, 
spectantia.     Cum  praefatione  eorum  editionem  defendente. 
Auctore  D.  Gulielmo  Browne,  equite  aurato,  M.  D.  utri- 
usque et  medicorum  et  physicorum  S.  R.  S.   1765,    4to. 
This  little  volume  (which  was  dated  "  Ex  area  dicta  re* 
ginali,   mdcclxv,  hi  nonas  Januarias,   ipso  Ciceronis  et 
aiictoris  natali")  contained,  I.  Oratio  Harveiana,  in  theatro 
collegii  medicorum  Londinensis  habita,  1751.     II.  A  vin- 
dication of  the  college  of  physicians,  in  reply  to  solicitor- 
general  Murray,  1753.     III.  Ode  in  imitation  of  Horace^ 
Ode  I.  addressed  to  the  duke  of  Montague.     With  a  new* 
interpretation,    in  commentariolo,    1765.     IV.  The  Odef 
^bove-mentioned,  to  sir  Robert  Walpole.     Some  time  be- 
fore, sir  William  had  published  odes  in  imitation  of  Ho- 
race ;  addressed  to  sir  John  Dolben,  to  sir  John  Turner^ 
to  doctor  Askew,  and  to  Robert  lord  Walpole.     3.  "  Ap- 

Eendix  altera  ad  opuscula;  oratiunqula,  collegii  medicorum 
ondinensis  cathedrae  valedicens.  In  comitiis,  postridie 
divi  Michaelis,  mdcclxxvii.  ad  collegii  administrationem 
renovandam  designatis;  machinaque  incendiis  extinguendis 
japta  contra  permissos  rebelles  munitis ;  habita  a  D.  Gu- 
U^lmo  JJrowne,  e<juite  aurato,  praeside,"  4768,  *to,    TM* 

BROWNE.  155 

farewell  oration  con£ains  so  many  curious  particulars  of  sir 
William's  life,  that  the  reader  will  not  be  displeased  to  see 
some  extracts  from  it,  and  with  his  own  spelling.  "  The 
manly  age  and  inclination,  with  conformable  studies,  I  dili- 
gently applied  to  the  practice  of  physic  in  the  country ; 
where,  as  that  age  adviseth,  I  sought  riches  and  friendships* 
But  afterwards,  being  satiated  with  friends,  whom  truth,  not 
flattery,  had  procured ;  satiated  with  riches,  which  Galen, 
not  fortune,  had  presented  ;  I  resorted  immediately  to  this 
college :  where,  in  further  obedience  to  the  same  adviser, 
I  might  totally  addict  myself  to  the  service  of  honour. 
Conducted  by  your  favour,  instead  of  my  own  merit,  I 
have  been  advanced,  through  various  degrees  of  honour, 
a  most  delightful  climax  indeed,  even  to  the  very  highest 
of  all  which  the  whole  profession  of  physic  hath  to  confer. 
In  this  chair,  therefore,  twice  received  from  the  elects, 
shewing  their  favour  to  himself,  he  confesseth  much  more 
than  to  the  college,  your  president 

'  Acknowledges  that  he  has  happy  been ; 
And,  now,  content  with  acting  this  sweet  scene, 
Chooses  to  make  his  exit,  like  a  guest 
Retiring  pamper  d  from  a  plenteous  feast  :* 

in,  order  to  attach  himself  and  the  remainder  of  his  life,  no 
longer,  as  before,  solely  to  the  college,,  but,  by  turns, 
also  to  the  medicinal  springs  of  his  own  country ;  although, 
as  a  physician,  never  unmindful  of  his  duty,  yet  after  his 
own  manner,  with  hilarity  rather  than  gravity ;  to  enjoy 
liberty,  more  valuable  than  silver  and  gold,  as  in  his  own 
right,  because  that  of  mankind,  not  without  pride,  which 
ever  ought  to  be  its  inseparable  companion. 

'  Now  the  free  foot  shall  dance  its  fav'rite  round.*, 

Behold  an  instance  of  human  ambition  !  not  to  be  satiated 
but  by  the  conquest  of  three,  as  it  were,  medical  worlds ; 
lucre  in  the  country,  honour  in  the  college,  pleasure  at 
medicinal  springs !  I  would,  if  it  were  possible,  be  de- 
lightful and  useful  to  ail :  to  myself  even  totally,  and 
equal:  to  old  age,  though  old,  diametrically  opposite; 
not  a  censor  and  chastiser,  but  a  commender  and  encou- 
rager,  of  youth.     I  would  have  mine  such  as,  in  the  satire, 

*  Ciispus's  hoary  entertaining  age, 
Whose  wit  and  manners  mild  alike  engage.' 

The  age  of  presiding,  by  the  custom  of  our  prsedeces- 
§Qrs;was  generally  a  lustrum,  five  years;  although  our 

154  BROWNE. 

Sloane,  now  happy,  like  another  Nestor,  lived  to  see  three 
ages,  both  as  president  and  as  man.  But  two  years  more 
than  satisfy  me :  for,  that  each  of  the  elects  may  in  his 
turn  hold  the  sceptre  of  prudence,  far  more  desirable  than 
power,  given  by  Caius,  which  the  law  of  justice  and  aequity 

*  No  tenure  pleases  longer  than  a.  year— * 

But  in  truth,  among  such  endearing  friendships  with  you, 
such  delightful  conversations,  such  useful  communications, 
with  which  this  amiable  situation  hath  blessed  me,  one  or 
two  things,  as  is  usual,  have  happened  not  at  all  to  my 
satisfaction.  One,  that,  while  most  studious  of  peace  my- 
self, I  hoped  to  have  preserved  the  peace  of  the  college 
secure  and  intire,  I  too  soon  found  that  it  was  not  other- 
wise to  be  sought  for  than  by  war  :  but  even  after  our  first 
adversary,  because  inconsiderable,  was  instantly  over- 
thrown, and  his  head  completely  cut  off  by  the  hand  of 
the  law,  yet  from  the  same  neck,  as  if  Hydra,  had  been 
our  enemy,  so  many  other  heads  broke  out,  yea,  and  with, 
inhuman  violence  broke  into  this  very  senate,  like  mon- 
sters swimming  in  pur  medical  sea,  whom  I  beheld  with 
unwilling  indeed,  but  with  dry,  or  rather  fixed  eyes,  be- 
cause not  suspecting  the  least  mischief  from  thence  to  the 
college,  and  therefore  laughing,  so  far  from  fearing.  The 
other,  in  reality,  never  enough  to  be  lamented,  that,  while 
I  flattered  myself  with  having,  by  my  whole  power  of  per- 
suasion, in  the  room  of  Orphaean  music,  raised  the  Croo- 
nian  medical  lecture  as  it  were  from  the  shades  into  day, 
if  there  could  be  any  faith  in  solemn  promises ;  that  faith 
being,  to  my  very  great  wonder,  violated,  this  lecture,, 
like  another  Eurydice,  perhaps  looked  after  by  me  too 
hastily,  beloved  by  me  too  desperately,  instantly  slipped 
back  again,  and  fled  indignant  to  the  shades  below/9 

He  used  to  say  he  resigned  the  presidentship  because 
he  would  not  stay  to  be  beat :  alluding  to  the  attack  of  the 

The  active  part  taken  by  sir  William  Browne  in  the 
contest  with  the  licentiates,  occasioned  his  being  intro- 
duced by  Mr.  Foote  in  his  "  Devil  upon  two  sticks." 
Upon  Footers  exact  representation  of  him  with  his  identical 
wig  and  coat,  odd  figure,  and  glass  stiffly  applied  to  his 
eye,  he  sent  him  a  card  complimenting  him  on  having  so 
happily  represented  4iim  ;  but,  as  he  had  forgot  his  muff, 
he  had  sent  him  his  own.     This  good-natured  method  of 

BROWNE.  i55 

resenting,  disarmed  Foote.  His  next  publication  was: 
.4.  "  A  farewell  Oration,  &c.".  a  translation  of  the  pre* 
ceding  article,  1768,  4to.  5.  "  Fragmen turn  Isaac i  Haw- 
kins  BrQWQe*  arm.  sive  Anti~Bolinbrokius,  liber  primus* 
Translated  for  a  second  Religio  Medici,"  1768,  4to.  The 
author  modestly  calls  this  "  a  very  hasty  performance ;" 
and  says,  "  }n  my  journey  from  Oxford  to  Bath,  meeting 
with  continued  rain,  which  kept  me  three  days  on  the  road, 
in  compassion  to  my  servants  and  horses  ;  and  having  my 
/fiend  a  pocket  companion,  I  found  it  the  best  entertain- 
ment my  tedious  baiting  could  afford  to  begin  and  finish 
this  translation/'  This  was  dated  Oct.  24,  1768  ;  and  his 
second  part  was  completed  on  .the  20th  of  the  following 
oionth :  "  My  undertaking,1'  he  says,  "  to  complete,  as 
well  as  I  could,  the  Fragment  of  my  friend,  hath  appeared 
to  me  so  very  entertaining  a  work,  even  amongst  the  most 
charming  delights  and  most  cheerful  conversations  at 
Bath  ;  that  I  have  used  more  expedition,  if  the  very  many 
avocations  there  be  considered,  in  performing  this,  than 
in  that  former  translation  ;"  and  to  this  part  was  prefixed 
a  congratulatory  poem  "  To  Isaac  Hawkins  Browne,  esq. 
son  of  his  deceased  friend,  on  his  coming  of  age,  Dec.  7, 
1766."-^-The  good  old  knight's  Opuscula  were  continually 
on  the  increase.  The  very  worthy  master  of  a  college  at 
Cambridge,  lately  living,  relates  a  story  of  him,  that  wait- 
ing for  sir  William  in  some  room  at  the  college,  where  he 
was  come  to  place  a  near  relation,  he  found  him  totally 
absorbed  in  thought,  over  a  fine  4to  volume  of  these 
Opuscula,  which  he  constantly,  he  said,  carried  about  with 
bim,  that  they  might  be  benefited  by  frequent  revisals. 

His  portrait,  in  his  latter  days,  is  very  faithfully  drawn 
by  Warburtpn,  in  one  of  his  letters  to  bishop  Hurd. 
"  When  you  see  Dr.  Heberden,  pray  communicate  to  him 
an  unexpected  honour  I  have  lately  received.  The  other 
day,  word  was.  brought  me  from  below,  that  one  sir  Wil- 
liam Browne  sent  up  his  name,  and  should  be  glad  to  kiss 
my  band.  I  judged  it  to  be  the  famous  physician,  whom 
I  had  never  seen,  nor  had  the  honour  to  know.  When  I 
came  down  into  the  drawing-room,  I  was  accosted  by  a 
little*,  round,  well-fed  gentleman,  with  a  large  muff  in 
one  hand,  a  small  Horace,  open,  in  the  other,  and  a 
spying-glass  dangling  in  a  black  ribbon  at  his  button. 
After  the  first  salutation,  he  informed  me  that  his  visit  was 
indeed  to  me ;  but  principally,  and  in  the  first  place,  to 

156  BROWNt 

Prior-Park,  which  had  so  inviting  a  prospect  from  below ; 
and  he  did  not  doubt  but,  on  examination,  it  would  suffi- 
ciently repay  the  trouble  he  had  given  himself  of  coming 
up  to  it  on  foot     We  then  took  our  chairs ;  and  the  first 
thing  he  did  or  said,  was  to  propose  a  doubt  to  me  con- 
cerning a  passage  in  Horace,  which  all  this  time  he  had 
still  open  in  bis  hand.     Before  I  could  answer,  he  gave  me 
the  solution  of  this  long-misunderstood  passage ;  and,  in 
support  of  his  explanation,  had  the  charity  to  repeat  his 
own  paraphrase  of  it  in  English  verse,  just  come  hot,  as 
he  said,  from  the  brain.     When  this  and  chocolate  were 
over,  having  seen  all  he  wanted  of  me,  be  desired  to  see 
something  more  of  the  seat,  and  particularly  what  he  called 
the  monument,  by  which  I  understood  him  to  mean  the 
Prior's  tower.     Accordingly,  I  ordered  a  servant  to  attend 
him  thither,  and  when  he  had  satisfied  his  curiosity,  either 
to  let  him  out  from  the  Park  above,  into  the  Down,  or 
from  the  garden  below  into  the  road.     Which  he  chose,  I 
never  asked  ;  and  so  this  honourable  visit  ended.     Hereby 
you  will  understand  that  the  design  of  all  this  was  to  be 
admired.     And  indeed  he  had  my  admiration  to  the  full ; 
but  for  nothing  so  much,  as  for  his  being  able  at  past  eighty 
to  perform  this  expedition  on  foot,  in  no  good  weather, 
and  with  all  the  alacrity  of  a  boy,  both  in  body  and  mind.'* 
This  portrait  is  correct  in  every  thing  but  the  age,    sir 
William  being  only  then  (1767)  seventy-five. 

On  a  controversy  for  a  raker  in  the  parish  where  he  lived 
in  London,  carried  on  so  warmly  as  to  open  taverns  for 
men,  and  coffee-house  breakfasts  for  ladies,  he  exerted 
himself  greatly ;  wondering  a  man  hred  at  two  universities 
should  be  so  little  regarded.  (He  had  been  expelled  one, 
and  therefore  taken  degrees  at  another.)  A  parishioner 
answered  :  "  he  had  a  calf  that  sucked  two  cows,  and  a  pro-  ' 
digious  great  one  it  was."  He  used  to  frequent  the  annual 
ball  at  the  ladies'  boarding-school,  €lueen-square,  merely 
as  a  neighbour,  a  good-natured  man,  and  forid  of  the  com- 
pany of  sprightly  young  folks.  A  dignitary  of  the  church 
being  there  one  day  to  see  his  daughter  dance,  and  finding1 
this  upright  figure  stationed  there,  told  him  he  believed  he 
was  Hermippus  redivrvtis,  who  lived  anhelitu  pueUarum.  At 
the  age  of  eighty,  on  St.  Luke's  day,  177 1 ,  he  came  to  Bat- 
son's  coffee-house  in  his  laced  coat  and  band,  and  fringed 
white  gloves,  to  shew  himself  to  Mr.  Crosby,  then  lord-mayor, 
A  gentleman  present  observing  that  he  looked  very  well, 

BROWNE.  157 

he  replied*  u  be  had  neither  wife  nor  debts.'*  He  next; 
published,  "  Fragmentum  I.  Hawkins  completum,"  1769, 
4to.  7.  "  Appendix  ad  Opuscula;'*  six  Odes,  1770,  4to, 
comprising  :  I.  De  senectute.  Ad  amicum  D.  Rogerum 
Long,  apud  Cantabrigienses,  aulee  custodem  Pcmbrokianse, 
theologum,  .  astronomum,  doctissimum,  jucundissimum, 
annum  nonagesimum  agentem,  scripta.  Adjecta  versione 
Anglica.  Abamico  D.  Guliel mo  Browne,  annum  agente 
fere  octogesimum.  II.  De  choreis,  et  festivitate.  Ad 
nobiitssimum  ducem  Leodensem,  diem  Walliae  principis 
natalem  acidulisTunbrigiensibus  celebrantem,  scripta.  A 
theologo  festivo,  D.  Georgio  Lewis.  Adjecta  versione 
Anglic&  ab  amico,  D.  Gulielmo  Browne.  III.  De  ingenio, 
et  jucunditate.  Ad  Lodoicum  amicum,  sacerdotem  Can* 
tianum,  in geniosissi mum,  jucundissimum,  scripta.  Ad- 
jecta versione  Anglic^.  A.  D.  Gulielmo  Browne,  E.  A.  O. 
M.  L.  P.  S.  R.  S.  IV.  De  Wilkesio,  et  libertate.  Ad  doc- 
torem  Thomam  Wilson,  theologum  doctissimum,  liber- 
rimum,  tarn  mutui  amici,  Wilkesii*  amicum,  quairi  suum, 
scripta.  V.  De  otio  inedentibus  debito.  Ad  Moysceum 
amicum,  medicum  Bathoniae  doctissimum,  humanissimum, 
6cripta.  VI.  De  potiore  metallis  libertate  :  et  omnia  vin- 
cente  fortitudine.  Ad  eorum  utriusque  patronum,  Gultel- 
mum  ilium  Pittium,  omni  et  titulo  et  laude  majorem, 
scripta.  8.  Three  more  Odes,  1771,  4to.  9.  "A  Pro- 
posal on  our  Coin,  to  remedy  all  present,  and  prevent  all 
future  disorders.  To  which  are  prefixed,  preceding  pro- 
posals of  sir  John  Barnard,  and  of  William  Shirley,  esq. 
on  the  same  subject  With  remarks,"  1774,  4to,  dedicated 
"  To  the  most  revered  memory  of  the  right  honourable 
Arthur  Onslow,  speaker  of  the  house  of  commons  during 
thirty- three  years ;  for  ability,  judgement,  eloquence,  in- 
tegrity, impartiality,  never  to  be  forgotten  or  excelled ; 
who  sitting  in  the  gallery,  on  a  committee  of  the  house,  the 
day  of  publishing  this  proposal,  and  seeing  the  author 
there,  sent  to  speak  with  him,  by  the  chaplain  ;  and,  after 
applauding  his  performance,  desired  a  frequent  corre- 
spondence, and  honoured  him  with  particular  respect,  all 
the  rest  of  his  life,  this  was,  with  most  profound  venera- 
tion, inscribed."  10.  A  New-Year's  Gift.  A  problem 
and' demonstration  on  the  XXXIX  Articles,"  1772,  4to. 
"  This  problem  and  demonstration,"  he  informs  us,  "though 
now  first  published,  on  account  of  the  praesent  contro- 
versy concerning  these  articles,   owe  their  birth  to  ray 

15a  BROWNE. 

being  called  upon  to  subscribe  them,  at  an  early  period  of 
life.     For  in  my  soph's  year,  1711,   being  ar  student  art 
Peter-house,   in  the  university  of  Cambridge,  just  nine- 
teen years  of  age,  and  having  performed  all  my  exercises 
in  the  schools  (and  also  a  first  opponency  extraordinary  to 
an  ingenious  pupil  of  his,  afterwards  Dr.  Barnard,  pre- 
bendary of  Norwich)  on  mathematical  questions,  at  the 
particular  request  of  Mr.  proctor  Laughton,  of  Clare-hall, 
who  drew  me  into  it  by  a  promise  of  the  senior  optime  of 
the  year),  I  was  then  first  informed  that  subscribing  these 
articles  was  a  necessary  step  to  taking  my  degree  of  B.  A. 
as  well  as  all  other  degrees.     I  had  considered  long  be- 
fore at  school,  and  on  my  admission  in  1707,  that  the  uni- 
versal profession  of  religion  must  much  more  concern  me 
through  life,  to  provide  for  my  happiness  hereafter,  than 
the  particular  profession  of  physic,  which  I  proposed  to 
pursue,    to  provide  for  my  more   convenient  existence 
here  :  and  therefore  had  selected  out  of  the  library  left  by 
my  father  (who  bad  himself  been  a  regular  physician^ 
educated  under  the  tuition  of  sir  J.  Ellis,  M.  D.  afterwards 
master  of  Caius  college),    Chillingworth's  Religion  of  a 
Protestant;  the  whole  famous  Protestant  and  Popish  con^ 
troversy ;  Commentaries  on  Scripture;  and  such- other  books* 
as  suited  my  purpose.    I  particularly  pitched  upon  three  for 
perpetual  pocket-companions  ;  Bleau's  Greek  Testament  p 
Hippocratis  Aphoristica,  and  Elzevir  Horace*;- expecting 
from  the  first  to  draw  divinity,  from  the  second  physic, 
and'from  the  last  good  sense  and  vivacity.-     Here  I  cannot 
forbear  recollecting  my  partiality  for  St.  Luke,  because 
he  was  a  physician ;  by  the  particular  pleasure  I  took  irr 
perceiving  the  superior  purity  of  his  Greek,  over  that  of 
the  other  Evangelists.     But  J  did  not  then  know,  what  I 
was  afterwards  taught  by  Dr.  Freind's  learned  History  of 
Physic,  that  this  purity  was  owiug  to  his  being  a  physician,* 
and  consequently  conversant  with  our  Greek  fathers  of 
physic.     Being  thus  fortified,   I  thought  myself  as  well 
prepared  for  an  encounter  with  these  articles,  as  so  young 
a  person  could  reasonably  be  expected.     I  therefore  deter-* 
mined  to  read  them  over  as  carefully  and  critically  as  I 
could  ;  and  upon  this,  met  with  so  many  difficulties,  ut- 
terly irreconcileable  by  me  to  the  divine  original,  that  I 

*  In  his  will,  he  says,  "  On  my  coffin,  when,  in  the  grave,  I  desire  may  be, 
deposited  in  its  leather  case,  or  coffiu,  my  pocket  Elzevir  Horace,  Cornea 
Vise  Viteque  dulcis  et  utilis,  worn  out  with  and  by  m«." 

BROWNE.  159 

almost  despaired  of  ever  being  able  to  subscribe  them. 
But,  not  to  be  totally  discouraged,  I  resolved  to  re-con-4 
sider  them  with  redoubled  diligence ;  and  then  at  last  had 
the  pleasure  to  discover,  in  article  VI.  and  XX.  what  ap- 
peared to  my  best  private  judgement  and  understanding 
a  clear  solution  of  all  the  difficulties,  and  an  absolute 
defeazance  of  that  exceptionable  authority,  which  incon- 
sistently with  scripture  they  seem  to  assume.  I  subscribe 
my  name  to  whatever  I  offer  to  the  public,  that  I  may  be 
answerable  for  its  being  my  sincere  sentiment :  ever  openy 
however,  to  conviction,  by  superior  reason  and  argument. . 

William  Brow;nb." 
His  next  was  a  republication.  11.  The  pill  plot.  To 
doctor  Ward,  a  quack  of  merry  memory,  written  at  Lynn, 
Nov.  30,  1734,  1772,  4to.  12.  "  Corrections  in  verse, 
from  the  father  of  the  college,  on  son  jCadogan's  Gout 
dissertation ;  containing  false  physic,  false  logic,  false  phi* 
losophy,"  1772,  4to.  Although  these  corrections  are  jo- 
cular, it  is  not  intended  that  they  should  be  less,  but 
more  sensibly  felt,  for  that  very  reason  :  according  to  the 
rule  of  Horace, 

■    iy  Ridiculum  acri 
Fortius  et  melius  magnas  plerumque  secat  res. 


Vapulans  lauda  baculum  paternum, 
Invidum,  filj,  fuge  suspicari, 
Cujus  Tf  denum  trepidavit  aetas 

Claudere  lustrum. 

The  author  repeated  these  verses  to  Dr.  Cadogan  himself, 
who  censured  their  want  of  fhyme;  he  answered,  that 
"  the  gout  had  a  fourth  cause,  study,  which  was  never  his 
case :  if  he  did  not  understand  law  and  gavelkind,  he  would 
not  talk  to  him ;  for  there  were  two  sorts  of  gout,  free- 
hold and  copyhold  ;  the  first  where  it  was  hereditary,  the 
otherwhere  a  person  by  debauchery  took  it  up."  13. 
g*  8peech  to  the  Royal  Society,"  1772,  4to.  14.  "  Elogy 
and  address,"  1773,  4to.  15.  A  Latin  version  of  Job, 
unfinished,  4to. 

We  shall  subjoin  a  well-known  epigram  by  sir  William 
Browne,  which  the  critics  have  pronounced  to  be  a  good 

'*  The  king  to  Oxford  sent  a  troop  of  hors*, 
For  tones  own  no  argument  but  force  ; 
With  equal  skill,  to  Cambridge  books  he  sent, 
For  whigs  admit  no  force  but  argument/' 

160  BROWNE. 

Bat  the  following,  by  an  Oxonian,  which  gave  rise  to  thai 
by  sir  William,  is  at  least  as  good  : 

"  The  king,  observing  with  judicious  eyes, 

The  state  of  both  his  universities, 

To. Oxford  sent  &  troop  of  horse ;  and  why  ? 

That  learned  body  wanted  loyalty : 

To  Cambridge  books,  as  very  wll  discerning, 

How  much  that  loyal  body  wanted  learniag." 

Sir  William  Browne's  will,  an  attested  copy  of  which  is 
now  before  us,  is  not  the  least  singular  of  his  compositions, 
and  may  be  said  to  be  written  in  Greek,  Latin,  and  Eng- 
lish. From  many  of  the  legacies,  however,  and  particu- 
larly his  mode  of  introducing  them,  we  perceive  the  kind- 
ness and  benevolence  of  his  heart,  which,  in  the  circle  of 
his  more  immediate  friends,  probably  atoned  for  his  many- 
oddities.  The  above  account  of  his  works  sufficiently 
shows  that  he  was  a  very  weak  man,  and  with  all  the  con- 
ceit which  usually  accompanies  defective  judgment.  With- 
the  periodical  critics,  he  was  long  an  object  of  ridicule, 
and  conquered  them  only  by  writing  faster  than  they  had- 
patience  to  read.  Unsuccessful,  however,  as  he  was  him- 
self, he  determined  that  better  writers  should  not  be  with- 
out encouragement,  and  therefore  by  his  will,  directed 
three  gold  medals,  of  five  guineas  eafcb,  to  be  given  yearly 
to  three  undergraduates  of  Cambridge  on  the  Commence- 
ment day,  when  the  exercises  are  publicly  read,  and  copies 
of  them  sent,  by  the  successful  candidates,  to  sir  Martin 
Folkes,  his  grandson  by  his  only  daughter.  The  first,  to 
him  who  writes  the  best  Greek  ode  in  imitation  of  Sappho  ; 
the  second  for  the  best  ode  in  imitation  of  Horace,;  the. 
third  for  the  best  Greek  and  Latin  epigrams,  the  former 
after  the  manner  of  Anthologia,  the  [atter  after  the  model 
of  Martial.  These  have  been  adjudged  since  1775.  He 
also  left  a  perpetual  rent  charge  of  21/.  per  annum,  upon 
sundry  estates,  for  founding  a  scholarship,  which  is  tenable 
for  seven  years;  but  the  possessor,  if  of  another  college,, 
must  remove  to  the  founder's  college,  Peter-house^ and  .i 
reside  there  every  entire  term  during  his  under-graduate- 
ship. '  " 

.    BROWNRIG,  or    BROUNRIG  (Ralph),   bishop    o(r 
Exeter,  was  born  at  Ipswich  in  Suffolk,  in  1592.     His  fa-  . 
ther,  who  was  a  merchant  of  that  place,  dying  when^he 

I  life  in  the  preceding  edit,  of  this  Dictionary.— Nicholas  Life  of  Bawyef. 

*•   "  ** 

B  R  O  W  N  R  I  G,  161 


was  bat  a  few  weeks  old,  his  mother  took  due  cafe  of  his 
education,  in  which  he  made  a  very  considerable  progress.  * 
At  the  age  of  fourteen,  he  was  sent  to  Pembroke-hall  in 
Cambridge,  of  which  he  successively  becaihe  schola*  and 
fellow ;  and  there  he  distinguished  himself  by  his  facetious 
and  inoffensive  wit,  his  eloquence,  and  his  great  skill  and 
knowledge  in  philosophy,  history,  poetry,  &c.  He  took 
his  master's  degree  in  1617,  B.  D.  in  1621,  and  D.  D.  in 
1626.  He  was  appointed  prevaricator  when  James  I. 
visited  the  university,  and  discharged  that  employment  to 
the  universal  admiration  of  the  whole  audience.  His  first 
preferments  were,  the  rectory  of  Barley  in  Hertfordshire, 
and  a  prebend  of  Ely  in  1621,  to  both  which  he  was  col- 
lated by  Dr.  Nicholas  Felton,  bishop  of  Ely.  July  15,  1628, 
he  was  incorporated  doctor  of  divinity  at  Oxford.  On  the 
21st  of  September,  1629,  he  was  collated  to  the  prebend 
of  Tachbrook,  in  the  cathedral  church  of  Lichfield,  which 
he  quitted  September  19,  1631,  when  he  was  admitted  to 
the  archdeaconry  of  Coventry.  He  was  likewise  master  of 
Catherine-hall  in  Cambridge,  and  proved  a*  great  benefit 
and  ornament  both  to  that  college  and  the  whole  univer- 
sity: In  1637,  1638,  1643>  and  L644,  he  executed  the 
office  of  vice-chancellor^  to  the  universal  satisfaction  of  all 
people,  and  to  his  own  great  credit.  In  1641,  he  was 
presented  to  the  eleventh  stall  or  prebend  in  the  church  of 
Durham,  by  Dr.  Thomas  Morton,  bishop  of  that  diocese, 
to  whom  he  was  chaplain.  Upon  the  translation  of  Dr. 
Joseph  Hall  to  the  bishopric  of  Norwich,  Dr.  Brownrig  was 
nominated  to  succeed  him  in  the  see  of  Exeter,  in  1041, 
Accordingly  he  was  elected  March  31,  1642;  confirmed 
May  14 ;  consecrated  the  day  following;  and  installed  the 
1st  of  June.  But  the  troubles  that  soon  after  followed, 
did  not  permit  him  long  to  enjoy  that  dignity.  Before  the 
beginning  of  them,  he  was  much  esteemed,  and  highly 
commended,  by  his  relation  John  Pym,  and  others  of  the 
presbyterian  stamp :  but  they  forsook  him,  only  because 
pe  was  a  bishop ;  and  suffered  him*  to  be  deprived  of  his 
revenues,  so  that  he  was  almost  reduced  to  want.  Nay, 
once  he  was  assaulted,  and  like  to  have  been  stoned  by  the 
tabble,  his  episcopal  character  being  his  only  crime.  About 
1645,  he  yas  deprived  of  his  mastership  of  Catherine-hall, 
on  account  of  a  sermon  preached  by  him  before  the  uni- 
versity, on  the  king's  inauguration,  at  some  passages  of 
which,  offence  was  taken  by  the  parliament  pafty ;  and 
Voi-VIL  M 


neither  his  piety,  gravity,  or  learning,  were  sufficient  to 
preserve  him  in  his  station.     Being  thus  robbed  pf  all,  he 
retired  to  the  house  of  Thomas  Rich,  of  Sunning,  esq.  m. 
Berkshire,  by  whom  he  was  generously  entertained  :  and 
there,  and  sometimes  at  London,  at  Highgate,  and  St. 
Edmundsbury,  spent  several  years.     During  this  time,  he 
had  the  courage  to  advise  Oliver  Cromwell  to  restore  king- 
Charles  II.  to  his  just  rights,  but  yet  he  suffered  in  his 
reputation,  as  not  being  zealous  enough  for  the  church. 
About  a  year  before  his  decease,  he  was  invited  to  be  a 
preacher  at  the  Temple,  in  London,  with  a  handsome  al- 
lowance; and  accordingly  he  went  and  settled  there,  in 
good  lodgings  furnished  for  htm.     But  his  old  distemper, 
the  stone,  coming  upon  him  with  greater  violence  than 
usual,  and  being  attended  with  the  dropsy  and  the -in- 
firmities off  age,  they  all  together  put  an  end  to  bis  life,  on 
the  7th  of  December,  1659  :  he  was  buried  the  17th  fol- 
lowing in  the  Temple  church,  where  there  is  an  epitaph 
over  him.     He  was  once  married,  but  never  had  a  child. 
Though  he  was  very  elaborate  and  exact  in  his  composi- 
tions, and  completely  wrote  his  sermons,  yet  he  could  not 
be  persuaded  to  print  any  thing  in  his  life-time.    Bishop 
Brownrig,  as  to  his  person,  was  tall  and  comely.    The 
majesty  of  bis  presence  was  so  allayed  with  meekness,  can- 
dour,   and  humility,    that  no  man  was  farther  from  any 
thing  morose  or  supercilious.     He  had  a  great  deal  of  wit, 
as  well  as  wisdom ;  and  was  an  excellent  scholar,-  an  ad- 
mirable orator,  an  acute  disputant,  a  pathetic  preacher, 
arid  a  prudent  governor,  full  of  judgment,  courage,  con- 
stancy, and  impartiality.     He  was,  likewise,  a  pereon  of 
that  soundness  of  judgment,  of  that  conspicuity  for  an  un- 
spotted life,  and  of  that  unsuspected  integrity,  that  he  was 
a  complete  pattern  to  all.     Dr.  Gauden,  who  bad  known 
him  above  thirty  years,  declares  that  he  never  heard  of  any 
thing  said  or  done  by  him,  which  a  wise  and  good  man 
would  have  wished  unsaid  or  undone.     Some  other  parts 
of  Dr.  Gaudem's  character  of  him  maybe  supposed  to  pro** 
ceed  from  the  warmth  of  friendship.     Echard  says  of  him, 
that  "  he  was  a  great  man  for  the  Anti-Arminian  cause  (for 
he  was  a  rigid  Calvinist),  yet  a  mighty  champion  for  the 
liturgy  and  ordination  by  bishops :  and  his  death  was  highly 
lamented  by  men  of  all  parties."     Baxter,  Neal,  and  other 
writers  of  the  nonconformist  party,  are  no  lesB  warm  in  his 
praises.     He  was  one  of  those  excellent  men  with  whom 

B  R  O  W  N  R  I  G.  163 

archbishop  TUlotson  cultivated  an  acquaintance  at  his  first 
coming  to  London,  and  by  whose  preaching  and  example 
he  formed  himself.  After  his  death  some  of  Kis  sermons 
were  published,  under  the  title  "  Forty  Sermons,  &c." 
1662,  foL  and  reprinted  with  the  addition  of  twenty -five, 
making  a  second  volume,  1674,  fol.  His  style  is  rathet 
better  than  that  of  many  of  his  contemporaries. l 

BROWNRIGG  (William),  an  eminent  physician;  a 
native  of  Cumberland,  was  born  in  1711,  and  educated  in 
medical  science  at  Leyden,  under  Albinus,  Euler,  and 
Boerhaave.  Having  taken  his  medical  degree  in  1737,  he 
returned  to  his  native  country,  and  settled  at  Whitehavert, 
where  his  practice  became  very  extensive:  About  twenty 
years  before  his  death,  he  retired  to  Of  rriathwaite,  where 
he  died,  Jan.  7,  1800,  in  his  eighty-hifitH  year,  Regretted 
as  a  man  of  amiable  and  endearing  virtues,  and  a  most 
skilful  physician. .  His  principal  publications  were,  I.  His 
inaugural  thesis,  "  De  Praxi  medica  ineunda,"  Leyden, 
l7S7f  4to.  2.  "  A  treatise  on  the  art  of  making  common 
Salt,"  Lond.  1748,  8vo,  which  procured  him  the  honour  of 
being  chosen  a  fellow  of  the  royal  society.  This  work, 
wiiich  has  long  been  out  of  print,  was  praised  by  Chaptal 
and  bishop  Watson  for  the  profound  knowledge  of  the  sub- 
ject displayed  in  it.  3.  "  An  enquiry  concerning  the  mi- 
neral elastic  spirit  contained  in  the  water  of  Spa  in  Ger- 
many," printed  in  the  Philosophical  Transactions,  vol.  LV. 
4.  A  treatise,  "  On  the  means  of  preventing  the  commu- 
nication of  pestilent  contagion."  A  trip  to  the  Spas  of 
Germany  suggested  to  him  the  idea  of  analyzing  the  pro- 
perties of  the  Pyrmont  springs,  and  of  some  others,  and 
led  him  into  that  train  of  nice  and  deep  disquisition,  which 
terminated  in  the  de-elementizing  one  of  our  elements, 
and  fixing  its  invisible  fluid  form  into  a  palpable  and  visible 
substance.  All  this  he  effected  by  producing  the  various 
combinations  of  gases  and  vapours  which  constitute  atmo- 
spheric air,  and  separating  into  many  forms  this  long-  sup* 
posed  one  and  indivisible,  whilst  he  solidified  its  fluid  es- 
sence into  a  hard  substance.  That  Dr.  Brownrigg  was  the 
legitimate  father  of  these  discoveries  was  not  only  known  at 

1  Bfog.  Brit.— Life  and  Funeral  Sermon  by  Dr.  Gauden,  1660,  8vo.T^Fuller,i 
Worthies. — Barwick's  Life,  see  Index. — Clarendon's  Hist.  vol.  II.  p.  305.— * 
Sylvester^fcife  of  Baxter,  p.  172, 174, 175,  &c— Plume's  Life  of  Hacket,  p. 
12, 13,  16?S5,  44.— Neal's  Puritan?,  vol.  II.  p.  $$,  $44, 4to  edit.~-Llpyd's  Me- 
moirs, fol.  p.  404. 

M   2 

16*  BROWNRJG  G. 

the  time  to  bis  intimate  apd  domestic  circle,  but  also  to  the 
then  president  of  the  royal  society,  sir  John  Pringle ;  who, 
when  called  upon  to  bestow  upon  Dr.  Priestley  the  gold 
medal  for  his  paper  of  "  Discoveries  of  the  Nature  and 
Properties  of  Air,"  thus  observes,  "  And  it  is  no  disparage- 
ment to  thejearned  Dr.  Priestley,  that  the  vein  of  these 
discoveries  was  hit  upon,  and  its  course  successfully  fol- 
lowed up,  some  years  ago,  by  my  very  learned,  very  pene- 
trating, very  industrious,  but  tqo  modest  friend,  Dr. 
•Brownrigg."  To  habits,  indeed,  of  too  much  diffidence, 
and  to  too  nice  a  scrupulosity  of  taste,  the'  world  has  to  at- 
tribute the  fewness  of  his  publications.  One  of  his  literary 
projects,  was  a  general  history  of  the  county  of  Cumber- 
land, but  it  does  not  appear  that  he  had  made  much  pro- 
gress. He  assisted  Mr.  West,  however,  in  his  entertain- 
ing "  Tour  to  the  Lakes,"  forming  the  plan  of  that  popu- 
lar work. l 

BRUC/EUS  (Henry),  son  of  Gerard,  one  of  the  magis- 
trates of  Alost,  in  Flanders,  was  born  in  that  city  in  1531. 
Having  passed  through  the  usual  school  edu,cati6n  at 
Ghent,  under  Simon,  a  celebrated  master,  and  at  fraris 
and  Bruges,  at  which  last  place  he  taught  school  himself 
with  much  credit,  he  was  sent  to  Rome,  where' he  taught 
the  mathematics  for  some  years ;  then  taming  his  mind  to 
the  study  of  medichie,  he  went  to  Boulogne,  and  having 
completed  his  studies,  and  taken  his  degree  of  doctor,  he 
travelled,  for  his  further  improvement,  over  a  great  part 
of  France.  At  Paris,  he  was  introduced  to  theacquaiut- 
ance  of  Adrian  Turnebus  and  Peter  Ramus.  Returning  to 
Alost,  he  was  made  physician  and  principal  magistrate  of 
the  city.  As  he  had  become  a  convert  to  Lutheranism,'he 
readily  accepted  the  invitation  of  John  Albert,  duke  of 
Meckleiibii£gh,  to  settle  at  Rostock,  where  he  might  with 
safety  profes$  his  religion.  He  was  here  appointed  pro- 
fessor in  mathematics,  and  soon  became  popular  also  as  a 
physician.  After  residing  here  25  years,  he  was  seized 
with  an  apoplexy,  of  which  he  died,  December  3  i,  1593.  His. 
writings  were,  I. "  Ds  Primo  Moiu,"  1 580,  8va  2.  "  In- 
stitution^ Spnerae,".  8vo.  3.  "  Proposiriones  de  mo'rbo 
Gallico,"  Rostock/ 1569,  4to.  4.  "  Theses  de  hydrope 
triplici,"  ibid.  1587.  5.,  "  Descorbuto  proposition es,"  ib. 
1589,  1591,  Svo,  reprinted  with  Eugalenas's  **  I%er  Ob-* 

*  Cent.  Mag.  1S0O.      ..,.". 

BtUC£US.  ite 

servationum  de  Scorbuto,"  Leipsic,  1614.  6.  €€  Epistolae 
de  variis  rebus  et  argumentis  medicis,"  printed  with 
"Smetii  Miscellanea,"  Francf.  1611*  and  including  bis 
theses  on  the  dropsy. l 

BRUCE  (James),  a  celebrated  modern  traveller,  de- 
scended of  an  ancient  and  honourable  family,  was  the  son 
of  David  Bruce,  esq.  of  Kinnaird,  by  Marion  Graham, 
daughter  of  James  Graham,  esq.  of  Airtb,  dean  of  the  fa- 
culty of  advocates,  and  judge  of  the  high  court  of  admiralty 
in  Scotland.  He  was  "born  at  the  family  residence  of  Kin* 
naird,  in  tfie  county  of  Stirling,  Dec.  14,  1730.  Of  his 
first  years  few  particulars  are  recorded  of  much  conse- 
quence, except  that  bis  temper,  contrary  to  the  character 
which  it  afterwards  assumed,  was  gentle  and  quiet ;  but  as 
he  advanced  in  life,  became  bold,  hasty,  and  impetuous, 
accompanied,  however,  with  a  manly  openness,  that  shewed 
the  usual  concomitant,  a  warm  and  generous  heart.  It 
having  been  determined  to  give  him  an  English  education, 
he  was  sent  to  London  to  the  house  of  William  Hamilton, 
esq.  a  barrister,  and  his  uncle,  with  whom  he  remained 
for  some  time,  and  in  1742  he  was  placed  at  Harrow  school, 
"where  he  made  great  proficiency  in  classical  learning. 
After  leaving  Harrow  in  May  1746,  he  lived  about  a  year 
in  the  academy  of  a  Mr.  Gordon  till  April  1747,  where  he 
prosecuted  his  classical  education,  and  studied  French, 
arithmetic,  and  geometry.  In-  May  of  that  year  he  re- 
turned to  Scotland  in  order  to  commence  a  course  of  study 
at  the  university  of  Edinburgh,  preparatory  to  his  following 
this  profession  of  the  law ;  but  it  does  not  appear  that  he 
made  much  progress,  or  indeed  had  much  inclination  for 
«^this  /study/  and  the  precarious  state  of  his  health  at  this 
time  rendered  much  study  of  any  kind  dangerous.  His 
own  expectations  of  success  in  the  law  became  gradually 
abated,  and  various  other  circumstances  determined  him 
to  relinquish  it  for  ever. 

In  this  uncertainty  of  mind,  India  offered  to  his  ardent 
Imagination  a  prospect  of  a  more  flattering  nature.  As  he 
was  considerably  above  the  age  at  which  persons  are  en- 
rolled as  writers  .in  the  service  of  the  East  India  company, 
his  friends  advised  him  to  petition  the  court  of  directors 
for  the  liberty  of  settling  as  a  free  trade**  under  its  patron - 

1  Moreri.— Fopptu  Bibl.  Bclg. — Mange t  and  Haller.—Frehtrl  Tbeatruai.^* 
Jftclchior  Adam  in  fitis  medicorum. 


age ;  and  accordingly  he  left  Scotland  in  July  11  Si  with  a 
view  to  prosecute  this  design  ;  but  he  was  prevented  from 
carrying  it  into  execution  by  forming  a  connection  with  an 
amiable  young  lady,  Miss  Allan,  daughter  of  a  wine-mer- 
chant in  London,  whom  he  married  in  Feb.  1754.  But 
though  this  year  did  not  end  with  the  prosperity  with  which 
it  began,  this  accidental  settlement  in  London  changed  his 
destination*- in  life.  It  detained  him  in  Europe  till  his 
mind  waa  formed,  his  knowledge  matured,  and  an  oppor- 
tunity presented  itself  of  visiting  the  east  with  honour  and 
advantage.  In  his  oivji  opinion,  it  prevented  him  from 
suffering  the  cruel  imprisonment  at  Calcutta  in  1756, 
which  proved  fatal  to  many  of  the  company's  servants.  He 
now  entered  into  partnership  in  the  wine-business,  which, 
as.  well  as  his  marriage,  was  approved  of  by  his  father;  but 
bis  prospects  in  this  new  situation  were  soon  clouded;  A 
few,  months  after  their  marriage,  Mrs-  Bruce  exhibited  evi- 
dent symptoms  of  consumption,  and  being  recommended 
to  try  the  mild  cltiftate  of  the  south  of  France,  expired  at 
Pari*  in  October. 

:By  this  melancholy  event,  Mr.  Bruce  lost  the  principal 
tie  that  connected  him  with  business,  and  although  he  did 
not  think  it  prudent  to  relinquish  a  flourishing  trade  with- 
out some  equivalent  object,  relaxed  his  personal  efforts 
very  considerably,  and  added  to  his  stock  of  languages, 
the  Spanish  and  Portuguese.  He  also  improved  his  skill 
in  drawing,  under  a  master  of  the  name  of  Bonneau,  re- 
commended to  him  by  Mr.  (afterwards  sir)  Robert  Strange. 
Before  this  time  he  bad  chiefly  cultivated  that  part  of 
drawing  which  relates  to  the  science  of  fortification,  ih: 
hopes  that  he  might,  on  some  emergency,  End  it  of  use  in 
military  service.  v  But  views  of  a  more  extensive  kind  now 
induced  him  to  study  drawing  in  general,  and  to  obtain  a 
correct  taste,  in  painting,  so  as  to  be  able  to  visit  with  ad- 
vantage those  countries  which  possess  the  finest  specimens 
of  skill  and  genius  in  that  department  of  the  arts.— This 
notice  of  Mr,  Bruce's  application  to  the  study*  of  drawing* 
we  have  given  in  the  words  of  bis  biographer,  because  it' 
was  fqng  and  confidently  reported  by  those  who  wished  to- 
lessen  Mr.  Brace's  reputation,  that  he  was  totally  and  in* 
corrigibly  ignorant  of  the  art. 

His  concern  in  the  wine-trade  gave  him  an  opportunity 
of  travelling  over  a  considerable  part  of  Spain,  Portugal,** 
and  the  Netherlands,  but  hearing  of  his  father's  death  in 

B  R  U  C  &  167 

1758,  he  returned  to  England,  and  i%  1761  withdrew  en- 
tirely from  the 'wine- trade.  He  now,  from  hit  observation 
while  in  Spain,  suggested  to  the  prime  minister,  Mr.  Pitt, 
afterwards  lord  Chatham,  the  practicability  of  a  successful 
expedition  against  Ferrol,  in  Galicia,  where  the  Spaniards 
had  a  considerable  harbour,  and  generally  stationed  a  part 
of  their  navy ;  but  various  circumstances,  of  which  perhaps 
Mr.  Pitt's  resignation  was  the  principal,  prevented  this 
enterprise  from  being  attempted.  Disappointed  in  this, 
be  resolved  to  return  to  his  native  country,  and  pass  his 
time  as  a  private  gentleman,  cultivating  his  paternal  estate* 
One  of  the  new  ministers,  however,  lord  Halifax,  diverted 
him  from  this  design,  and  suggested  Africa  to  him  as  a 
proper  field  for  enterprize  and  discovery ;  and  that  he 
might  go  under  the  protection  of  a  public  character,  it  was 
proposed  to  send  him  as  consul  %o  Algiers.  Bruce  acceded 
to  these  proposals,  and  left  England  in  the  end  of  June 
1762.  He  passed  through  France  and  Italy,  and  carried 
with  him  from  the  letter  country  an  artist  to  assist  him  in 
his  drawings.  For  his  subsequent  adventures,  bis  travels 
into  Abyssinia,  and  his  discovery  of  the  sources  of  the  Nile, 
&c.  we  must  refer  to  his  published  travels.  He  returned 
to  his  native  coiiptry  in  1773,  and  in  1776,  he  married  a 
daughter  of  Thomas  Dundas  of  Fingask,  esq.  by  whom  he 
had  three  children,  two  of  whom,  a  son  and  daughter,  are 
still  living.  After  he  settled  at  Kinnaird,  bis  time  was 
qhiefly  spent  in  managing  his  estate,  in  preparing  bis  tra* 
vels  for  the  press,  and  other  literary  occupations ;  and  he 
was  preparing  a  second  edition  of  his  Travels,  when  death 
prevented  the  execution  of  his  design.  On  Saturday, 
April  26,  1794,  having  entertained  some  company  at  Kin- 
naird, as  he  was  going  down  stairs  about  eight  o'clock  in: 
the  evening,  to  hand  a  lady  into  a  carriage,  his  foot  slipt, 
and  be  fell  from  a  considerable  height.  He  was  taken  up 
in  a  .state  ef  insensibility,  and  expired  early  next  morning* 
.  Mr.  Bruce' s  .figure  was  above  the.  common  size;  his 
Kmbs  athletic,  but  well  .proportioned ;  his  complexion 
sanguine ;.  bis  countenance  manly  and  good-tempered ; 
and  his  manners  easy  and  polite.  The  whole  outward  man 
was  such  as  to  announce  a  character  well  calculated  to  con* 
tend  with  the  many  difficulties  and  trying  occasions,  which 
so  extraordinary  a  journey  could  not  but  have  thrown  in  his 
way.  His  internal  characters,  the  features  of  bis  under- 
standing ai>d  disposition,  seem  in  a.  great  measure  to  have 

J6«  BRUCE. 

corresponded  with  these  outward  lineaments.  As  a  country 
gentleman,  though  not  without  a  tincture  of  haughtiness, 
he  exhibited  the  elegance  of  a  man  of  fashion,  and  the 
hospitality  of  a  Briton.  His  personal  accomplishments 
fitted  hitn,  in  a  superior  manner,  for  the  undertakings  in 
which  he  engaged.  His  constitution  was  robust,  and  he 
had  inured  himself  to  every  kind  6f  fatigue  and  exercise. 
In  tnental  accomplishments  he  equalled,  if  not  surpassed, 
the  generality  of  travellers.  His  memory  was  excellent, 
And  his  understanding  vigorous  and  well  cultivated.  He 
understood  French,  Italian,  Spanish,  and  Portuguese,  the 
two  first  of  which  he  spoke  and  wr6te  with  facility.  Be- 
sides Greek  and  Latin,  which  he  read  wel1,  though  not 
critically,  he  knew  the  Hebrew,  Chaldee,  and  Syriac ;  and, 
in  the  latter  part  of  his  life,  compared  several  portions  of 
the  scriptures  in  those  related  dialects.  He  read  and  spoke 
with  ease,  Arabic,  Ethiopic,  and  Amharic.  '  Necessity 
made  him  acquainted  with  these  last,  and  impressed  them 
deeply  on  his  mind.  He  had  applied,  during  the  greatest 
part  of  his  life,  to  the  study  of  astronomy,  and  ojther  prac- 
tical branches  of  mathematical  learning. 

The  most  defective  part  of  his  character,  his  biographer 
informs  us,  arose  from  his  constitutional  temper,  which 
disposed  him  to  be  suspicious,  and  hasty  in  taking  offence. 
His  enmities  therefore  were  sometimes  capricious,  though, 
in  general,  well-founded.  His  love  of  ancestry,  and  prac- 
tice of  telling  his  own  exploits,  though  magnified  into 
tices  by  the  weakest  of  his  enemies,  scarcely  deserve  no- 
tice as  imperfections,  though  they  certainly  were  protni- 
nent  features. — They  contributed*  howevef,  in  a  great 
measure,  to  excite  those  animosities  and  that  incredulity 
which  for  many  years  prevailed  respecting  the  veracity  of 
his  narrative. 

His  "Travels,"  after  many  years  of  eager  expectation 
on  tbe'part  of  the  public,  were  published  in  1790,  at  Lon- 
don, in  5  vols.  4to,  under  the  title  "  Travels  to  discover  the 
Source  of  the  Nile,  in  the  years  1768 — 1773."  The  reception 
they  met  with  was  exceeding  flattering,  yet  numerous"  at- 
tacks were  made  on  the  author's  character  and  veracity  in 
the  periodical  journals,  to  which  it  is  unnecessary  now  to 
refer*.     It  seems  agreed  that  the  general  credit  4>f  the 


*  The  late  Dr.  JLort  formed  a  con-  against  Bruce,  which  are  bow  in  the 

siderable    collection    of   Memoranda,  possession  of  the  editor  of  this  wdrk,  in 

correspondence,  scraps  from  the  Jour-  consequence  of   &  purchase    at  Mr. 

pals  and  Newspapers,    Stc    for  and  Gough's  sale. 

BRUCE.  169 

work  has  survived.  We  caftnot  perhaps  quote  a  higher  '. 
Authority  than  that  of  Dr.  Vincent,  who  observes  that 
'*  Bruce  may  have  offended  from  the  warmth  of  his  tem- 
per ;  he  may  have  been  misled  by  aspiring  to  knowledge 
and  science  which  he  had  not  sufficiently  examined ;  but 
bis  work  throughout  bears  internal  marks  of  veracity,  in 
all  instances  where  he  was  not  deceived  himself;  and  his 
observations  were  the  best  which  a  man,  furnished  with 
|  such  instruments,  and  struggling  for  his  life,  could  ob- 

tain." l 

.  BRUCIOLl  (Anthony),  a  laborious  Italian  writer,  was 
born  at  Florence  towards  the  conclusion  of  the  fifteenth 
century.  Having  meddled  in  1522  in  the  plot  formed  by 
some  Florentine  citizens  against  cardinal  Julius  de  Medicis, 
afterwards  pope  Clement  VII.  he  was  obliged  to  expatriate 
himself,  and  withdrew  into  France.  The  Medici  being 
driven  out  of  Florence  in  1527,  this  revolution  brought 
him  back  to  his  country,  where  the  liberty  with  which  he 
chose  to  speak  against  the  monks  and  priests,  raised  a 
suspicion  of  his  being  attached  to  the  opinions  of  Luther* 
He  was  put  into  prison,  and  would  not  have  escaped  an 
ignominious  death  but  for  the  kind  offices  of  his  friends; 
who  procured  a  mitigation  of  his  punishment  to  an  exile  of 
two  years.  He  then  retired  to  Venice  with  his  brothers, 
who  were  printers  and  booksellers,  and  employed  their 
presses  in  printing  the  greater  part  of  his  works,  of  which 
the  most  known  and  the  most  in  request  is  the  whole  Bible 
translated  into  Italian,  with  annotations  and  remarks,  which 
was  put  by  the  papists  in  the  number  of  heretical  books  of 
the  first  class;  but  the  protestagts  held  it  in  such  high 
esteem  that  it  passed  through  several  editions.  The  most 
>ample  and  the  most  scarce  is  that  of  Venice,  1546  and 
1548,  3  vols,  folio.  Brucioli  pretends  to  have  made  hi* 
.translation  from  the  Hebrew  text:  but  the  truth  is,  that, 
.being  but  moderately  versed  in  that  language,  he  made. 
,  use  of  the  Latin  version  of  Pagniai.  His  other  works  are, 
1.  Italian  translations  of  the  natural  history  of  Pliny,  and 
several  .pieces  of  Aristotle  and  Cicero.  2.  Editions  of  Pe- 
trarch and  Bocace,  with  notes.  3.  "  Dialogues,"  Venice, 
1526,  folio.  The  year  of  his  death  is  not  known;  but  it 
is  certain  that  he  was  still  alive  in  1554. 8 

1  Life  of  Bruce  by  Alexander  Murray,  F«  A.  S.  E.  4to,  1308,  a  work  of  great 
interest  and  impartiality.  '  Diet.  Hnt. 

17*  BRUCKER. 

BRUCKER  (John  James),  the  learned  author  of  the 
"  History  of  Philosophy/9  was  a  Lutheran  clergyman,  of 
whose  life  we  have  very  few  particulars.  He  was  born 
Jan.  22,  1696,  at  Augsburgb,  and  educated  at  Jena, 
whence  he  returned  to  his  native  place,  and  in  1724,  be-* 
came  rector  of  Kafbeueren.  He  was  afterwards  pastor  of 
St.  Ulricas  church  at  Augsburgh,  where  be  died  in  1770; 
Among  his  works  are,  I.  "  Tentamen  introductions  in 
historiani  doctrinae  de  Ideis,"  Jena,  1719,  4to.  2*  u  His* 
toria  philosophica  doctrinae  de  Ideis,"  Augsburg,  1723,  8vo& 
S.  "  De  Vita  et  Scriptis  CI.  Efringeri,"  ibid.  1724,  8vo. 
4.  "  Otium  Vindelicum,  sive  Meletematum  Historico-phi- 
losophicorum  Triga,"  ibid.  1721,  &vo.  V  w  Historia  Vitas 
Adoiphorum  Occonum,"  Lips.  1734,  4to.  6*  "  Dissertatio 
Epistol.  de  Vita  Hier.  Wolfii,"  ibid.  1739,  4to.  7.  "  De 
Hoeschelii  Mentis  in  Rem  Literariam,"  ibid.  1739,  4to. 
8.  "  Institutiones  Histories  Philosophies,"  ibid.  1727,  8vo* 
and  1756,  4to.  But  the  most  important  work,  to  which 
he  owes  his  chief  reputation,  is  his  <*  Historia  Critica  Phi- 
losophise," published  at  Leipsic  between  the  years  1742 
and  1744,  in  four  large  volumes  4to;  and  repriuted  at  the 
same  place  in  1767,  with  large  improvements  and  addi- 
tions, in  6  vols.  4to.  This  was  the  fruit,  of  nearly  fifty 
years  labour,  and  has  received  the  general  suffrage  of  die 
learned,  as  being  the  most  comprehensive,  methodical,  and 
impartial  history  of  philosophy  hitherto  written*  He  traces 
the  progress  of  philosophy  through  three  periods,  the 
ancient,  the  middle,  and  the  modern;  in  the  first  be 
surveys  the  state  of  philosophy  in  the  ancient  worlds 
prior  to  the  establishment  of  the  Grecian  states,  and 
in  the  several  sects  of  Grecian  philosophers.  In  the  se« 
cond,  he  exhibits  the  various  forms  under  which  it  ap- 
peared, during  the  course  of  twelve  hundred  years,  among 
the  Romans,  the  Orientalists,  the  Jews,  the  Saracens,  and 
the  Christians.  In  the  third,  he  relates  the  attempts,  whe* 
ther  successful  or  unsuccessful,  which  have  been  made 
since  the  revival  of  letters,  to  restore,  or  improve  upon, 
ancient  philosophy,  or  to  introduce  new  methods  of  philo- 
sophizing. It  is  both  a  history  of  doctrines  and  of  men. 
As  a  history  of  doctrines,  it  lays  open  the  origin  of  opi- 
nions, the  changes  which  they  have  undergone,  the  distinct 
characters  of  different  systems,  and  the  leading  points  in 
which  they  agree  or  differ.  As  a  history  of  men,  it  relates 
the  principal  incidents  in  the  lives  of  the  more  eminent 

BRUCKER.  171 

philosophers,  remarks  those  circumstances  in  their  charac- 
ter or  situation  which  may  be  supposed  to  have  influenced 
their  opinions,  takes  notice  of  their  followers  and  oppo- 
nents, and  describes  the  origin,  progress,  and  decline  of 
their,  respective  sects.  To  this  part  of  his  work  every  col- 
lector of  biography  must  own  his  obligations.  A  very 
judicious  and  satisfactory  abridgement  of  this  work  was 
published  in  1791,  2  vols.  4to,  by  the  late  Dr.  Enfield.1 

BRUGKMAN  (Francis  Ernest),  a  German  physician 
and  botanist,  was  born  at  Mariensbal,  near  Helmstadt,  Dec. 
1 7,  1 697,  and  having  completed  his  studies,  was  created 
doctor  in  medicine  there,  in  the  year  1721..  As  his  taste 
inclined  him  to  botany,  he  travelled  over  Bohemia,  Austria, 
and  a  great  pat t  of  Germany,  examining  and  collecting 
plants  indigenous  to  those  countries,  and  other  natural 
productions.  In  return  for  his  communications  to  the 
Academia  Nat  Curios,  and  of  Berlin,  be  was  made  cor- 
responding member  of  those  societies.  Having  finished 
his  travels,  he  settled  at  Brunswick,  where  he  died  March 
21  st,  1753,  When  young,  and  before  he  had  taken  the 
degree  of  doctor,  he  published  :  1.  "  Specimen  Botani- 
cum,  exhibens'  fungos  subterraneos,  vulgo  tubefa  terra 
dictos,!'  Helmst.  1720,.  4to,  with  engravings.  2.  "Opus- 
cula  Medico .  botanica,"  Brunswick,  1727,  4to.  In  this 
be  treats  of  the  medical  qualities  of  various  vegetable  pro- 
ductions, .among  others,  of  coffee,  the  use  of  which  he 
condemns.  &,  "  Epistolae  Itinerarise,"  containing  his  obser- 
vations on  vegetable  and  other  natural  productions,  col- 
lected during  his  travels,  in  which  we  find  a  great  body  of 
uiefol  information.  4.  "  Historia  naturalis  ts  A<r@tff$$  ej us- 
que pr^paratorum  chart®  lini  liritei  et  ellychniorum  in- 
combustitiilium,"  Brunsw.  1727,  4to.  In  this  he  has 
discovered' that  the  asbestos  is  susceptible  of  printing,  and 
be  had  four  copied  of  the  work  printed  on  this  species  of 
incombustible- paper.  5.  "  Magnalia  Dei  in  locis  subter- 
rarieis,"  a  description  of  all  the  mines  and  mineralogical " 
productions  in  every  part  of  the  world,  Brunswick,  and 
Wolfeubdttel,  1727,  and  1730,  2  Vols,  fol.1 

BRUCKNER'  (John),    a  Lutheran  divine,   settled  in 
England,  was  born  in  the  small  island  of  Cadsand,  near 
the-  Belgic  frontier,  Dec.  31,   1726,    and  was  educated  ' 
with  a  view  to*  the  theological  profession,  chiefly  at  th$  v 



university  of  Franeker,  whence  he  passed  to  Leyde*. 
There  he  obtained  a  pastorship,  and  profited  by  the  society 
of  Herasterbuis,  of  Valkenaer,  and  especially  of  the  elder 
Schultens.  His  literary  acquirements  were  eminent ;  he 
read  the  Hebrew  and  the  Greek ;  he  composed  correctly ; 
and  has  preached  with  applause  in  four  languages,  Latin, 
Dutch,  French,  and  English.  In  1752,  Mr.  Columbine, 
of  a  French  refugee  family,  which  had  contributed  to 
found,  and  habitually  attended,  the  Walloon  church  at 
Norwich,  was  intrusted  by  that  congregation,  when  he  was 
on  a  journey  into  Holland,  to  seek  out  a  fit  successor  to 
their  late  pastor,  Mr.  Valloten,  and  applied,  after  due  in- 
quiry, to  Mr.  Bruckner,  who  accepted  the  invitation,  and 
early  in  1753  settled  as  French  preacher  at  Norwich,  where 
he  officiated  during  fifty-one  years,  with  undiminished  ap~ 
probation*  About  the  year  1766,  Mr.  Bruckner  succeeded 
also  to  Dr.  Van  Sarn,  as  minister  of  the  Dutch  church,  of 
which  the  duties 'gradually  became  rather  nominal  than 
real,  in  proportion  as  the  Dutch  families  died  off,  and  as 
the  cultivation  of  their  language  was  neglected  by  the 
trading  world  for  the  French.  The  French  tongue  Mr. 
Bruckner  was  assiduous  to  diffuse,  and  gave  public  and 
private  lessons  of  it  for  many  years.  His  income  was  now 
convenient  and  progressive.  He  kept  a  horse  and  a  pointer, 
£<n  he  took  great  pleasure  in  shooting.  He  drew  occa- 
sionally, and  has  left  a  good  portrait  of  his.  favourite  dog. 
He  cultivated  music,  and  practised  much  on  the  organ. 
In  1767' was  printed  at  Leyden  his  "  Tb6orie  du  Systgme 

-  Animal,"  in  the  seventh  and  tenth  chapters  of  which  there 
is  much  anticipation. of  the  sentiments. lately  evolved  in 
the  writings  of  Mr.  Mail  thus.  This,  work  was  well  trans- 
lated into  English,  under  the  title  "  A  Philosophical 
Survey  of  the  Animal  Creation,",  published  for  Johnson 

-  and  Payne  in  1768.     Mr.  Bruckner  was  married  in  1782, 
v  to  Miss  Cooper,  of  Guist,  formerly  his  pupil.     In  1790,  he 

published  under  the  name  Cassander,  from  his  birth-place, 
those  "  Criticisms  on  the  Diversions  of  Purley,"  which  at- 
tracted some  hostile  flashes  from  Mr,  Home  Tooke,  in  his 
subsequent  quarto  edition.  This  pamphlet  displays  a  pro- 
found and  extensive  knowledge  of  the  various  Gothic  dia- 
lects, and  Mate*  that  tbfnsame  theory  of  prepositions  and 
conjunctions,  so  convincingly  applied  in  the  "  Epeapte- 
roenta"  to  the  northern  languages,  had  also  been  taught 
concerning  the  Hebrew  and   other   dead   languages  bf 


Schultens.  Mr.  Wakefield'*  pamphlet  against  Social  Wor- 
ship drew  from  Mr.  Bruckner,  in  1792,  a  learned  reply. 
In  the  preface  to  these  "  Thoughts  on  Public  Worship," 
hopes  are  given  of  a  continuation  still  desiderated  by  the 
friends  of  religion.  Mr.  Bruckner  began  a  didactic  poem 
in  French  ver>e,  which  had  for  its  object  to  popularize  in 
another  form,  the  principles  laid  down  in  bis  fbeory  of 
the  Auimal  System.     A  gradual  failure  rather  of  •spirits 

.than  of  health,  seetns  often  to  have  suspended  or  delayed 
the  enterprise ;  to  haye  brought  on  a  restless  and  fas- 
tidious vigilance  ;  and  to  have  prepared  that  termina- 
tion of  bis  iife,  which  took  place  on  the  morning  of  Satur- 
day, May  12,  1804.  He  was  buried,  according  to  his 
own  desire,  at  Guist,  near  the  kindred  of  his  respected 
wiHow.  His  society  was  courted  to  the  last,  as  his  con- 
versation was  always  distinguished  for  good  s^nse,  for 
argument,  and  for  humour.  He  was  beloved  Jfor  his  at- 
tentions and  affability ;  esteemed  for  his  probity  and  pru- 
dence; and  admired  for  his  understanding  and  learning.1 

BRUEGHEL  or  BREUGHEL  (Peter),  called  Old 
Brueghel,  to  distinguish  him  from  bis  son,  was  the  first 
of  a  family  of  eminent  artists.  He  was  born  at  Brueghel, 
a  village  near  Breda,  in  1510,  and  acquired  the  first  prin- 
ciples of  his  art  from  Peter  Cock,  or  Koeck-van-AeLst, 
whose  daughter  he  married.  He  afterwards  travelled  in 
France  and  Italy  ;  studied  nature,  amidst  the  mountain*  of 
Tyrol,  arid  the  scenery  of  the  Alps  ;  and  availed:  himself 
of  the  works  of  the  greatest  masters  in  Italy.  On  his  re- 
turn from  Italy,  he  resided  for  some  time  at  Antwerp,  and 
from  thence  he  removed  to  Brussels.  Whilst  he  was  em- 
ployed by  the  magistrates  of  this  city,  in  taking  views  of 
the  canal  which,  falls  into  the.  Scheldt,  he  sickened,  and 
died  in  1570;  after  having  caused  to  he  burned  in  his 
presence,  all  his  licentious  and  satirical  designs.  He 
chiefly  excelled  in  landscapes,  and  droll  subjects,  re* 
sembling  those  of  Jerom  Boscbe ;  and  he  was  particularly 
fond  of  representing  the  marches  of  armies,  robberies, 
skirmishes,  sports,  dances,  weddings,  and  drunken  <juar- 

■!  rels ;  and  in  order  to  acquire  greater  skill  and  accuracy  in 
this  kind  of  representations,  he  often  assumed  the  hab&of 
a  peasant,  and  joined  the  meaner  boors  at  their  feasts  aud 
amusements.     His  figures  wer*  correct,  and  their  dm* 

}  G*nt.  M»s-  1*94, 


peries  well  chosen ;  the  heads  and  hands  were  touched 
with  spirit ;  and  his  expression,  though  not  elegant,  wad 
true.  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds  says,  that  "  he  was  totally  ig- 
norant of  all  the  mechanical  art  of  making  a  picture;99  but 
there  is  in  his  "  Slaughter  of  the  Innocents'9  (which  sir 
Joshua  saw  in  his  travels),  a  great  quantity  of  thinking,  a 
representation  of  variety  of  distress,  enough  for  twenty 
modern  pictures.  His  principal  performance  is  in  the 
emperor' 6  collection  at  Vienna,  which  is  the  "  Reprer 
sentation  of  the  building  of  the  tower  of  Babel,  by  Nim- 
rod.99  Several  of  his  paintings  are  in  the  cabinets  of  the 
emperor  and  elector  palatine,  and  dispersed  through  va- 
rious parts  of  Europe.  For  his  amusement  he  engraved 
some  few  landscapes  and  grotesque  subjects. * 

BRUEGHEL  (Peter),   the  younger,   and  sometimes, 
called  "  Hellish  Brueghel99  from  the  nature  of  his  subjects, 
was  the  son  of  the   preceding  artist,   born  at  Brussels, 
and  became  the  disciple  of  Gelles  Comngsloo.     His  com- 
positions rather  excite  disgust  than  satisfaction ;  and  his . 
human  figures,  though  freely  pencilled,  and  not  ill  co- 
loured, are  not  much  more  eiegatit  than  those  of  the  in- 
fernal kind.     In  his  historical  subjects  he  generally  intro- 
duced witches  and  devils ;  such  as  Orpheus  charming  Pluto 
and  Proserpine  to  procure  the  deliverance  of  Eurydice,*., 
surrounded  with  horrible  forms  and  appearances ;   Saul 
and  the  Witch  of  Endor;  or  St  Anthony's  temptations. 
He  is  also  enumerated  by  Stttttt  among  the  engravers.     He 
died  1642s* 

BRUEGHEL  (John),  known,  from  his  favourite  dress; 
by  the  name  of  Velvet  Brueghel,  or  Feuweeler,  was  the 
son  of  Peter  Brueghel 'th6  old,  and  consequently  brother 
to  the  preceding.  He  was  born  at  Brussels,  in  1560,  and 
was  instructed*  probably  by  bis  father,  and  by  other  artists; 
but,  whoever  were  his  instructors,  lie  acquired  an  emi- 
nence in  every  art  of  painting,  in  colouring,  in  design, 
and  in  pencilling,  far  superior  to  that  of  his  father,  and  of 
all  his  contemporaries  in  his  style*  He  began  with  painting 
flowers  and  fruit,  which  he  executed  with  admirable  skill ; 
and  then  proceeded  to  landscapes,  sea-ports,  and  markets, 
in  which  he  introduced  a  number  of  small  figures,  sur- 
prisingly exact  and  correctly  drawn.    At  Cologne,  where 

1  Pilkington.— Strutt— Argentine,  vol.  HL— Descamps. — Sir  J.  Reynolds's 
Works,  ▼ol.  II.  p.  408.  .    »  Piutfngton.— Strutt,— Argenvilk 


b<e  resided  for  some  time,  he  gained  aft  extraordinary  re* 
putation;  and  his  pictures  were  well  known  and  admired 
in  Italy,  in  which  country  he  spent  some  time.  He  died, 
according  to  the  most  probable  accounts,  in  1625.  That 
the  industry  of  this  artist  must  have  been  singular,  suffi-t 
ciently  appears  from  the  number  and  variety  of  his  pictures, 
&tid  the  exquisite  neatness  and  delicacy  of  their  execution. 
It  has  been  lamented,  however,  by  connoisseurs,  that  his 
distances  are  overcharged  with  a  bluish  tinge.  Brueghel 
pften  decorated  the  pictures  of  his  friends  with  small 
figures,  thus  greatly  enhancing  their  value ;  he  was  em- 
ployed in  painting  flowers,  fruits,  animals,  and  landscape 
scenery,  in  the  pieces  of  history-paintings  ;  and  in  thit 
way  Rubens  made  occasional  use  of  his  pencil.  He  some- 
times joined  this  master  in  larger  works,  which  have  been 
much  admired;  and  particularly  in  a  "  Vertumnus  and 
Pomona/'  a  picture  three  feet  high  and  four  broad,  highly 
commended  by  Houbraken,  and  sold  at  Amsterdam  for 
above  280/.  sterling ;  and  "  a  Terrestrial  Paradise,"  painted 
for  Charles  I.  king  of  England.  In  the  gallery  of  the 
archiepiscopal  palace  at  Milan,  there  is  an  admirable 
landscape  of  Brueghel,  representing  a  desert,  in  which 
Giovanna  Battista  Crespi  painted  the  figure  of  St  Jerom ; 
and  among  a  great  number  preserved  in  the  Ambrosian  li- 
brary in  that  city,  there  is  an  oval  picture  of  the  Virgin, 
painted  by  Rubens,  which  is  encompassed  by  a  garland  of 
flowers  admirably  executed  by  Brueghel,  Most  consi- 
derable cabinets  possess  specimens  of  the  art  of  this  master. 
Some  smatl  engravings  of  landscapes,  &c.  are  also  ascribed 

BRUEYS  (David  Augusts),  a  French  writer  of  a  sin- 
gular character  fpr  versatility,  was  born  at  Aix, '  iu  1 640; 
and  trained  in  the  reformed  religion,  in  defence  of  which 
he  published  some  controversial  pieces,  particularly  against 
Bossuet's  "  Exposition  de  la  Foi,"  or  Exposition  of  the 
faith ;  but  the  prelate,  instead  of  answering,  converted 
him.  Brueys,  become  catholic,  combated  with  the  Prote- 
stant ministers,  with  Jurieu,  Lenfant,  and  La  Roche ;  but 
his  airy  spirit  not  rightly  accommodating  itself  to  serious 
works,  he  quitted  theology  for  the  theatre.  He  composed, 
jointly  with  Palaprat,  his  intimate  friend,  several  comedies 
full  of  wit  and  gaiety.    We  have  also  of  this  writer  a  pro- 

1  PilkinstOD.— Strutt.— Argen?ille. 

.176  BRUEYS. 

aa}c  paraphrase  or  commentary  on  Horace' s  art  of  poetry* 
In  bis  latter  years  he  became  again  a  controversial  writer, 
and,  as  his  countrymen  say,  imitated  Bellarmine  and 
Moliere  by  turns.  He  died  at  Montpellier  in  1723,  aged 
•eighty -three ;  and  all  his  dramatic  pieces  were  collected, 
1735,  in  3  vols.  12mo.  His  comedies  have  some  merit, 
but  his  tragedies  and  oth$r  works  are  deservedly  sunk  into 
oblivion. l 

BRU  H1ER  (John  James  d*  Ablaincourt),  a  French  phy- 
sician, was  born  at  Beauvais  about  the  end  of  the  seven* 
teenth  century,  and  after  studying  medicine,  acquired 
considerable  reputation  by  his  practice  and  his  writings. 
He  also  arrived  at  the  honour  of  being  royal  censor  of  the 
college,  and  a  member  of  the  academy  of  Angers.  He 
died  in  1756,  after  having  written  or  edited  some  works  of 
merit  in  his  profession :  1.  "  Observations  sur  le  manuel 
des  Accoucbments,"  Paris,  1733,  4to,  a  translation  from 
Daventer.  2.  "  La  Medicine  Raisonn6e,"  from  Hoffman, 
ibid.  1739,  9  vols.  12mo.  3.  "  Caprices  d'imagination,  ou 
Lettres  sur  differens  sujets,"  ibid.  1 746,  in  which  he  ap- 
pears as  a  physician,  metaphysician,  moralist,  and  critic.  - 
4.  "  Memoires  pour  servir  a  la  vie  de  M.  Silva,"  ibid. 
1744,  8vo.  5.  "  Trait6  des  Fievres,"  from  Hoffman,  ibid. 
1746,  3  vols.  12mo,  6.  "  La  Politique  du  Medicin,"  from 
the  same,  ibid.  1751,  12 mo.  7.  "  Trait6  des  Alimens," 
by  Lemery,  ibid.  1755*  2  vols.  12mo.  8.  "  Dissertations 
surl'incertitudedes  signesde  lamort,  et  Pabus  des  enterre*- 
mens  et  embaumemens  precipit6s,"  ibid.  1742,  often  re- 
printed, and  translated  into  many  European  languages. 
This  is  the  most  useful  of  all  his  works,  and  has  been  the 
means  of  saving  many  lives.  He  wrote  also  some  papers 
in  the  Journal  des  Savans.  * 

BRUIN,  or  BRUYN  (John  de),  professor  of  natural 
philosophy  and  mathematics  at  Utrecht,  was  born  at  Gor— 
cum  in  1620.  He  went  through  a  course  of  philosophy  at 
Leyden ;  and  then  pursued  his  studies  at  Bois-le-duc,4 
where  he  was  very  much  esteemed  by  Samuel  des  Marets,,  * 
who  taught  philosophy  and  divinity  in  that  place.  He^ 
went  from  thence  to  Utrecht,  where  he  learnt  the  mathe- 
matics, and  then  removed  to  Leyden,  where  he  obtained 
leave  to  teach  them.  He  was  afterwards  made  professor  at 
Utfecht;  and  because  the  professors  had  agreed  among; 

*  Diet  Hirt.— Wm&  *  Bfct.  Hist. 

BRUIN.  177 


themselves  that  every  one  might  teach  at  home  such  a  part 
of  philosophy  as  he  should  think  fit,  de  Bruin,  not  con- 
tented with  teaching  what  his  public  professorship  re- 
quired, made  also  dissections,  and  explained  Grotius?  shook  * 
"  De  jure  belli  et  pacis."  He  had  uncommon  skill  in  dis- 
secting animals,  and  was  a  great  lover  of  experiment* ' 
He  made  also  observations  in  astronomy.  He  published- 
dissertations  "  De  vi  altrice,"  u  De  cbrpontoi  gravitate  et 
levitate,"  u  De  cognitione  Dei  naturali,"? "  Daducis  causa 
et  origine,"  &c.  He  had  a  dispute  with  Isaac  Yossius,  to 
whom  he  .wrote  a  letter,  printed  at  Amsterdam;  ivr  1 66$  ; 
wherein  be  cites  Vossius's  book  De  natura  et  proprietate 
lucis,  and  strenuously  maintains  the  hypothesis  of  Des- 
cartes. He  wrote  also  an  apology  for  the  Cartesian  philoso- 
phy against  a  divine,  named  Vogelsang.  Id  1655,  he 
married  the  daughter  of  a  merchant  of  Utrecht,  sister  to 
the  wife  of  Daniel  Elzevir,  the  famous  bookseller  of  Am* 
sterdam,  by  whom  he  had  two  children  who  lived  but  a 
few  days.  He  died  in  1675,  and  his  funeral  oration  was 
pronounced  by.  Graevius. l 

BRUMOY  (Peter),  a  celebrated  French  writer,  was 
born  at  Rouen,  Aug.  26,  1$88,  and  commenced  his  novi- 
ciate among  the  Jesuits  of  Paris,  Sept.  8,  17Q4.  In  1706, 
he  began  his  philosophical  course  in  the  royal  college,  and 
in  1708  was  sent  to  Caen  to  complete  his  studies  that  he 
might  take  orders.  Some  of  his  pieces  are  dated  from 
that  city  in  1710  and  1712,  and  one  from  Bourgesin  17 Id. 
He  appears  indeed  to  have  passed  several  years  in  the 
country,  where  he  taught  rhetoric.  'In  1713,  he  returned 
to, Paris  to  study  theology,  and  in  1722  he  was  again  at 
Paris,  where  he  took  the  vows  in  the  society  of  Jesuits, 
and  was  intrusted  with  the  education  of  the  prince  of  Tal- 
mont.  About  the  same  time  fi$  assisted  in  the  "  Memoirs 
of  the  Arts  and  Sciences,"  and  continued  his  labours  in 
that  journal  until  1729,  when  he  was  obliged  to  leave  Park 
for  some  time  for  having  assisted  in  publishing  father  Mar- 
*  gat's  History  of  Tamerlane,  which  it  appears  had  given 
offence.  His  absence,  however,  was  not  long,  and  on  his 
return,  or  soon  after,  he  was  employed  in  continuing  the 
"  History  of  the  Gallican  church,9' ,  of  which  six  volumes 
had  been  published  by  fathers  Longueval  and  Fontenay. 
la  1725,  he  was  appointed  professor  of  mathematics,  and 

1  £*o.  ©ici^Jtforeri  in  Iruyp. 

Vol.  VII.  N 

178  BRUMOY. 

filled  that  chair  for  six  years  with  much  reputation.  It  was 
probably  in  this  situation  that  he  read  his  lecture,  on  the 
"  use  of  mathematical  knowledge  in  polite  literature," 
now  printed  in  the  second  volume  of  his  works,  nor  did  his 
various  public  employments  prevent  his  publishing  many 
other  works,  which  were  well  received  by  the  public.  In 
1722  he  published,  but  without  his  name,  his  "  Morale 
Chretienne,"  Paris,  a  small  volume,  of  which  four  editions 
were  soon  bought  up.  In  1723,  he  also  published  the  first 
of  bis  three  letters,  entitled  "  Examen  du  poema  (de  M. 
Racine)  sur  la  grace,"  8vo,  and  in  1724,  ".La  vie  de 
l'imperatrice  Eleonore,"  taken  from  that  by  father  Ceva ; 
the  same  year,  "  Abreg6  des  vertus  de  soeur  Jeanne  Silenie 
de  la  Motte  des  Goutes,"  Moulins,  12mo;  and  a  new  edi- 
tion of  father  Mourgues  "  Traite  de  la  Poesie  Francoise,'* 
with  many  additions,  1 2mo.  But  the  work  which  coiitri* 
buted  most  to  his  reputation  was  his  "  Greek  Theatre,** 
entitled  u  Theatre  des  Grecs,  contenant  des  traductions 
et  analyses  des  tragedies  Grecques,  des  discours  et  des  re- 
marques  concernant  la  theatre  Grec,  &c.M  1730,  3  vols, 
4to,  and  often  reprinted  in  l2aio,  in  France  and  Holland. 
This  useful  work,  not  now  in  such  high  reputation  as  for* 
merly,  is  yet  well  known  in  this  country  by  the  translation 
published  by  Mrs.  Charlotte  Lennox,  in  1760,  3  vols.  4to; 
to  which  the  earl  of  Corke  and  Orrery  contributed  a  gene- 
ral preface,  and  translated  the  three  preliminary  dis- 
courses :  Dr.  Sharpe,  Dr.  Grainger,  and  Mr.  Bourryau 
translated  some  other  parts,  and  Dr.  Johnson  contributed  & 
dissertation  on  the  Greek  comedy,  and  the  general  con- 
clusion of  tlje  work,  which,  in  this  translation,  is  certainly 
highly  polished  and  improved.  "  Brumoy,"  says  Dr.  War^ 
ton^  "has  displayed  the  excellencies  of  the  Greek  tra-* 
gedy  in  a  judicious  and  comprehensive  manner.  His 
translations  are  faithful  and  elegant;  and  the  analysis  of 
those  plays,  which  on  account  of  some  circumstances  in 
ancient  manners  would  shock  the  readers  of  this  age,'  and 
would  not  therefore  bear  an  entire  version,  is  perspicuous 
and  full.  Of  all  the  French  critics,  he  and  the  judicious 
Fenelou  have  had  the  justice  to  confess,  or  perhaps  the 
penetration  to  perceive,  in  what  instances  Corueille  and 
Racine  have  falsified  and  modernized  the  characters,  and 
overloaded  with  unnecessary  intrigues  the  simple  plots  of 
the  ancients."  # 

Brumoy  was  also  employed  in  completing  the  history  of 

BRUM  OY.  179 

Xke  ".  Revolutions  of  Spain/1  left  unfinished  by  father 
Orleans.  This  was  published  in  1734  in  3. vols.  4 to,  of 
which  about  a  half  belongs  to  our  author.  He  was  next 
requested  by  the  booksellers  to  collect  his. own  miscel-  . 
Janeous  pieces,  in  prose  and  verse,  and  published.  4  vols* 
12mo,  in  1741.  Spine  of  his  poetry  is  in  Latin,  with  trans-* 
lations,  and  we  find  here  some  dramatic  pieces.  He  was 
also  the  editor  qf  various  editions  of  works  at  the  request 
of  the  booksellers.  He  was  employed  on  the  continuation 
of  the  "  History  of  the  Gallican  church,"  when  he  was 
seized  with  a  paralytic  stroke,  which  proved  fatal  April  17,, 
1742. l 

BRUN  (Charles  le),  an  illustrious  French  painter,  was 
of  Scottish  extraction,  and  born  in  1619.  His  father  was 
a  statuary  by  profession.  At  three  years  of  age  it  is  re* 
ported,  that  he  drew  figures  with  charcoal ;  and  at  twelve 
he  drew  the  picture  of  his  uncle  so  well,  that  it  still  passes 
for  a  fine  piece.  His  father  being  employed  in  the  gar- 
dens at  Seguier,  and  having  brought  his  son  along  with 
him,  the  chancellor  of  that  name  took  a  liking  to  him,  and 
placed  him  with  Simon  Vo^et,  an  eminent  painter,  who 
was  greatly  surprised  at  young  Le  B run's  amazing  profit 
ciency.  He  was  afterwards  sent  to  Fontajnbleau,  to  take 
copies  of  some  of  Raphael's  pieces.  The  chancellor  sent 
him  next  to  Italy*  and  supported  him,  there  for  six  years. 
Le  Brun,  on  his  return,  met  with  the  celebrated  Poussin, 
by  whose  conversation  he  greatly  improved  himself  in  his 
art,  and  contracted  a  friendship  with  him.  which  lasted  as 
long  as  their  lives.  Cardinal  Mazarin,  a  good  judge  of 
painting,,  took  great  notice  of  Le  Brun,  .and  often  sat  by 
him  while  he  was  at  wTork.  |)rA  painting  of  St.  Stephen, 
which  he  finished  in  1651,  raised  his ,  reputation  to  the 
highest  pitch.  Soon  after,  this,  th$  king,  upon  the  repre- 
sentation of  M.  Colbert,  made. him  his  first  painter,  and 
conferred  on  h*FP  the.  order  of  St.  Michael.  His  majesty 
employed  two  hours  every  day  in  looking  over  him,  whilst 
he  was  painting  the  family  of  Darius  at  Fpntainbleau. 
About  1662,  he  began  his  ^ve  large  pieces  of  the  history 
of  Alexander  the  Great,  in  which  he  is  said  tohaye  set  the. 
actions  of  that  conqueror  in  a  more  glorious  light  than 
Quietus  Curtius  in  his, history.  He  procured  several  ad- 
vantage* for  the  royal  acadeqay  of,  painting  and  sculptor* 

1  Mortrij— Diet.  Hist.— Memoirs  de»  TrtYOiixfor  174*. 

N  2 

180  BR  UN. 

at  Paris,-  and  formed  the  plan  of  another  for  the  student* 
of  his  own  nation  at  Rome.     There  was  scarce  any  tiling 
done  for  the  advancement  of  the  fine  arts  in  which  he  wafc 
not  consulted.     It  was  through  the  interest  of  M.  Colbert 
that  the  king  gave  him  the  direction  of  all  his  works,  and 
particularly  of  his  royal  manufactory  at  the  Gobelins,  where 
he  had  a  handsome  house,  with  a  genteel  salary  assigned 
to  him.     He  was  also  made  director'and  chancellor  of  the 
royal  academy,  and  shewed  the  greatest  zeal  to  encourage 
the  fine  arts  in  France.     He  possessed  in  a  great  degree 
that  •enthusiasm  which  animates  the  efforts,  and  increases 
the  raptures  of  the  artist.     Some  one  said  before  him  of 
his  fine  picture  of  the  Magdalen,  "  that  the  contrite  peni- 
tent was  really  weeping." — "  That,1*  said  he,  "  is  perhaps 
all  that  you  can  see ;  I  hear  her  sigh."     He  was  endowed 
with  a  vast  inventive  genius,  which  extended  itself  to  arts 
of  every  kind.     He  was  well  acquainted  with  the  hietory 
and  manners  of  all  nations.     Besides  his  extraordinary  ta- 
lents, his  behaviour  was  so  genteel,    and  his  address  so 
pleasing,  that  he  attracted  the  regard  and  affection  of  the 
whole  court  of  France  :  where,  by  the  places  and  pensions 
conferred  on  him  by  the  king,  he  made  a  very-considerable 
figure.     He  died  at  his  house  in  the  Gobelins  in  1690, 
leaving  a  wife,  but  no  children.     He  was  author  of  a  curi- 
ous treatise  of  "  Physiognomy ;"  and  of  another  of  the 
i*  Characters  of  the  Passions." 

The  paintings  which  gained  him  greatest  reputation 
were,  besides  what  we  have  already  mentioned,  those 
winch  he  finished  at  Fontainbleau,  the  great  stair-case  at 
Versailles,  but  especially  the  grand  gallery  there,  which 
was  the  last  of  his  works,  and  is  said  to  have  taken  him  up 
fourteen  years.  A  more  particular  account  of  these,  and 
a,  general  character  of  his  other  performances,  may  be 
found  in  the  writings  of  his  countrymen,  who  have  been 
▼eiy  lavish  in  his  praises,  and  very  fall  in  their  accounts 
of  his  works. l 

BRUN  (John  Baptists  le),  known  also  by  the  name 
sof  Desmarettes,  a  learned  Frenchman,  who  died  at  Or- 
leans in  1731,  advanced  in  age,  was  author  or  editor  of 
many  pieces  of  ecclesiastical  history,  lives  of  the  saints, 
Ice.  but  deserves  notice  chiefly  for  being  the  editor  of  an 
excellent  edition  of  Lactantius,  collated  with  valuable  ma- 

*  Arfmiilte^-PilkiBf ton.— Strutt — Peraulft  Homme*  llluitretf. 

BRUN,  181 

nuscripts,    and  enriched  with  learned  notes,  which  was 
published  in  1748,  2  vols.  4to,  by  Lenglet  du  Fresrooy. l 

BRUN  (Lawrence  le),  a  French  Jesuit,  was  born  at 
Nantes  in  1607,  ai>d  died  at  Pans  Sept  1,  1663.  He 
wrote  'many  pieces  of  Latii*  poetry.  The  principal  are, 
1.  "The  Ignatiad,"  in  xii  books;  the  subject  is  the  pil- 
grimage of  St.  Ignatius  to  Jerusalem.  This  poem  forms  a 
part  of  his  "  Virgilius  Christianus  ;n  in  which  he  has  imi-  * 
tated,  with  more  piety  than  taste,  the  eclogues,  the  georgics* 
and  the  £neid.  His  "  Ovidius  Christianus"  is  in  the  same 
strain :  the  Heroic  Epistles  are  changed  into  pastoral  letters, 
the  Tristibus  into  holy  lamentations,  and  the  Metamorphoses 
into  stories  of  converted  penitents.  Father  Le  firun  also 
wrote  "Eloquentia  Poetica,"  Paris,  1655,  4to,  a  treatise 
in  Latin  on  the  precepts  of  the  art  of  poetry,  supported  on 
examples  drawn  .from  the  best  authors.  At  the  end  is  a 
treatise  on  poetical  common-places,  which  may  be  of  ser- 
vice to  young  versifiers.  * 

BRUN  (Peter  le),  a  French  priest  of  the  oratory,  who 
made  considerable  approaches  to  liberality  and  good  sense 
in  his  writings,  was  born  at  Brignolle,  in  the  diocese  of 
Aix  in  Provence,  in  166],  and  became  celebrated  for  his 
knowledge  of  ecclesiastical  history  and  antiquities;  on  which 
subjects  he  lectured  in  the  seminary  of  St  Magloire*  at 
Paris,  for  thirteen  years.  His  first  publication  appears  to 
have  been  against  the  illusion  of  the  divining  rod;  "  Lettres 

?our  prouver  P  illusion  des  philosophes  sur  la  baguette," 
aris,  1693,  reprinted  in  1702,  with  many  additions,  un- 
der the  title  of  "  Histoire  critique  des  pratiques  aupersti- 
tieuses,  &c."  Of  this  there  was  a  new  edition  in  3  vols. 
!2mo,  1732,  with  a  life  of  the  author  by  M.  Bellon,  bis 
nephew,  and  in  1737  the  abbe  Granet  printed  a  collection  ? 

of  pieces  intended  as  a  fourth  volume.  He  also  wrote 
against  the  theatre,  as  an  amusement  improper  for  Chris-, 
tians ;  but  his  more  elaborate  work  was  that  on  "  Liturgies," 
published  in  4  vols.  8vo,  containing  a  history  of  liturgies, 
prayers,  ceremonies,  &c.  including  those  of  the  church  of 
England.  This,  owing  to  some  liberal  opinions,  involved 
him  in  a  controversy,  in  which  he  defended  himself  with 

Jreat  ability,  but  before  the  contest  wae  over  he  dTed* 
an.  6,  1729. »      .      . 

»  Moreri.— Diet.  Hist. 

*  Mowi.— Mortioff  Poljk'wtor.— Bullet  Jugemen*  jdtt  Sawn.— Swrii  £ot- 
Bwt.  *  Moreri.— Diet.  Hurtb 

132  BRUNCK. 

BRUNCK  (Richard  Francis  Frederick),  a  celebrated 
Greek  scholar  and  critic,  a  member  of  the  inscriptions  and 
belles  lettres,  and  of  the  institute,  was  born  at  Strasburgh, 
Dec  30,  1729,  and  died  in  that  city  June  12,  1803.  Of 
bis  history  no  detailed  account  has  yet  appeared  in  this 
country,  as  far  as  we  have  been  able  to  learn.  We  are  only 
told  that  he  was  first  educated  in  the  college  of  Louis  le 
Grand  at  Paris,  and  that  having  afterwards  engaged  in  the 
civil  administration  of  affairs,  he  had  long  neglected  the 
cultivation  of  letters,  when,  in  the  course  of  the  campaigns 
in  Hanover,  he  happened  to  lodge  at  Giessen,  in  the  bouse 
of  a  professor  of  the  university.  With  him  he  read  several 
Latin  and  Greek  authors,  and  was  soon  inspired  with  a 
great  predilection  for. the  latter  language;  but  the  most 
remarkable  particular  is,  that  some  time  before  his  death 
he  lost  on  a  sudden  all  taste  for  the  critical  and  classical 
pursuits  which  he  had  followed  so  eagerly  and  successfully 
for  upwards  of  half  a  century,  and  this  without  any  visible 
decay  of  his  powers  either  intellectual  or  physical.  Yet, 
such  was  the  change,  that  he  totally  abandoned  all  study 
of  his  favourite  Greek,  and  could  not  be  prevailed  upon  to 
cast  even  a'  glance  on  any  of  his  favourite  authors,  nor  did  he 
appear  to  take  the  smallest  interest  in  the  discovery  of  a 
manuscript  of  Aristophanes,  which  happened  to  confirm 
the  greater  part  of  his  dotes  and  conjectures  on  that  author, 
a  circumstance,  which,  at  any  other  period  of  his  life,  would 
have  excited'  his  warmest  enthusiasm.  The  works  for 
which  the  learned  world  is  indebted  to  his  pen  are,  1.  "  Aria- 
lecta  veterum  Poetarum  Grafccorum,"  Strasburgh,  1772- 
1776,  3  vols.  Svo,  reprinted  1785.  There  is  also  a  quarto 
edition.  2.  "  Anacreontis  Carmina,"  ibid.  1778,  12 mo, 
and  1786,  beautiful  and  accurate  editions.  3.  "  jEschyli 
Tragcediae,  Prometheus,  Persse,  Septem  ad  Thebas :  So- 
phoclis  Antigone :  Euripidis  Medea,"  ibid.  1779,  Svo.  4. 
"Sophoclis  Electra,  et  Euripidis  Andromache,"  ibid.  1779, 
8vo.  5.  "Sophoclis  Oedipus  Tyrannusj  et  Euripidis  Ores* 
tes,"  ibid.  1779,  8vo.  6.  "Euripidis  Tragedies  quatuor, 
Hecuba,  Phoenissse,  Hyppolytus  et  Bacchae,"  ibid.  1780, 
8vo,  with  illustrations  from  a  Parisian  MS.  an  excellent 
edition.  7.  "  Apollonii  Rbodii  Argonauticar"  ibid;  1780, 
8vo,  the  notes  and  emendations  more  valuable  than  those 
of  any  preceding  author,  but  Brunck  is  accused  of  em** 
ploying  conjecture  rather  too  freely.  8.  "  Aristophanis 
Comcedise  in  Latinurn  Sermonem  converse,"  ibid.  1781, 

B  R  U  N  C  K.  183 


3  vols.  9.  "  Aristophanis  Comcedise  ex  optimis  exem- 
plaribus  emendatse,"  ibid.  1783,  8vo,  and  4to,  containing 
the  preceding  Latin  translation  and  notes  and  emendations, 
one  of  the  best  editions  of  Aristophanes.  10.  "  Gnomici 
Poetae  Grseci,"  ibid.  1784,  8vo.  11.  "  VirgiHus,"  ibid. 
1785,  8vo.  12.  "  Sophoclis  quae  extant  omnia,  cum  ve- 
terum  Grammaticorum  scholiis,"  ibid.  1786,  4to,  2  vols, 
and  3  vols.  8vo,  1786 — 9,  an  edition  of  acknowledged  su- 
periority and  value.  13.  "  Plautus,"  Bipohf.  1788,  2  vols. 
8vo.  14.  "  Terentius,"  1787,  from  the, press  of  Daiyibach, 
but  Mr.  Dibdin  mentions  a  Basil  edition  of  1797,  said  to 
have  been  superintended  by  Brunck,  and  printed  in  the 
same  manner  with  his  Virgil  of  1789.  Br u nek's  enthusias- 
tic admiration  of  the  authors  he  edited  was  such,  that  he 
conceived  their  writings  to  have  been  originally  immacu- 
late; and  therefore  attributed  to  the  copyists  whatever 
errors  he  discovered.  He  is,  *as  we  have  noticed,  accused 
of  taking  some  bold  freedoms  in  the  restoration  of  what  he 
conceived  defective,  but  be  was  more  remarkable  for  this 
in  the  notes  which  he  wrote  on  the  margins  of  his  books, 
and  the  manuscript  copies  of  some  Greek  poets  which  he 
left  behind  him.  Of  Apollonius  Hhodius  only  he  wrote 
out  five  copies. l 

eminent  Italian  architect,  was  born  at  Florence  in  1377. 
His  father  was  a  notary,  and  his  son  for  some  time  was 
apprenticed   to  a  goldsmith,  but  afterwards  discovered  a 
turn   for  geometry,  in   which  he  was  instructed  by  Paul 
Toscanelli.     A  journey  which  he  happened  to  take  to 
Rome  gave,  him  a  taste  for  architecture,  which  her  im- 
proved by  the  study  of  the  edifices  in  that  city,  and  had  a 
very  early  opportunity  of  trying  his  skill.     A  dome  was 
wanted  for  the  church  of  St  Maria  del  Fiore  at  Florence ; 
the  ablest  architects  had  been  requested  to  send  in  their 
plans,  and  that  of  Brunelleschi  was  adopted,  and  carried 
into  execution  with'  an  effect  which  astonished  Michael 
Angelo  himself.     He  was  next  employed  by  Cosmo  the 
Great  in  building  the  abbey  of  Fesoli,  and  was  afterwards 
solicited  for  the  plan  of  a  palace  for  Cosmo.     Brunelleschi 
accordingly  gave  in,  a  design  of  great  magnificence,  but 
Cosmo  thought  proper  to  prefer  one  more  suited  to  the 
prudent  economy  which  was  then  necessary  for  him,  and 
Brunelleschi  was  so  irritated  that  he  destroyed  his  design. 

*  Diet  Hilt.— Saxii  Onomast  vol.  VIII,— Dibdia's  Classics. 


M4       •    ,  BRUNELLESOHL 

Brunejlegchi  afterwards  built  the  Pitt i  palace,  in  part,  and 
the  church  of  St,  Lorenzo  in  Florence  almost  entirely.    He 
also  gave  some  designs  in  military  architecture.     He  is 
said  to  have  been  the  first  who  attempted  to  restore  the 
Grecian  orders  of  architecture,  and  under  his  control  this 
branch  of  the  art  attained  a  degree  of  perfection  whjch  it 
bad  not  known  from  the  time  of  the  ancients.   Brunelleschi 
died  in   1446,  greatly  lamented,  and  was  interred  with 
sumptuous  funeral  honours,  and  Cosmo  erected  a  monu- 
ment to  his  memory.     He  is  said  to  have  employed  his 
leisure  hours  in  cultivating  Italian  poetry,  and  some  of  bin 
burlesque  verses  have  been  printed  along  with  those  of 
Burchiello ;  there  is  a  separate  poem,  "  Geta  e  Birria," 
ascribed  to  him  and  to  Domenico  dal  Prato,  Venice,  1516,' 
8vq,  but  this  seems  doubtful.     It  is  more  certain  that  he> 
wrote  architectural  descriptions  of  all  his  works,  some  of 
which  are,  or  lately  were,  fn  Cosmo's  palace  at  Florence^ 
Siow  the  residence  of  the  noble  family  of  Riccardi.  * 

BRUNI,  or  ARETINE  (Leonard),  a  very  eminent  scho^ 
lar  and  historian,  derived  bis  name  of  Aretine,  or  Aretino, 
from  Arezzo,  in  which  city  he  was  born  'in  the  year  1370y 
of  parents  sufficiently  wealthy  to  bestow  on  him  a  good 
education.     In  his  early  youth  he  was  incited  to  a  love  of 
letters  by  an  extraordinary  accident    A  body  of  French 
troops,  who  were  marching  to  Naples  to  assist  Louis  of 
Anjou  in  maintaining  his  claim  to  the  sovereignty  of  that 
kingdom,  at  the  solicitation  of  the  partizans  of  a  faction" 
which  had  been  banished  from  Arezzo,  made  «n  unex* 
pected  attack  upon  that  city;    and,   after  committing  a 
great  slaughter,  carried  away  many  of  the  inhabitants  into 
captivity ;  and,  among  the  rest,  the  family  of  Brum.    Leo- 
nardo being  confined  in  a  chamber  in  which  hong'  a  por- 
trait of  Petrarch,  by  daily  contemplating  the  lineaments  of 
that  ilkiftrious  scholar,  conceived  so  strong  a  desire  to  sig- 
Halite  himself  by  literary  acquirements,  that  immediately 
upon  his  enlargement  tie  repaired  to  Florence,  where  he 
prosecuted  his  studies  with  unremitting  diligence*  under 
the  direction  of  John  of  Ravenna,  and  Manuel  Chrysoloras. 
During  his  residence  at  Florence,  he  contracted  a  strict 
intimacy  with  the  celebrated  Poggio-Bracciolini,  and  the 
latter  being  afterwards  informed  by   Leonardo  that  he 
wished  to  procure  a  presentation  to  some  place  of  honour 

i  Diet  Hift.«~Argewriile,— Jtacoe's  taenio* 

B  R  U  N  I.  18* 

•r  emolument  in  the  Roman  chancery,  took  eveiy  oppor- 
tunity of  recommending  him.     In  consequence  of  this, 
pope  Innocent  VII.  invited  him  to  'Rome,  where  he  ar- 
rived March  24,  1405,  but  was  at  first  disappointed  in  his 
hopes,  the  place  at  which  he  aspired  being  intended  for 
another  candidate,  Jacopo  d'Angelo.     Fortunately,  bow-* 
ever,  the  pope  having  received  certain  letters  from  the 
duke  of  Berry,  determined  to  assign  to  each  of  the  com- 
pet i tors  .the  task  of  drawing  up  an  answer  to  them,  and  the 
compositions  being,  compared,  the  prize  was  unanimously 
adjudged  to  Leonardo,  who  was  instantly  advanced  to  the 
dignity  of  apostolic  secretary,  and  by  this  victory  consi- 
derably increased  his  reputation,  as  his  competitor  was  a 
man  of  very  considerable  talents.  (See  Angelo,  James.) 
In  1410   Leonardo  was  elected  chancellor  of  the  city  of 
Florence,  but  finding  it  attended  with  more  labour  than 
profit,  resigned  it  in  1411,  and  entered  into  the  service  of 
pope  John  XXII.  and  soon  after  went  to  Arezzo,  where 
he  married  a  young  lady  of  considerable  distinction  in  that 
city.     He  was  thought  by  his  contemporaries  rather  too 
attentive  to  the  minutiae  of  economy,  and  having  married  a 
lady  who  loved  dress  and  ornaments,  was  somewhat  disap- 
pointed.    In  a  letter  to  his  friend  Poggio,  after  giving  an 
account  of  his  marriage  expences,  he  adds,  "  In  short,  I 
have  in  one  night  consummated  my  marriage,  and  con- 
sumed my  patrimony."  In  1415  he  accompanied  pope  John 
XXIII.  to  the  council  of  Constance,  and  this  pope  having 
been  there  deposed,  Leonardo  returned  to  Florence,  where 
he  was  chosen  secretary  to  the  republic,  and  was  employed 
in  several  political  affairs  of  importance.     He  died  in  the 
beginning  of  1444,  and  was  interred  with  the  most  solemn 
magnificence  in  the  church  of  Santa  Croce,  with  the  fol- 
lowing ihscriptioo,  which  is  still  legible,  but  not  worthy  of 
the  object : 

Fostqnun  Leonaidus  e  vita,  migravit, 
Hiitoria  luget,  Eloquentia  muta  est. 
Ferturqi*e  Musat  turn  Grocas  turn  Latinas 
Lacrimas  teaere  nan  poluisse. 

Leonardo  .  Broni  was  not  only  one  of  the  most  learned 
men  of  his  age, .  but  one  of  the  most  amiable  in  character 
and  maqffters,  nor  was  his  fame  confined  to  Italy.  The 
Warned  of  Fra-ace  ^ud  Spam  travelled  to  Florence  to  have 
the  Jtonouc  of  seeing  him,  and  it  is  said  that  a  Spaniard 
who  was  ordered  by  the  king  to  pay  him  a  visit,  knelt 
down  in  his  presence,  and  could  with  difficulty  be  per* 

196  B  R  U  N  L 

soaded  to  quit  that  bumble  and  admiring  posture.  These 
honours,  however,  excited  no  pride  in  Leonardo.  The 
only  failing  of  which  he  has  been  accused  is  that  of  avarice j 
but,  as  one  of  his  biographers  remarks,  that  name  is  some- 
times given  to  prudence  and  economy.  His  friendships 
were  lasting  and  sincere,  and  he  was  never  known  to  re- 
sent ill-usage  with  much  asperity,  unless  in  the  case  of 
Niccolo  Niccoli,  who  appears  to  have  given  him  sufficient 
provocation.  The  case,  indeed,  on  the  part  of  Niccoli 
appears  abundantly  ridiculous ;  a  termagant  mistress  whom 
he  kept  had  been  publicly  disgraced,  and  Niccoli  expected 
that  his  friends  should  condole  with  him  on  the  occasion. 
Leonardo  staid  away,  for  which  Niccoli  reproached  him, 
and  when  Leonardo  offered  him  such  advice  as  morality  as 
well  as  friendship  dictated,  irritated  Leonardo  by  his 
reiterated  reproaches  and  insulting  language.  The  con- 
sequence was  a  satire  Leonardo  wrote,  a  manuscript  copy 
of  which  is  in  the  catalogue,  although  not  now  in  the  li- 
brary, of  New  college,  Oxford.  The  title  of  it  was  "  Le- 
onardi  Florentini  oratio  in  nebulonem  maledicum."  It  ap- 
pears by  Mehus's  catalogue  of  his  works  to  be  in  the  Lau- 
rentian  library.  Poggio,  however,  at  last  succeeded  in 
reconciling  the  parties. 

If,  according  to  some,  Leonardo  was  occasionally  im- 
patient in  his  temper,  and  too  apt  to  take  offence,  his  late 
biographer  has  given  an  anecdote  which  shews  that  he  had 
the  good  sense  to  be  soon  convinced  of  his  error,  and  the 
ingenuousness  of  spirit  to  confess  it.  Having  engaged  in 
a  literary  discussion  with  Gianozzo  Manetti,  he  was  so 
exasperated  by  observing  that  the  bye-standers  thought 
him  worsted  nn  argument,  that  he  vented  his  spleen  in 
outrageous  expressions  against  his  antagonist.  On  the  fol- 
lowing morning,  however,  by  break  of  day,  he  went  to 
the  house  of  Gianozzo,  who  expressed  his  surprize  that  a 
person  of  Leonardo's  dignity  should  condescend  to  honour 
him  so  far  as  to  pay  him  an  unsolicited  visit.  On  this, 
Leonardo  requested  that  Gianozzo  would  favour  him  with 
a  private  conference,  and  thus  apologized  for  the  warmth 
of  his  temper  :  "  Yesterday  I  did  you  great  injustice  ;  but 
I  soon  began  to  suffer  punishment  for  my  offence,  for  I 
have  not  closed  my  eyes  during  the  whole  night,  and  I 
could  not  rest  till  I -had  made  to  you  a  confession  of  my 
fault"  Mr.  Shepherd  justly  observes,  that  the  man  who 
by  the  voluntary  acknowledgment  pf  an  errdr  could  thus 

8  R  D  N  I.  187 

frankly  throw  himself  upon  the  generosity  of  one  whom  he 
had  offended,  must  have  possessed  in  his  own  mind  a  fund 
of  probity  and  honour.  The  failings  of  Leonardo  were* 
indeed  amply  counterbalanced  by  his  strict  integrity,  his 
guarded  temperance,  his  faithful  discharge  of  his  public 
duties,  and  his  zeal  in  the  cause  of  literature. 

His  works  are,  1.  "  Historiarum  Florentini  populi,  lib. 
duodecim,"  StrasbuTgh,  1610,  fol.  The  Italian  translation 
by  Acciajolo  was  printed  at  Venice,  1473,  1560,  and  1561, 
and  at  Florence,  1492.  2.  "  Leonardi  Aretini  de  Tem- 
poribus  suis  Libri  duo,"  fol.  Venice,  1475  and  1485,  &c. 
3.  "  De  Bello  Italico  adversus  Gothos  gesto  Libri  quatuor," 
founded  upon  the  Greek  history  of  Procopius,  Foligno, 
1470,  and  often  reprinted.  4.  "  De  Bello  Punico  Libri 
tres,"  Brix.  1498,  &c.  5.  "  Commentarium  Rerum  Grse- 
car»:m,"  Leyden,  1539,  &c.  6.  "  Isagogicon  moralis  dis- 
ciplinae  ad  Galeotum  Ricasolanum."  This  work  also  bears 
the  title  of  "  Dialogus  de  moribus,  &c."  and  under  the 
title  of  "  Aristotefes  de  moribus  ad  Eudemum  Latine  Leon. 
Aretino  interprete,"  was  printed  at  Louvain,  1475,  &c.  7. 
"  Ad  Petrum  Histrium  dialogorum  Libri,"  Basil,  1536, 
and  Paris,  1642.  8.  "  De  Studiis  et  Literis  ad  illustrem 
Dominum  Baptistam  de  Malatestis,"  Strasburgh,  1521,  &c. 

9.  "  Laudatio  Joan.  Strozzae,"  in  Baluzzi's  Miscellanies. 

10.  u  Imperatoris  Heliogabali  oratio  protreptica,"  pub- 
lished by  Aldus  Manutius  in  his  "  Hist  Augustae  Scriptores 
Minores."  11.  "Oratio  in  Hypocritas,"  printed  in  the 
Fasciculus  of  Ortuinus  Gratius,  Cologn,  1535,  Leyden, 
1679,  and  London,  1691.  12.  "  La  vita  di  Dante  e  i  costu- 
mi  e  studj  di '  Petrarca."  The  life  of  Petrarch  was  edited 
by  Phil.  Tomasinus  in  his  "  Petrarca  Redivivus,"  Padua, 
1650,  and  was  reprinted  with  the  life  of  Dante,  1671.  13. 
"  Magni  Basilii  Liber  in  Latinum  translatus,"  Brix.  1485, 
&c.  14.  Seven  of  Plutarch's  Lives  translated  from  the 
Greek,  BasiJ,  1542.  15.  "Apologia  Socratis,"  Bonon, 
1502.  15.  "Aristotelis  Ethicorum  Libri  decern,"  Paris, 
1504  and  1510,  &c.  16.  "  Aristotelis  Politicorum,  libri 
octo.V  Venice,  1504,  &c.  17.  "  Oeconomicorum  Aristo- 
telis Libri  duo,"  Basil,  1538.  18.  "  Oratio  ^schinis  in 
Ctesiphontem,"  Basil,  1528,  1540.  19.  "Oratio  Demo- 
sthenis  contra  ^schinem,"  ibid.  1528.  20.  "  De  crudeli 
amoris  exitu  Guisguardi,  &c."  a  translation  of  one  of  Boc- 
caccio's tales,  Turon.  1467,  printed  also  in  the  works  of 
Pius  II.     21.  "  Epistolarum  Libri  VIII."  1472,  fol.  often 

188  B  R  U  N  I. 

reprinted.  22*  "Canzone  morale  di  Messer  Lionardo," 
printed  in  the  third  volume  of  Crescembini's  Italian  poetry. 
The  numerous  editions  through  which  many  of  his  works 
passed  afford  a  sufficient  indication  of  the  esteem  in  which 
they  were  held  by  the  learned  of  the  fifteenth  and  six- 
teenth centuries. * 

BRUNNE  (Robert  de),  or  Robert  Mannyng,  the  first 
English  poet  who  occurs  in  the  fourteenth  century,  was 
born  probably  before  1270,  as  he  was  received  into  the 
order  of  black  canons  at  Brunne,  about  1288.  Malton 
appears  to  have  been  his  birth-place,  but  what  Malton  is 
doubtful.  He  was,  as  far  as  can  be  discovered,  merely  a 
translator.     His  first  work,  says  Wartqn,  was  a  metrical 

Earaphrase  of  a  French  book,  written  by  Robert  Grosthead, 
ishop  of  Lincoln,  called  "  Manuel  Pecche"  (Manuel  des 
P6ch&),  being  a  treatise  on  the  decalogue,  and  on  the 
seven  deadly  sins,  which  are  illustrated  with  many  legen- 
dary stories.     It  was  never  printed,  but  is  preserved  in  the 
Bodleian  library,  MSS.  No.  4 15,  and  in  the  Harleian  MSS. 
No.  1701.     His  second  and  more  important  work  is  a  me- 
trical chronicle  of  England,  in  two  parts,  the  former  of 
which  (from  iEneas  to  the'  death  of  Cadwallader)  is  trans-, 
lated  from  Wace's  "  Brut  d'Angleterre,"  and  the  latter 
(from  Cadwallader  to  the  end  of  the  reign  of  Edward  I.) 
from  a  French  chronicle  written  by  Peter  de  Langtoft,  an 
Augustine  canon  of  Bridlington  in  Yorkshire,  who  is  sup* 
posed  to  have  died  in  the  reign  of  Edward  II.  and  was 
therefore  contemporary  with  his  translator.     Hearne  has 
edited  Robert  de  Brunne,  but  has  suppressed  the  whole  of 
bis  translation  from  Wace,  excepting  the  prologue,  and  a 
few  extracts  which  he  found  necessary  to  illustrate  his 
glossary.     Mr.  Ellis,  to  whom  we  are  indebted  for  this  ar- 
ticle, has  given  some  specimens  of  de  Brunne' s  work.  * 

fiRUNNER  (John  Conrad),  a  Swiss  physician  and  ana- 
tomist of  eminence,  was  born  at  Diessenhofen,  the  16th  of 
January,  1653.  After  passing  through  the  usual  school 
education,  h4  was  sent,  at  the  age  of  sixteen,  to  Stras- 
burgh,  where,  applying  assiduously  to  the  study  of  physic 
and  anatomy,  he  was  created  doctor  in  medicide  in  1679. 

i  Shepherd's  Life  of  Pogfio  Bracciolbi,  p.  29/45,  132,  3S8.«- Gingueot  Hift. 
Jit.  d'ltalie,  vol.  III.  p.  294.— Gen.  Diet— Fabric.  BibL  Lat.  Med.— Saxit 
•  Osoroatt. 

*  Elli*'*  Specimen!,  vol.  1.  p.  11*.— Waftoa's  Hift,  of  Poetry,  vol.  I.  p.  4a, 
44,  69,  62—4—6,  72—7—8,  9>»  97,  1*5,  115,  US,  120—1,  156-^8,  1*1, 166, 
- 173,  193, 214,  225,  253, 

brunner:  is* 

For  his  thesis,  he  gave  the  anatomy  of  a  child  with  two 
heads,  which  he  met  with.     He  now  went  to  Paris,  and 
attended  the  schools  and  hospitals  there  with  such  assi- 
duity, as  to  attract  the  notice,  and  gain  him  the  intimacy 
of  Dionis  and  du  Verny,  who  were  present  while  he  made 
the  experiments  on  the  pancreas,  which  enabled  him,  some 
years  after,  to  publish  a  more  accurate  description  of  that 
viscus,  than  had  been  before  given,  under  the  title  of  "  Ex- 
perimenta  nova  circa  Pancreas.  Accedit  Diatribe  de  Lym- 
pha  et  genuino  Pancreatis  usu,"  Leidte,  1682,  8vo.     He 
proved  that  the  fluid  secreted  by  the  pancreas  is  not  ne- 
cessary to  digestion,  and  that  an  animal  may  live  after  that 
viscus  is  taken  out  of  the  body,  having  tried  the  experiment 
upon  a  dog,  which  perfectly  recovered  from  the  operation. 
On  quitting  Paris,  he  came  to  London,  and  was  introduced 
to  Dr.  Willis,  Lower,  and  Henry  Oldenburg,  secretary  to 
the  royal  society.     From  England  he  passed  to  Holland, 
and  studied  for  some  months  at  Leyden.     At  Amsterdam 
he  visited  Swammerdam  and  Ruvscb,  with  whom  he  after- 
wards  corresponded.     Returning  ;home  he  was  made  pro- 
fessor of  medicine  at  Heidelberg,  and  first  physician  to  the 
elector  palatine,  who  conferred  on  him  the  title  of  baron 
de  Brunn  in  Hamerstein.    About  the  same  time,  he  married 
one  of  the  daughters  of  the  celebrated  Wepfer,  and  was 
elected  honorary  member  of  the  academia  naturae  curios, 
in  return  for  some  ingenious  dissertations  which  he  had 
communicated  to  them.     In  1688  he  publised  "  Disserta- 
tio  Anatomica  de  Glandula  pituitaria,"  Heidelb.  4to.  From 
this  time  he  'became  in  such  great  request  for  his  know- 
ledge and  success  in  practice,  that  he  was,  in  succession, 
consulted  by  most  of  the  princes  in  Germany.     Among 
pthers,  in  1720,  he  was  sent  for  to  Hanover,  to  attend  the 
prince  of  Wales,  afterwards  king  George  II.     In  1715  he 
published  at  Heidelberg,  "  Glandula  Duodeni  seu  Pan- 
creas secundum  detectum,"  4to,  which  was  only  an  im- 
•  proved  edition  of  his  "  De  Glandulis  in  D&odeno  lntestino 
detectis,"  which  had  been  before  twice  printed.     There 
are  some  other  lesser  works,  the  titles  and  accounts  of, 
which  are  given  by  Haller,  in  bis  Bib.  Anat.     In  the  latter 
edition  of  Wepfer's  works  are  given  dissections  by  our  au- 
thor, of  the  heads  ?f  some  persons  who  died  of  apoplexy^ 
of  whom  he  had  had  the  care.     Though  early  afflicted  with 
gravel,  and  in  the  latter  part  of  his  life  with  gout,  he  con- 
tinued to  attend  ta  the  calls  of  his  patients,  though  living 

190  BRUNNER. 

a  great  distance  from  bis  residence.  When  m  his  74th 
year,  he  went  in  great  baste  to  Munich,  to  attend  the 
elector. Maximilian  Emanuel;  on  his  return,  he  was  seized 
with  a  fever,  which,  in  a  few  days,  put  an  end  to  his  life, 
October  2,  1727. l 

BRUNO  (St.)  founder  of  the  Carthusian  monks,  was 
descended  from  an  ancient  and  honourable  family,  and 
born,  at  Cologn  about  the  year  1030.  He  was  educated 
first  among  the  clergy  of  St.  Cunibert's  church  at  Cologn, 
and  afterwards  at  Rheims,  where  he  attracted  so  much 
notice  by  his  learning  and  piety,  that  on  a  vacancy  oc- 
curring, he  was  promoted  to  the  office  br  rank  of  Scbolas- 
ticus,  to  which  dignity  then  belonged  the  direction  of  the 
studies,  and  all  the  great  schools  of  the  diocese.  In  this 
office,  which  he  filled  with  great  reputation,  he  continued 
until  1077,  when  the  scandalous  conduct  of  Manasses, 
archbishop  of  Rheims,  who,  by  open  simony  had  got  pos-  * 
session  of  that  church,  induced  him  to  join  with  some 
others  in  accusing  Manasses  in  a  council  held  by  the  pope's 
legate  at  Autun.  Manasses  accordingly  was  deposed,  and 
the  church  of  Rheims  was  about  to  choose  Bruno  for  his 
successor  in  the  archbishopric,  when  he  resigned  his  office, 
and  persuaded  some  of  his  friends  to  accompany  him  into 
solitude.  After  searching  for  some  time  to  discover  a 
proper  place,  they  arrived  at  Grenoble  in  1084,  and  re-- 
quested  the  bishop  to  allot  them  some  place  where  they 
might  serve  God,  remote  from  worldly  affairs.  The  bishop 
having  assigned  them  the  desert  of  Chartreuse,  and  pro- 
mised them  his  assistance,  Bruno  and  his  companions,  six 
in  number,  built  an  oratory  there,  and  small  cells  at  a  little 
distance  one  from  the  other  like  the  ancient  Lauras  of  Pa- 
lestine, in  which  they  passed  the  six  days  of  the  week,  but 
assembled  together  oi>  Sundays.  Their  austerities  were 
rigid,  generally  following  those  of  St.  Benedict  ;  and, 
among  other  rules,  perpetual  silence  was  enjoined,  and  all 
their  original  observances,  it  is  said,  were  longer  preserved 
unchanged  than  those  of  any  other  order.  Before  the  late 
revolution  in  France,  they  had  172  convents  divided  into 
sixteen  provinces,  of  which  five  only  are  said  to  have  been 
nunneries,  all  situated  in  the  catholic  Netherlands,  and 
where  the  injunction  of  silence  was  dispensed  with.    There 

1  Haller  and  Manget. — Rees's  Cyclopaedia. 

B  R  U  N  O.  191 

were  nine  monasteries  of  this  order  in  England  at  .the  dis- 
solution under  Henry  VIII. 

After  St.  Bruno  bad  governed  this  infant  society  for  six 
years,  he  was  invited  to  Rome  by  pope  Urban  II.  who  bad 
formerly  been  his  scholar  at  Rheims,  and  now  received  him 
with  every  mark  of  respect  and  confidence,  and  pressed  him 
to  accept  the  archbishopric  of  Reggip.  This  however  he 
declined,  and  the  pope  consented  that  be  should  withdraw 
into  some  wilderness  on  the  mountains  of  Calabria,  Bruno 
found  a  convenient  solitude  in  the  diocese  of  Squiliaci, 
where  he  settled  in  1090,.  with  some  new  disciples,  until 
his  death,  Oct.  6.  1101.  There  are  only  two  letters  of  his 
remaining,  one  to  Raoul  le  Verd,  and  the  other  to  his 
monks,  wbich  are  printed  in  a  folio  volume,  entitled  "S. 
Brunonis  Opera  at  Vita,"  1524,  but  the  other  contents  of 
the  volume  belong  to  another  St.  Bruno,  first  a  monk  of 
Soleria  in  the  diocese  of  Ast,  and  henfce  called  Astiensis. 
He  distinguished  himself  at  the  council  of  Rome  in  1079 
against  Berenger,  and  was  consecrated  bishop  of  Segni  by 
Gregory  VII.  He  died  in  1125,  and  is  reckoned  among 
the  fathers  of  the  church.  He  is  reputed  to  have  written 
with  more  elegance,  clearness,  and  erudition,  than  most 
authors  of  his  time,  and  there  are  several  editions  of  his 
works.  The  Carthusian  Bruno  wrote  on  the  Psalms  and 
on  some  of  St.  Paul's  epistles.  He  followed  the  system  of 
Augustine  concerning  grace,  but  it  seems  doubtful  if  any 
genuine  works  of  his  remain,  unless  what  we  have  men- 
tioned. ' 

BRUNO  (Jordan),  an  Italian  writer  to  whom  atheism 
has  been  generally,  but  unjustly,  imputed,  was  born  at'Nola 
in  the  kingdom  Qf  Naples,  about  the  middle  of  the  six- 
teenth century.  His  talents  are  said  to  have  been  consi- 
derable, but  this  is  hardly  discoverable  from  his  works  :  he 
early,  however,  set  up  for  an  inquirer  and  innovator,  and 
very  naturally  found  many  things  in  the  philosophy  and 
theology  then  taught  in  Italy,  which  he  could  not  compre- 
hend. Being  fond  of  retirement  and  studjr,  he  entered 
into  a  monastery  of  Dominicans,  but  the  freedom  of  his 
opinions,  and  particularly  of  his  censures  on  the  irregu- 
larities of  the  fraternity,  rendered  it  soon  necessary  to 
leave  bis  order  and  his  country.     In  1582,  he  withdrew  to 

*  Butler's  Lives  of  the  Saints.— Dupin.—Mosheim,  &c. 

19t  BRUNO. 


Geneva,  where  his  heretical  opinions  gave  offence  to  Cal- 
vin and  Beza,  and  he  was  soon  obliged  to  provide  for  biff 
safety  by  flight     After  a  short  stay  at  Lyons  he  came  to 
Paris,  and  his  innovating  spirit  recommended  him  to  the 
notice  of  multitudes,  who  at  this  time  declared  open  hos- 
tilities against  the  authority  of  Aristotle.     In  a  public  dis- 
putation, held  in  the  royal  academy,  in  1586,  he  defended, 
three  days  successively,  certain  propositions  concerning 
nature  and  the  world,  which,  together  with  brief  heads  of 
the  arguments,  he  afterwards  published  in  Saxony,  under 
the  title  of  "  Acrotismus,"  or  "  Reasons  of  the  physical 
articles  proposed  against  the  Peripatetics  at  Paris."     The 
contempt  with  which  Bruno,  in  the  course  of  these  debates, 
treated  Aristotle,  exposed  him  to  the  resentment  of  the  aca- 
demic professors,  who  were  zealous  advocates  for  the  old  sys- 
tem ;  and  he  found  it  expedient  to  leave  the  kingdom  of  France. 
According  to  some  writers,  he  now  visited  England,  in  th$ 
train  of  the  French  ambassador  Castelneau,  where  he  was  hos- 
pitably received  by  sir  Philip  Sydney  and  sir  Fulke  Greville, 
and  was  introduced  to  queen  Elizabeth.     But  though  it  is 
certain  from  his  writings  that  be  was  in  England,  he  pro- 
bably made  this  visit  in  some  other  part  of  his  life,  and  we 
should  suppose  before  this,  in  1583  or  1584.     For,  about 
the  middle  of  the  same  year  in  which  he  was  at  Paris,  we 
find  him,  at  Wittenburg,  a  zealous  adherent  of  Luther. 
In  this  city  he  met  with  a  liberal  reception,  and  full  per- 
mission to  propagate  his  doctrines :  but  the  severity  with 
which  he  inveighed  against  Aristotle,  the  latitude  of  hid 
opinions  in  religion  as  well  as  philosophy,  and  the  contempt 
with  which  he  treated  the  masters  of  the  public  schools, 
excited    new  jealousies ;    and    complaints  were  lodge* 
against  him  before  the  senate  of  the  university.    To  escapg 
the  disgrace  which  threatened  him,  Bruno,  after  two  years 
residence  in  Wittenburg,  left  that  place,  and  took  refuge 
in  Helmstadt,  where  the  known  liberality  of  the  duke  of 
Brunswick  encouraged  him  to  hope  for  a  secure  asylum. 
But  either  through  the  restlessness  of  his  disposition,  or 
through  unexpected  opposition,    he  went  next  year  to 
Francfort,  to  superintend  an  edition  of  his  works,  but  be- 
fore it  was  completed  was  obliged  again,  probably  from 
fear  of  persecution,  to  quit  that  city.     His  next  residence 
was  at  Padua;  where  the  boldness  .with  which  he  taught 
his  new  doctrines,    and  inveighed  against  the  court  of 
Rome,  caused  him  to  be  apprehended  and  brought  before- 

BRUNO.  193 

the  inquisition  at  Venice.  There  he  was  tried,  and  con- 
victed of  his  errors.  Forty  days  being  allowed  him  to  de- 
liberate, he  promised  to  retract  them,  and  as  at  the  expira- 
tion of  that  term,  he  still  maintained  his  errors,  he  obtained 
a  further  respite  for  forty  days.  At  last,  it  appearing  that 
ite  imposed  upon  the  pope  in  order  to  prolong  his  life,  sen- 
tence was  finally  passed  upon  him  on  the  9th  of  February 
1600.  He  made  no  offer  to  retract  during  the  week  that 
was  allowed  him  afterwards  for  that  purpose,  but  under- 
went his  punishment  on  the  17th,  by  being  burnt  at  a  stake. 

Many  modern  writers  have  very  successfully  wiped  off 
the  aspersion  of  Bruno's  being  an  atheist;  but,  whatever 
he  was  with  respect  to  religion,  his  character  appears  never 
to  have  risen  much  higher  than  that  of  a  dealer  in  para- 
doxes. Brucker,  who  seems  to  have  examined  his  works, 
and  whose  history  we  have  chiefly  followed  in  the  pre- 
ceding account,  says,  that  a  luxuriant  imagination  supplied 
,him  with  wonderful  conceptions,  intelligible  only  to  a  few, 
which  were  never  formed  into  a  system.  Not  possessing 
that  cool  and  solid  judgment,  and  that  habit  of  patient  at- 
tention, which  are  necessary  to  a  thorough  investigation  of 
subjects,  he  frequently  embraced  trifling  and  doubtful  pro- 
positions as  certain  truths.  His  ideas  are  for  the  most  part 
wild  and  fantastic,  and  he  indulged  himself  in  a  most  un- 
bounded liberty  of  speech.  Some  of  his  original  concep- 
tions are  indeed  more  luminous  and  satisfactory,  and  nearly 
coincide  with  the  principles  of  philosophy  afterwards  re- 
ceived by  Des  Cartes,  Leibnitz,  and  others..  But  these 
sparks  of  truth  are  buried  in  a  confused  mass  of  extravagant 
and  trifling  dogmas,  expressed  in  a  metaphorical  and  in- 
tricate style,  and  unmethodically*  arranged.  Brucker 
thinks  that  his  doctrine  was  not  founded,  as  Bayle  and  La 
Croze  maintain,  on  the  principles  of  Spinozisra,  but  oil 
the  ancient  and  absurd  doctrine  of  emanatioiv 

His  most  celebrated  philosophical  pieces  are. the  follow-* 
jng :  1.  De  Umbris  Idearum,  "  On  Shadows  of  Ideas.'*  2. 
De  l'lnfinito,  Universo,  et  Mondi,  "  Of  Infinity,  the  Uni- 
verse, and  World."  3.  Spaccio  della  Bestia  triomfante, 
"  Dispatches  from  the  Triumphant  Beast.'*  4.  Oratio 
valedictoria  habita  in  Academia  Wittebergensi,  "  A  fare- 
well Oration  delivered  in  the  University  of  Wittenberg.'* 
5.  De  Monade,  Numero,  et  Figura,  "  Of  Monad,  Num- 
ber, ,and  Figure."  6.  Summa  Terminorum  Metaphysi- 
corum,    "  Summary  of  Metaphysical  Terms."    Of  these 

Vol.  VII.  O 

194  B  R  U  N  O. 

the  satirical  work,  "  Dispatches  from  the  Beast  triumphant," 
is  the  most  celebrated.  Dr.  Warton,  in  a  note  upon  Pope's 
Works,  asserts  on  the  authority  of  Toland,  that  sir  Philip 
Sidney  was  "  the  intimate  friend  and  patron  of  the  famous 
atheist  Giordano  Bruno,  who  was  in  a  secret  club  with  him 
and  sir  Fulk  Greville,  held  in  London  in  1587,  and  that  * 
the  "  Spaccio1'  was  at  that  time  composed  and  printed  in 
London,  and  dedicated  to  sir  Philip.9'  But,  besides  that 
this  date  must  be  wrong,  sir  Philip  Sidney  having  died  the 
preceding  year,  it  appears  evidently  from  the  account  of 
the  "Spaccio"  given  in  the  Spectator,  No.  389*,  that  it 
was  a  very  harmless  production,  founded  upon  a  poetical 
fiction,  and  little  adapted  to  make  any  man  a  convert  to 
atheism.  .  We  refer,  however,  to  Dr.  Zouch's  Memoirs  of 
Sir  Philip  Sidney  for  an  ample  defence  both  of  sir  Philip, 
and  Bruno,  whose  greatest  crime,  in  the  eyes  of  the  inqui- 
sition, was  rather  Lutheranism  than  atheism.1 

BRUNSFELS,  or  BRUNFELT  (Otho),  a  physician  of 
the  sixteenth  century,  and  one  of  the  first  modern  resto- 

*  "  Nothing  has  more  surprised  the  that  it  is  pot  to  be  wondered  at,  since 

learned   in   England,   than  the  price  there  were  so  many  scandalous  stories 

which  a  small  book,  entitled  Spaccio  of  the  deities;  upon  which  the  author 

della  Bestia  triomphaute,  bore  in  a  late  takes  occasion  to  cast  reflections  upon 

auction.    This  book  was  sold  for  thirty  all  other  religions,  concluding  that Ju- 

pouixls.     As    it   was  written  by  one  piter,  after  a  full  hearing,  discarded 

Jordanus  Brunu?,  a  professed  athefct,  the  deities  out  of  heaven,  and  called 

with  a  design  to  depreciate  rcl.gion,  the  stars  by  the  names  of  moral  vir- 

every  one  was  apt  to  fancy,  from  the  tues." 

extravagant  price  it  bore,  that  there         The  price  of  this  work  above-men- 

must  be  something  in  it  very  formula-  tioned  is  not  quite  correct,     it  was  * 

ble.     I  must  confess,  that,  happening  sold  at  that  time  (1711)  at  the  auction 

to  get  a  sight  of  one  of  them  myself,  I  of  the  library  of  Charles  Bernard,  esq. 

could  not  forbear  perusing  it  with  this  for  2$l.  aud  purchased  by  Walter  Cla-* 

apprehension ;  but  found  there  was  so  vel,  esq.     The  same  copy  successively 

very  little  danger  in  it,  that  J  shall  came  into  the  several   collections  of 

venture   to   give  my  readers    a   fair  Mr.  Jehn  Nickolls,    Mr.  John  Ames, 

account  of  the  whole  plan  upon  which  sir  Peter  Thomson,  and  M.  C.  Tutet, 

this  wonderful  treatise  is  built.     The  esq.  at  the  sale  of  whose  library  in 

author   pretends,    that    Jupiter  once  1786,  it  was  bought  by  the  late  Sa- 

upon  a  time  resolved  on  a  reformation  muel  Tyssen,  esq.  for  seven  guineas* 

6f  the  constellations ;  for  which  pur-  Another  copy  was  sold  at  Dr.  Mead's 

pose  having  summoned  the  stars  to-  sale  1754,   for  four  or  five  guineas, 

gether,  he  complains  to  them  of  the  The  worst  that  can  be  said  of  this  book 

great  decay  of  the  worship  of  the  gods,  is,  that  Toland  was  fond  of  it,    and 

which  he  tboifght  so  much  the  harder,  very  desirous  t6  prove  from  sir  P.  Sid- 

having  ealled  several  of  those  celestial  ney's  connection  with  the  author,  that 

bodies  by  the  names  of  the  heathen  sir  P.  inclined  to  infidelity;  hut  from 

deities,  and,  by  that  means,  made  the  this  insinuation  Dr.  Zouch  has  ably 

heavens,  as  it  were,  a  book  of  the  vindicated  him.  » 

pagan  theology.      Momus  tells  him, 

i  Brucker.— Gen.  Diet. — Moreri. — Zouch's  Memoirs  of  Sir  Philip  Sidney,  p. 
337,  &&—- Nichols's  Bo wyer. 


BRUNSFELS.      .  IM 

ters  of  botany,  was  born  at  Mentz,  and  originally  brought' 
up  to  the  church.  After  his  theological  studies  he  took 
the  habit  of  the  Carthusians  of  Mentz,  but  was  one  of  the 
1  earliest  converts  to  Lutheranism,  and  having  made  his  es- 
cape from  his  monastery,  became  a  zealous  preacher  of 
the  reformed  religion.  This  appears  to  have  involved  him 
with  Erasmus,  who,  in  Brunsfels'  opinion,  was  rather  a 
time-server.  Having  lost  his  voice,  however,  by  a  disor- 
der, he  was  obliged  to  give  over  preaching,  and  went  to 
Strasburgh,  where  the  government  of  the  college  was  com- 
mitted to  his  care.  During  a  residence  of  nine  years  in 
this  pity  he  studied  medicine,  and  was  created  doctor  at 
Basil  in'  1530.  He  was  soon  after  invited  to  Berne  in 
Swisserland,  where  he  died  six  months  after,  Nov.  23f 
1534.  Whilst  at  Strasburgh,  he  published  two  small  tracts 
to  facilitate  the  study  of  grammar  to  children,  annotations  on 
the  gospels,  and  on  the  acts  of  the  apostles,  and  an  answer  to 
Erasmus's  "  Spongia,"  in  defence  of  Hutten.  The  follow- 
ing are  the  principal  of  his  botanical  and  medical  works  : 
<c  Catalog  us  illustrium  Medicorum,"  1530, 4to.  (i  Herbarum 
vivae  icones,  ad  naturae  imitatipnem,  summa  cum  diligentia 
et  artificio  efficiatse,  cum  effectibus  earundem,"  1530,  1531, 
1536,  3  vols.  fol.  The  plates  are  much  commended  by 
Haller,  who,  on  account  of  this  work,  ranks  the  author 
among  the*  restorers  of  botany.  "  Theses,  seu  communes 
loci  totius  Medicinae,  etiam  de  usu  Pharmacorum,  Argen- 
tina," 1522,  8vo.  "  Onomasticon  Medicinae,  nomina  con-* 
tinens  omnium  stir  pi  una,  &c.  Argent,   1534,  folio.1 

BRUNSWICK-OELS  (Frederick  Augustus,  Dukr 
of),  a  general  of  infantry  in  the  Prussian  army,  an  hono- 
rary member  of  the  royal  academy'of  sciences  of  Berlin,  and, 
second  cousin  to  his  Britannic  majesty,  was  born  at  Bruns- 
wick, Oct.  20,  1741.  He  was  the  second  son  of  Charles, 
reigning  duke  of  Brunswick,  by  the  duchess  Philippine- 
Charlotte,  daughter  of  Frederick  William  I.  king  of  Prus- 
sia, and  sister  to  Frederick  the  Great.  His  education  was 
intrusted  to  men  of  talents  and  virtue,  and  his  progress  wash 
in  proportion.  He  entered  the  military  service  in  176], 
as  colonel  of  his  father's  regiment  of  infantry  in  the  allied 
army,  vrnder  the  commanded  in  chief,  his  uncle,  the  duke 
Ferdinand.     In  that  year,  and  in   1762,  he  distinguished 

*  Moreri. — Melchior  Adam. — Freheri  Theatrum.— Stoerer's  Life  of  LinnftUSj 
».  $4,— Jortia's  £ra8BUS.«-Haller  and  Manget, 

0  2 


himself  in  several  actions.  In  1763,  he  entered  into  the 
service  of  Frederick  II.  king  of  Prussia,  and  in  1768  mar~ 
ried  the  only  daughter  of  the  reigning  duke  of  Wirtem- 
berg-Oels.  From  that  time  he  fixed  his  .residence  entirely 
at  Berlin,  where  he  devoted  his  time  to  military  and  lite-* 
rary  studies.  His  father-in-law  dying  about  the  end  of  the 
year  1792,  he  succeeded  him  in  the  principality  of  Oels, 
to  which  he  went  in  the  month  of  June  1793.  The  follow- 
ing year  he  resigned  all  his  military  preferments,  in  order 
to  attend  to  his  principality,  and  was  not  more  distin- 
guished as  a  statesman  and  a  soldier  than  as  a  patron  of 
learning  and  learned  men,  contributing  liberally  to  the 
publication  of  many  useful  works.  He  died  at  Weimar 
Oct.  8,  1805. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  his  works,  which  are  in  general 
but  little  known,  as  he  printed  them  at  his  own  expence, 
principally  for  distribution  among  his  friends.  1.  "  Con- 
siderazioni  sopra  le  cose  della  grandezza  dei  Romani, 
trad,  del  Montesquieu,"  Berlin,  17 64,  8vo.  2.  "  Refles- 
sioni  critiche  sopra  il  carattere  e  le  gesta  d'Alessandro 
Magno,"  Milan,  1764,  8vo.  This  was  translated  both  into 
French  and  English,  the  latter  in  1767  ;  and  a  new  edition 
of  the  original  was  reprinted  at  Berlin  in    1803,  8vo. 

3.  A  German  translation  of  the  €€  Heureusement,"  a  co- 
medy of  Rochon  de  Chabannes,   Brunswick,  1764,  8yo. 

4.  A  German  translation  of  the  tragedy  of  "  Regulus," 
Potsdam,  1767,  8vo.  5.  "  Discours  sur  les  Grand 
Hommes,"  Berlin,  1768,  8vo,  and  ibid.  1803.  6.  A  French 
translation  of  Brandes'  "  Ariane  a  Naxos."  7.  "  xhe 
Thoughts  of  a  Cosmopolite  on  Air  Balloons/9  in  German, 
Hamburgh,  1784,  8vo.  8.  "  A'  Discourse  on  taking  the 
oath, Oct.  2,  1786,"  in  German,  Berlin,  1786,  8 vo.  9.  "In- 
structions for  his  regiment,  &c."  in  German,  ibid.  1791, 
Svo,  with  military  figures.  10.  "  The  military  history  of 
prince  Frederic  Augustus  of  Brunswick- Lunebourg,  &c.,i 
in  German,  Oels,  1797,  4to,  with  a  portrait  and  twenty 
plans  and  charts.  11.  u  Journal  plaisant,  his  tori  que,  po- 
litique, etliteraire,  a  Oels,"  from  July  1793  to  July  1795. 
He  left  also  several  works  in  manuscript,  principally  on 
military  tactics. 1 

BRUSCHIUS  (Gaspar),    a  Latin   historian  and  poet, 
was  born  at  Egra  in  Bohemia,  1518.     He  was  devoted  to 

*  Diet.  Hi*. 

BRU8CHIU&  197 

books  from  his  childhood,   and  especially  to  poetry;   in 
which  he  so  happily  succeeded,  that  be  could  make  a  great 
number  of  verses,    and  those  not  bad  ones,    extempore. 
He  began  early  to  publish  some  of  them  on  several  sub* 
jects ;  and  acquired  so  much  reputation,  that  he  attained 
to  the  poetical  crown,  to  the  dignity  of  poet  laureat,  and 
of  count  palatine,    which  honour  he  received  at  Vienna 
from  Ferdinand  of  Austria,  king  of  the  Romans,  in  1552. 
His  business  in  that  city  was  to  present  a  work  to  Maximi- 
lian, king  of  Hungary,  which  he  had  dedicated  to  him, 
the  €€  First  century  of  the  German  monasteries."     In  his 
return  from  Vienna,  he  stopped  at  Passau  ;  where,  finding 
a  patron  ki  Wolfgang  bishop  of  Salms,  he  resolved  to  set- 
tle, and  to  remove  his  library  and  family.     He  hoped  that 
he  could  better  go  on  there  with  a  great  work  he  had  un- 
dertaken, which  was,  "  The  history  of  all  the  bishoprics  and 
bishops  of  Germany."  He  had  travelled  much,  and  looked 
into  several  records  and  libraries,  to  gather  materials  for 
his  purpose.     How  long  he  staid  there  does  not  appear ; 
but  he  was  at  Basil  in  June  1153,  and  lived  in  the  citadel 
of  Oporin,  Arx  Oporina :   the  usual  way  of  speaking  of 
that  famous  printer's  house,  which  stood  on  a  rising  ground. 
Here  he  published  writings  he  had  finished  at  Passau, 
some  in  prose,  and  others  in  verse.     Bruschius  was  mar- 
ried, but  had  no  children.     He  was  far  from  being  rich ; 
but  his  poetical  patrons  assisted  him,  and  he  received  pre* 
sents  also  from  the  abbots  and  abbesses,  whose  monasteries 
be  described.     He  was  particularly  well  received  by  the 
abbess  of  the  convent  of  Caczi,  and  obtained  some  pre- 
sents from  her,  which,  Meichior  Adam  says,  was  owing  to 
his  having  described  the  antiquities  of  that  convent.    The 
liberalities  of  some  abbots,  while  he  was  with  Oporin  at 
Basil,  enabled  him  to  buy  a  new  suit  of  clothes ;  but  when 
he  found  that  appearing  well  dressed  in  the  streets  pro- 
cured him  many  marks  of  respect  from  the  vulgar,  he  tore 
his  new  finery  to  pieces,  "  as  slaves  (says  the  same  author) 
that  had  usurped  their  master's  honours.9' 

This  unhappy  man  was  murdered  in  the  forest  of  Sea- 
lingenbach,  between  Rottemberg  on  the  Tauber  and 
Winsheim,  in  1559;  and  it  was  believed  that  this  assas- 
sination was  concerted  and  carried  into  execution  by  some 
gentlemen  against  whom  Bruschius  was  about  to  write 
something.     His  ecclesiastical  history  of  Germany  is  said 

to  savour  of  Lutheranism,  with  which  he  was  supposed  to, 


be  strongly  tainted,  from  his  taking  every  slight  occasion 
to  speak  ill  of  Rome  and  of  the  popes.  It  was  published 
under  the  title  "  De  omnibus  totius  Germanise  Episco- 
patibus  Epitome,  &c."  Nuremberg,  1 549  ;  and  "  Monas- 
teriorum  Germanise  pracipuorum,  &c.  Centuria  Prima," 
Ingolstad,  1551.  He  published  also,  in  his  nineteenth 
year,  "  Tabula  Philosophise  partitionem  continens,"  Tu- 
bingen, 1537,  and  other  works,  enumerated  in  Gesner's 
Bibliotheca.  * 

BRUTO  (John  Michael),  a  very  learned  Venetian, 
was  born  about  1518,  and  studied  at  Padua.  It  appears 
from  his  letters,  that  he  was  obliged  to  leave  his  country 
as  an  exile ;  but  he  does  not  say  upon  what  account,  only 
that  it  was  without  any  blemish  to  his  honour.  He  tra- 
velled much,  passing  part  of  his  life  in  Spain,  England, 
France,  Germany,  Transylvania,  and  Poland.  Notwith- 
standing this  itinerant  kind  of  life,  he  acquired  great 
learning,  as  appears  from  his  notes  on  Horace,  Caesar, 
Cicero,  &c.  He  was  in  Transylvania  in  1574,  having 
been  invited  thither  by  prince  Stephen,  in  order  to  com- 
pose a  history  of  that  country.  One  of  his  letters,  dated 
from  Cracow,  Nov.  23,  1577,  informs  us,  that  he  had  fol- 
lowed that  prince,  then  king  of  Poland,  in  the  expedition 
into  Prussia.  He  had  a  convenient  apartment  assigned 
him  in  the  castle  of  Cracow,  that  he  might  apply  himself 
the  better  to  his  function  of  historiographer.  He  left  Po- 
land after  the  death  of  that  monarch,  and  lived  with  Wil- 
liam of  St.  Clement,  ambassador  from  the  king  of  Spain 
to  the  imperial  court,  where  he  was  honoured  with  the 
title  of  his  imperial  majesty's  historiographer.  He  died 
afterwards  in  Transylvania,  in  1594,  in  his  seventy-sixth 


His  writings,  become  very  scarce,  were  so  earnestly 
sought  after  by  the  best  judges,  that  there  was  great  joy 
in  the  republic  of  letters,  on  hearing  that  Mr.  Cromer  had 
undertaken  to  publish  a  new  edition  of  them.  The  first 
part  of  that  design  was  accomplished  in  1698,  Berlin,  8vo. 
The  Cracow  edition  was  in  1582.  Bruto  promises  in  one 
of  his  letters,  to  add  another  to  them,  wherein  he  designed 
to.  treat  of  the  custom  of  giving  the  same  lofty  titles  to 
persons  whom  we  write  to  in  Latin,  as  are  given  in  com- 
mon languages.     There  are  but  few  countries  in  which 

}  Gen,  Dict.^Moreri.-T-Saxii  Onomaat. 

BRUTO.  I9f 

they  are  more  nice  in  this  point  than  in  Poland ;  and  yet 
Bruto  would  not  conform  to  the  new  style,  not  even  in 
writing  to  some  Polish  lords,  but  dispensed  with  all  cere- 
monies that  might  make  him  deviate  frqm  the  purity  of  the 
ancient  language  of  Rome.  In  a  letter  he  wrote  to  John 
Poniatowski,  he  says:  "This  is  my  first  letter  to  you, 
which  I  write  in  the  Roman  manner,  as  I  used  to  do  even 
to  the  king.  I  can  bring  myself  to  every  thing  else,  can . 
love  you,  obey  you,  and  always  regard  you,  which  1  shall 
do  very  willingly,  as  you  highly  deserve.  But  when  I 
have  any  thing  to  write  to  you  in  .Latin,  suffer  me,  without 
offence,  to  write  according  to  the  use  of  the  Latin  tongue, 
for  I  cannot  understand  that  I  am  writing  to  your  great* 
nesses,  your  magnificences,  &c.  which  exist  no  where  on 
this  side  of  the  moon :  I  am  writing  to  you."  Bruto, 
though  whimsical  in  this  respect,  was  at  least  classical,  as 
it  is  certain  that  ancient  Rome  had  no  such  usage  in  the 
time  of  its  greatest  glory,  and  of  its  most  accomplished 

It  is  said,  that  the  history  of  Florence,  composed  by 
our  Bruto,  and  printed  at  Lyons  in  1562,  under  the  title 
4i  Florentine  Historise,  Libri  octo  priores,"  is  not  favour- 
able to  the  bouse  of  Medicis  ;  and  that  it  greatly  dis- 
pleased the  duke  of  Florence,  on  which  it  was  so  far 
suppressed,  that  few  copies  are  now  to  be  met  with.  He 
published  also  "  De  Origine  Venetiarum,"  Leyden,  1560, 
8vo,  and  "  Epistolae,"  Berlin,   1690,  Svo.1 

BRUYERE  (John,  de  la),  one  of  those  celebrated 
persons  whose  writings  attract  universal  admiration,  while 
their  lives  pass  on  in  one  uniform  tenour,  without  incident 
or  adventure,  was  born  in  1639,  1640,  or  1644,  (for  we 
have  seen  all  these  dates  given),  in  a  village  of  France, 
near  the  town  of  Dourdan,  in  that  part  of  the  late  province 
of  the  Isle  of  France  which  is  now  denominated  the  de- 
partment of  the  Seine  and  Oise.  Of  his  education,  or  of 
his  youthful  manners,  we  have  no  information.  His  first 
situation  appears  to  have  been  at  Caen, ,  in  the  province 
of  Normandy,  where  he  had  an  office  in  the  collection  of 
the  revenue.  His  literary  talents,  however,  became  soon 
too  conspicuous  to  permit  him  to  remain  long  in  a  situation 
/so  little  corresponding  with  the  expanding  and  elevating 

1  Gen.  Diet.— Moreri.— Saxii  Onomast. 

3©0  BKUYE  B  E. 

views  of  genius.  The  illustrious  Bossuet  appointed  him 
to  attend  one  of  the  royal  children  of  France,  to  instruct 
him  in  history,  with  a  pension  of  a  thousand  crowns  a  year; 
With  this  he  might  be  considered  at  that  period,  and  in 
that  country,  as  in  a  state  of  affluence ;  and  the  literary 
distinctions,  then  the  most  courted  by  aspiring  minds, 
were  not  withheld  from  him ;  for,  in  1693,  be  was  eleeted 
by  the  express  command  of  Lewis  XIV.  one  of  the  forty 
members  of  the  French  academy.  But  he  did  not  long 
enjoy  that  affluence  which  afforded  him  leisure  to  cultivate 
the  fields  of  literature,  nor  the  distinctions  which  he  so 
well  merited,  and  which  were  accompanied  by  the  uni- 
versal admiration  of  his  countrymen,  and  indeed  of  all 
Europe.  An  apoplectic  fit  removed  him  from  this  transi- 
tory scene,  in  the  year  1696,  and  in  the  fifty-third  year 
of  his  age. 

M.  de  la  Bruyere  was  an  ingenious  philosopher,  devoid 
of  all  ambition,  content  to  6njoy  in  tranquillity  his  friends 
and  his  books,  and  selecting  both  with  judgment.  Pleasure 
be  neither  sought,  nor  endeavoured  to  avoid.  Ever  dis- 
posed to  the  indulgence  of  a  modest  and  placid  joy,  with 
a  happy  talent  of  exciting  it,  he  was  polite  in  liis  manners, 
and  wise  in  his  conversation ;  an  enemy  to  every  kind  of 
affectation,  and  even  to  that  of  displaying  the  brilliancy  of 
wit.  The  work  by  which  he  was  distinguished  was  "  The' 
Characters  of  Theophrastus,  translated  from  the  Greek, 
with  the  Manners  of  the  present  age.'*  "  These  characters,'* 
says  Voltaire,  "  may  be  justly  ranked  among  the  extraor- 
dinary productions  of  the  age.  Antiquity  furnishes  no 
examples  of  such  a  work.  A  rapid,  concise,  and  nervous 
style ;  animated  and  picturesque  expressions ;  a  use  of 
language  altogether  new,  without  offending  against  its 
established  rules,  struck  the  public  at  first ;  and  the  allu- 
sions to  living  persons,  which  are  crowded  in  almost  every 
page,  completed  its  success.  When  the  author  showed 
his  work  in  manuscript  to  Malesieux,  the  latter  told  him 
that  the  book  would  have  many  readers,  and  its  author 
many  enemies  *.     It  somewhat  sunk  in  the  opinion  of  men, 

*  La  Bruyere  used  to  frequent  the  day,    taking   the  manuscript  of   bis 

shop  of  a  bookseller  named  Micha'.let,  "  Characters"  out  of  his  pocket,  be  of- 

where  he  aroused  himself  with  reading  fered  it  toMichallet,  saying:  Will  you 

the  new  pamphlets,  and  playing  with  print  this  ?    I  know  not  whether  you 

the  bookseller's  daughter,  an  engaging  will  gain  any  thing  by  it,  but,  should 

child,  of  whom  he  was  yery  fond.  One  it  succeed,  let  the  profits,  make  the 

BRUYERE.  201 

when  that  whole  generation,  whose  follies  it  attacked, 
were  passed  away ;  yet,  as  it  contains  many  things  appli- 
cable to  all  times  and  places,  it  is  more  than  probable  that 
it  will  never  be  forgotten." 

Beside  this1  admirable  work,  he  had  begun  "Dialogues 
on  Quietism,'9  which  were  finished  after  his  death  by  abb£ 
Dupin,  and  published  in  1699,   12 mo. 

The  best  .French  editions  of  his  Characters  are  those  of 
Amsterdam,  1741,  2  vols.  12 mo,  and  of  Paris,  1750,  2 
vols.  12mo,  and  in  1765,  1  vol.  4 to.  The  English  trans- 
lation of  them  is  in  2  vols.  8vo,  by  Rowe,  1713,  with  a 
tedious  account  of  his  life  and  writings,  by  M.  Coste. 
This  last  contains  the  Theophxastus,  Bruyere's  Characters, 
with  a  key,  his  speech  on  admission  into  the  French  aca- 
demy, and  an  imitation  of  Bruyere  by  Rowe. ' 

BRUYN  (Cornelius),  painter,  and  a  famous  traveller, 
born  in  1652,  at  the  Hague,  began  his  travels  through 
Russia,  Persia,  and  the  East  Indies  in  1674,  and  did  not 
end  them  till  1708  >  they  were  printed  at  Amsterdam;  the 
voyage  to  the  Levant  in  1714,  fol.  and  those  of  Russia, 
Persia,  &c.  in  1718,  2  vols,  folio,  which  last  were  translated 
into  English,  and  published  in  1736,  2  vols,  folio.  The 
(edition  of  1718  is  greatly  esteemed  on  account  of  the 
plates;  but  the  edition  of  Rouen,  of  1725,  of  5  vols.  4to, 
is  more  useful,  as  the  abb£  Bannier  has  improved  the  style, 
enriched  it  with  many  excellent  notes,  and  has  added  to 
it  the  voyage  of  Desmousseaux,  &c.  Bruyn  is  an  in- 
quisitive and  instructive  traveller ;  but  he  is^not  always  ac- 
curate, and  his  diction  is  far  from  being  elegant.  He 
died  in  1719.* 

BRUYS  (Francis),  born  at  Serrieres  in  the  Maconnois 
in  1708,  quitted  his  country  in  order  to  pursue  his  studies 
at  Geneva,  from  whence  he  went  to  the  Hague,  where  he 
had  some  relations,  and  there  he  became  a  Calvinist.  A 
dispute  with  some  divines  obliging  him  to  leave  Holland, 
he  retired  into  Germany,  from  whence  he  returned  to 
.  France.      He  there  recanted,  and  died  some  time  after 

dowry  of  my  little  friend  here."    The  work  amounted  to  a  large  sum ;  and 

bookseller,   though  doubtful  with   re.  with  this  fortune  Miss  Micoallet  was 

•pact  to  the  result,  ventured  on  the  afterwards  advantageously  married, 

publication ;  the  first  impression  was  Month.  Rev.  vol.  XI.  N.  S.  from 

toon  sold  off,  several  editions  were  af-  •  the  Memoirs  of  the  Royal  Aca- 

terwards  sold,  and  the  profits  of  the  demy  of  Berlin. 

1  Life  prefixed  to  Works.— Moreri. — Diet.  Hist, — Saxii  Onomast. 
*  Dipt.  Hist.— Saxii  Onomftft, 

202  BRUYS. 

at  Dijon,  in  1738,  being  only  thirty  years  old.  He  pub- 
lished: 1.  "  Critique  desinteress6e  des  journaux  litte- 
raires,"  J  730,  3- vols.  12mo.  2.  "  History  of  the  Popes," 
from  St.  Peter  to  Benedict  XIII.  inclusive,  1732,  5  vols. 
4to.  3.  "  Memoires  historiques,  critiques,  et  litteraires," 
2  vols.  12mo,  in  which  are  many  anecdotes  of  the  cha- 
racters and  works  of  the  learned  men  he  had  been 
acquainted  with  in  the  different  countries  he  had  vi- 
sited. The  first  title  of  this  work,  was  :  "  Reflexions 
serieuses  et  badines  sur  les  Suisses,  les  Hollandois,  et  les 
Allemans,  &c."  which  he  thought  proper  to  change. 
4.  "  Reflexions  en  forme  de  lettres  adresse£s  au  prochain 
synod  qui  doit  s' assembler  a  la  Haye,  sur  l'affaire  de  M. 
Saurin,  et  sur  ceile  de  M.  Maty,"  Hague,  1730,  12mo. 
This  alludes  to  a  dispute  with  Saurin  and  Maty,  which 
latter  had  been  deposed  from  his  ministry  for  his  opinions 
on  the  Trinity.  Bruys  concealed  his  name  in  this  work 
under  the' letters  M.  F.  B.  D.  S.  E.  M.  P.  D.  G.  (i.e.  Fran- 
cois Bruys,  de  Serrieres  en  Ma^onnois,  professeur  de 
Grammaire.)  5.  Tacite  avec  des  notes  historiques  et  po- 
litiques,  pour  servir  de  continuation  st  ce  que  M.  Amelot 
de  Houssai  avoit  traduit  de  cet  auteur,"  Hague,  1730,  6  vols. 
12mo.  6.  "  Le  postilion,  ouvrage  historique,  critique,  po- 
litique, &c,"  1733-6,  4  vols.  12 mo.  His  history  of  the 
popes  was  said  to  have  been  the  production  of  a  Benedictine 
of  St.  Maur,  and  the  plan  and  some  of  the  chapters  having 
.faller*  into  the  hands  of  Bruys,  he  prepared  it-  for  the 
press  in  the  shape  we  now  find  it. l 

BRUYS  (Peter  de),  founder  of  the  sect,  if  it  may  be  so 
called,  of  the  Petrobrussians,  in  the  twelfth  century,  ap- 
pears to  have  propagated  his  doctrines  chiefly  in  Langue- 
doc  and  Provence,  and  after  a  laborious  ministry  of  twenty 
years,  during  which  he  had  collected  a  great  number  of 
followers,  was  burnt  at  St.  Gilles  in  1 130,  by  the  populace 
instigated  by  the  popish  clergy.  His  chief  tenets  were, 
that  no  persons  ought  to  be  baptised  unless  adults ;  that  it 
was  an  idle  superstition  to  build  churches,  as  God  will  ac- 
cept sincere  worship  wherever  it  is  offered,  and  that  such 
churches  as  had  been  erected  were  to  be  destroyed;  with 
all  crucifixes  or  instruments  of  superstition;  that  the  real 
body  and  blood  of  Christ  were  not  exhibited  in  the  eucha- 
rist,  but  were  represented  only  by  figures  and  symbols,  and 

*  Moreri. — Diet,  Hist. 

B  ft  V  Y  9.  203 

that  the  oblations,  prayers,  &c.  of  the  living  were  of  no  use 
to  the  dead.  * 


BRYAN,  or  BRYANT  (Sir  Francis),  an  English  poet 
and  warrior,  was  born  of  a  genteel  family,  educated  at  Ox- 
ford, and  afterwards  spent  some  time  in  travelling  abroad. 
In  1 522,  he  attended,  in  a  military  capacity,  the  earl  of 
Surrey  on  his  expedition  to  the  coast  of  Britany,  and  com- 
manded the  troops  in  the  attack  of  the  town  of  Morlaix, 
which  he  took  and  burnt.  For  this  service  he  was  knighted 
on  the  spot  by  the  earl,  which  Tanner  sayB  took  place  in 
Germany,  1532,  instead  of  Britany,  1522.  In  1528  he 
was  in  Spain,  but  in  what  service  is  doubtful.  In  1529  he 
was  sent  ambassador  to  France,  and  the  following  year  to 
Rome  on  account  of  the  king's  divorce.  He  had  also  been 
there  in  1522,  in  the  same  capacity,  when  cardinal  Wol- 
sey's  election  to  the  holy  see  was  in  agitation.  In  1533  he 
was  one  of  those  sent  by  Henry  to  be  witnesses  to  the  in- 
terview between  the  pope  and  the  king  of  France  at  Mar- 
seilles. He  was  gentleman  of  the  privy  chamber  to  Henry 
VIII.  and  to  his  successor  Edward  VI.  in  the  beginning  pf 
whose  reign  he  marched  with  the  protector  against  the 
Scots,  and  after  the  battle  of  Musselborough  in  1547,  in 
which  he  commanded  the  light  horse  with  great  bravery, 
he  was  made  banneret.  In  1549*  he  was  appointed  chief 
governor  of  Ireland,  by  the  title  of  lord  chief  justice,  and 
there  hje  married  the  countess  of  Ormond.  He  appears  to 
have  died  in  1550,  and  was  buried  at  Waterford.  He  was 
nephew  to  John  Bourchier,  lord  Berners,  the  translator  of 

He  translated  from  the  French  of  Alaygri,  "  A  Dispraise 
of  the  life  of  a  Courtier,"  which  Alaygri  had  translated 
from  the  Castilian  language,  in  which  it  was  originally 
written  by  Guevara,  London,  1548,  8vo.  Several  of  the 
"  Poems  by  uncertain  authors,"  printed  with  those  of 
Surrey  and  Wyat,  are  supposed  to  have  been  his  produc- 
tion. He  left  also  in  MS.  letters  written  from  Rome  con- 
cerning the  king's  divorce,  and  various  letters  of  state, 
which  Ant.  Wood  says  he  had  seen.  Dodd  accuses  sir 
Francis  Bryan  of  having  administered  to  the  extravagant 
pleasures  of  Henry  VIII.  but  perhaps  he  was  not  more 
culpable  in  this  respect  than  Henry's  other  courtiers,  and 

1  Mosheim. — Moreri. 

20*  BRYANT. 

it  is  in  his  favour  that  he  retained  the  confidence  of  the 
succeeding  government ' 

BRYANT  (Jacob),  one  of  the  most  learned  English 
scholars  of  the  eighteenth  century,  who  adds  a  very  illus- 
trious name  to  the  "  Worthies  of  Devon,"  was  born  at  Ply- 
mouth in  that  county  in  1715.  His  father  held  an  office  in 
the  custom-house,  but  before  his  son  arrived  at  his  seventh 
year,  was  removed  thence  into  Kent,  a  circumstance  which 
may  be  mentioned  as  a  proof  of  Mr.  Bryant's  extraordinary 
jmemory  ;  for,  in  a  conversation  with  the  late  admiral  Bar* 
rington,  not  long  before  his  death,  when  some  local  cir- 
cumstances in  respect  to  Plymouth  were  accidentally  men- 
tioned, Mr.  Bryant  discovered  so  perfect  a  recollection  of 
them,  that  his  friend  could  scarcely  be  persuaded  he  had 
not  been  very  recently  on  the  spot,  though  he  had  never 
visited  the  place  of  his  nativity  after  the  removal  of  bis 
father.  Mr.  Bryant  received  his  grammatical  education 
first  under  the  rev.  Sam.  Thornton  of  Ludsdown  in  Kent, 
and  afterwards  at  Eton,  and  undoubtedly  was  one  of  the 
brightest  luminaries  of  that  institution.  The  traditions  of 
his  extraordinary  attainments  still  remain,  and  particularly 
of  some  verses  which  he  then  wrote.  From  Eton  he  pro- 
ceeded to  King's  college,  Cambridge,  where  he  took  his 
degree  of  A.  B.  in  1740,  and  A,  M.  in  1744,  obtained  a 
fellowship,  and  was  equally  distinguished  by  his  love  of 
learning,  and  his  proficiency  in  every  branch  of  the  aca- 
demic course.  He  was  afterwards  first  tutor  to  sir  Thomas 
Stapylton,  and  then  to  the  marquis  of  Blandford,  now  duke 
of  Marlborough,  and  to  his  brother  lord  Charles  Spencer, 
when  at  Eton  school,  which  office,  on  account  of  an  in- 
flammation in  his  eyes,  be  quitted  in  1744,  and  his  place 
was  supplied  by  Dr.  Erasmus  Saunders;  but  Mr.  Bryant, 
after  his  recovery  in  1746,  again  returned  to  his  office,  and 
in  1756  was  appointed  secretary  to  the  late  duke  of  Marl- 
borough, when  master-general  of  the  ordnance,  and  -ac-% 
companied  him  into  Germany.  His  grace  also  promoted 
him  to  a  lucrative  appointment  in  the  ordnance-office. 

As  Mr.  Bryant  had  long  outlived  his  contemporaries* 
few  particulars,  except  what  we  have  just  related,  are 
known,  of  his  early  life  and  habits.  He  appears,  even 
while  connected  with  the  late  duke  of  Marlborough,  whose 

*  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  1.— Warton's  Hist,  of  Poetry,  vol.  IH.-^Phillips's  Theaftruai 
p.  49.— Podd's  Ch,  Hist.  roi.  I. 

B  R  Y  A  N  t  20* 


family  remained  his  kind  patrons  during  the  whole  of  his 
life,  to  have  devoted  himself  to  study,  and  to  that  parti- 
cular branch  which  respects  the  ancient  history  of  nations. 
Whatever  his  fortune  might  be,  he  appears  to  have  been 
satisfied  if  it  supplied  the  means  of  extending  his  studies 
in  retirement,  and  we  do  not  find  that  he  ever  inclined  to 
pursue  any  of  the  learned  professions.    One  of  his  con- 
temporaries, the  late  rev.  William  Cole  of  Milton,  informs 
lis,  in  his  MS  Athense  Cantab,  (in  Brit.  Mus.)  that  he  had 
twice  refused  the  mastership  of  the  Charter-house,  which 
one  time  was  actually  granted  to  him  by  a  majority  of  the 
governors ;  and  notice  of  his  nomination  was  sent  to  him 
by  Mr.  Hetherington,  a  gentleman  who  afterwards  left  him 
his  executor  and  3,000/.  as  a  legacy ;  but  at  what  time 
these  offers  were  made,  Mr.  Cole  has  not  specified.     It  is 
certain,  however,  that  he  early  formed  his  plan  of  life,  a 
long  life  spent  entirely  in  literary  pursuits,  and  persevered 
in  it  with  uncommon  assiduity  and  steadiness,  consecrating 
Jiis  talents  to  the  best  purposes  of  learning  and  religion. 

His  first  publication  was  "Observations  and  Inquiries 
relating  to  various  parts  of  Ancient  History:  containing 
Dissertations  on  the  wind  Euroclydon,  and  on  the  Island 
Melite,  together  with  an  account  of  Egypt  in  its  most  early 
state,  and  of  the  Shepherd  Kings;  wherein  the  time  of 
.  their  coming,  the  province  which  they  particularly  pos- 
'  seased,  and  to  which  the  Israelites  afterwards  succeeded,  is 
endeavoured  to  be  stated.     The  whole  calculated  to  throw 
light  on  the  history  of  that  ancient  kingdom,  as  well  as  on 
the  histories  of  the  Assyrians,   Chaldeans,    Babylonians, 
Edomites,  and  other  nations,"  1767,  4to.     In  this  volume, 
with  great  modesty,  and  yet  with  well-grounded  resolution, 
he  attacks  Bochart,  Grotius,  and  Bentley,  who  supposed 
that  Euroclydon,  the  name  of  a  wind  mentioned  in  Acts 
xxvii.  14tb  verse,  is  a  misnomer,  and  ought  to  be  read  Eu- 
roaquilo,  and  very  ably  supports  the  present  reading.     In 
proving  that  the  island  Melite,  mentioned  in.  the  last  chap- 
ter of  the  Acts,  is  not  Malta,  he  has  to  contend  with  Gro- 
tius., Cluverius,  Beza,  Bentley,  and  Bochart,  and  his  argu- 
ments on  this  question  are  upon  the  whole'  conclusive.     It 
happened  that  the  hypothesis  he  suggested  was  brought 
forward  about  the  same  time  by  an  ingenious  Frenchman, 
and  neither  of  them  was  acquainted  with  the  opinion  of  the 
other.    The  remainder  of  this  volume  evinces  uncommon 
research  and  acuteness,  but  not  unmixed  with  that  inch- 


nation  to  bold  conjecture  and  fanciful  speculation  which 
more  or  less  influenced  the  composition  of  all  Mr.  Bryant's- 
works.  His  next  communication  to  the  public,  and  the 
work  on  which  his  character  as  a  scholar  must  ultimately 
rest,  was  his  "  New  System  or  Analysis  of  Ancient  My-  * 
thology  ;  wherein  an  Attempt  is  made  to  divest  Tradition 
of  Fable,  and  to  reduce  Truth  to  its  original  Purity."  Of 
this  publication  the  first  and  second  volumes  came  forth 
together,  in  1774,  and  the  third  followed  two  years  after.  It 
being  his  professed  design  to  present  a  history  of  the  Ba- 
bylonians, Chaldeans,  Egyptians,  Canaanites,  Helladians, 
lonians,  Leleges,  Dorians,  Pelasgi,  and  other  ancient  na- 
tions, his  researches  for  this  purpose  were  not  only  of  ne- 
cessity recondite,  but  in  many  instances  uncertain ;  but  to 
facilitate  his  passage  through  the  mighty  labyrinth  which 
led  to  his  primary  object,  he  not  only  availed  himself  of 
the  scattered  fragments  of  ancient  history  wherever  be 
could  find  them,  but  also  of  a  variety  of  etymological  aids; 
for  being  persuaded  that  the  human  race  were  the  offspring 
of  one  stock,  and  conceiving  thence  that  their  language  in 
the  beginning  was  one,  this  favourite  notion  was  exempli- 
fied by  him  in  the  investigation  of  radical  terms,  and  ap- 
plication of  these  as  collateral  aids.  As  his  knowledge  of 
the  oriental  dialects  was  very  confined,  upon -some  occa- 
sions he  has  indulged  too  freely  to  fancy;  yet  bis  defects 
in  this  kind  of  learning  form  a  strong  plea  in  his  favour ; 
for  if,  without  fully  understanding  these  languages,  he  has 
succeeded  in  tracing  out  so  many  radicals  as  his  table  of 
them  exhibits,  and  more  especially  if  he  has  been  right  in 
explaining  them,  it  wjll  follow  that  his  explanations  must 
be  founded  on  truth,  and  therefore  are  not  chimerical.  In 
opposition,  however,  to  them,  Mr.  Bryant  experienced 
some  severe  and  petulant  attacks :  first,  from  a  learned- 
Dutchman,  in  a  Latin  review  of  his  work  ;  and  shortly  after 
from  the  late  Mr.  Richardson,  who  was  privately  assisted 
by  sir  William  Jones ;  a  circumstance  which  there  is  rea- 
son to  think  Mr.  Bryant  never  knew.  Mr.  Richardson,  in 
the  preface  to  his  Persian  Dictionary,  has  no  doubt  suc- 
cessfully exposed  some  of  Mr.  Bryant's  etymological  mis- 
takes with  regard  to  words  of  eastern  origin.  Bryant  bad 
a  favourite  theory  with  regard  to  the  Amonians,  the  origi- 
nal inhabitants  of  Egypt,  whose  name,  as  well  as  descent, 
he  derives  from  Ham,  but  Richardson  has  stated  an  in- 
superable objection  to  the  derivation  of  the  name,  for 


BRYANT.  207 

though  the  Greeks  and  Latins  used  Ammon  and  Hammon 
indifferently,  yet  the  Heth  in  Ham  is  a  radical,  not  mutable 
or  omissible  ;  and  had  the  Greeks  or  Latins  formed  a  word 
from  it,  it  would  have  been  Chammon,  and  not  Ammon, 
even  with  the  aspirate.  To  these  and  other  strictures,  Mr. 
Bryant  replied  in  an  anonymous  pamphlet,  of  which  he 
printed  only  a  few  copies  for  the  perusal  of  his  friends*; 
and  that  part  of  his  work  which  relates  to  the  Apameart 
medal  having  been  particularly  attacked,  especially  in  the 
Gentleman's  Magazine,  he  defended  himself  in  "  A  Vin- 
'  dication  of  the  Apamean  Medal,  and  of  the  inscription: 
NX1E,  together  with  an  illustration  of  another  coin  struck 
at  the  same  place  in  honour  of  the  emperor  Severus."  This 
was  first  published  in  the  Archaeologia,  and  afterwards  se- 
parately, 1775,  4to,  and  although  what  he  offered  on  the 
subject  was  lightly  treated  hy  some,  whose  knowledge  in 
medallic  history  is  allowed  to  be  great,  yet  the  opinion  of 
professor  Eckhel,  the  first  medallist  of  his  age,  is  decidedly 
in  favour  of  Mr.  Bryant.  And  whatever  may  be  the  merit,  t 
in  the  opinion  of  the  learned,  of  Mr.  Bryant's  "  New  Sys- 
tem" at  large,  no  person  can  possibly  dispute,  that  a  very 
uncommon  store  of  learning  is  perceptible  through  the 
whole;  that  it  abounds  with  great  originality  of  concep- 
tion, much  perspicacious  elucidation,  and  the  most  happy- 
explanations  on  topics  of  the  highest  importance :  in  a 
word,  that  it  stands  forward  amongst  the  first  works  of  its 

About  this  time  was  published  Mr.  Wood's  "Essay  on 
the  original  genius  and  writings  of  Homer."  Of  this  post- 
humous work,  Mr.  Bryant  was  the  editor,  the  author  hav- 
ing left  his  MSS.  to  his  care ;  and  in  the  same  year,  the. 
"  Vindiciae  Flavianae,"  a  tract  on  the  much  disputed  testi- 
mony of  Josephus  to  Christ,  was  printed,  and  a  few  co- 
pies sent  to  a  bookseller  in  either  university ;  but  as  the 
pamphlet  appeared  without  the  name  of  its  author,  and  no 
attention  was  shewed  it,  Mr.  Bryant  recalled  them,  and 
satisfied  himself  with  distributing  the  copies  thus  returned 


*  Mr.  Richardson  returned  to  the  dressed  to  the  Author,  by  Jacob  Un- 
charge in  1778,  by  publishing  "  A  ant,  esq."  8vo.  It  appears  by  this 
Dissertation  on  the  Languages,  Litera-  work  that  both  parties  had  now  lost 
ture,  and  Manner*  of  Eastern  Nations,  their  temper,  and  justice  obliges  u.s 
Originally  prefixed  to  his  Dictionary,  to  say  that  Mr.  Bryant  shewed  the 
&c  Together  with  further  remarks  first  symptoms  Q?  a  defect  in  that 
on  a  New  Analysis  of  Ancient  Mytho-  article. 
Jpgy,  in  answer  to  An  Apology,  ad* 

308 .  BRYANT. 

amongst  a  few  particular  friends.  The  new  light,  how- 
ever, which  Mr.  Bryant  threw  upon  the  subject,  and  the 
acuteness  with  which  the  difficulties  attending  it  were  dis- 
cussed, soon  brought  the  work  into  notice,  and  Mr.  Bryant 
published  it  with  his  name  in  1780,  and  has  effectually  vih* 
dicated  the  authenticity  of  the  passage  in  question.  It  id 
no  mean  testimony  of  his  success  in  this  undertaking,  that 
Dr.  Priestley  confessed  that  Mr.  Bryant  had  made  a  com- 
plete convert  of  him*  That  his  conversion,  however,  ex- 
tended no  farther  than  the  present  subject,  appeared  in  the 
same  year,  when  Mr.  Bryant  published  "  An  Address  to 
Dr.  Priestley,  upon  his  doctrine  of  Philosophical  Neces- 
sity illustrated,"  8vo,  which  the  doctor  with  his  usual  ra- 
pidity, answered  in  "  A  Letter  to  Jacob  Bryant,  esq." 
Dr.  Priestley,  indeed,  was  not  likely  to  be  persuaded  by  a 
writer  who  insinuated  that  his  "  necessity"  of  philoso- 
phers was  no  other  than  the  "  predestination"  of  Calvinists. 
With  respect  to  the  "  Vindiciae  Flavianae,"  it  yet  remains 
to  be  mentioned  that  there  is  a  great  affinity  between  this 
publication,  and  the  observations  on  the  same  subject  of  a 
learned  Frenchman.  See  a  letter  to  Dr.  Kippis,  at  the 
end  of  his  life  of  Dr.  Lardner,  by  Dr.  Henley,  where  the 
arguments  for  and  against  the  authenticity  of  the  passage 
are  distinctly  stated. 

The  poems  attributed  to  Rowley  having  been  published 
by  Mr.  Tyrwhitt,  Mr.  Bryant's  attention  was  next  drawn 
to  them,  and  in  1781  he  published  "  Observations  on  the 
Poems  of  Thomas  Rowley,  in  which  the  authenticity  of 
these  poems  is  ascertained,"  2  vols.  12mo.  From  the  com- 
munications of  his  friend  Dr.  Glynn,  and  his  own  inquiries 
at  Bristol,  Mr.  Bryant  acquired  such  information  as  con- 
vinced him,  that  they  had  their  foundation  in  reality,  and 
were  not  entirely  of  Chatterton's  fabrication  ;  but  though 
he  failed  to  produce  conviction,  his  book  discovers  consi- 
derable talent,  as  well  as  much  knowledge  of  English  an- 
tiquities and  literature. 

The  hypothesis  of  Mr.  Bryant  in  reference  to  one  ori- 
ginal language  was  always  kept  in  view  by  him,  and  as 
researches  were  extended  on  all  sides  to  obtain  elucidations, 
the  language  of  the  gypsies  engaged  his  attention;  ac- 
cordingly the  collections  which  he  made  from  it,  were 
published  in  the  Archaeologia,  voL  VII.  entitled  w  Collec- 
tions on  the  Zingara,  or  Gypsey  language." 

In  1783  was  printed,  at  the  expence  of  the  duke  of 

BRYANT.  20f 

Marlborough,  for  private  distribution,  that  splendid  work, 
"  The  Marlborough  Gems,"  under  the  title  of  "  Gemwa- 
rum  antiquarum  delectus  ex  praestantioribus  desumptus  ia 
Dactylotheca  Ducis  Marburiensis."     Thfc  6rst  volume  of 
the  exposition  of  these  gems  was  written  in  Latin  by  Mr. 
-Bryant,  and  translated  into  French  by  Mr.  Maty.     That  of 
the  second  was  written  by  Dr.  Cole,  prebendary  of  West- 
minster, and  translated  by  Mr.  Dutens.     The  friendship 
which  subsisted  between  Mr.  Bryant  and  the  family  of  his 
patron,  prompted  him  on  all  occasions  to.  attend  to  their 
wishes,  and  to  this  disposition  the  public  owe  his  "  Treatise 
on  the  Authenticity  of  the  Scriptures,  and  the  Truth  of  the 
Christian  Religion,"  1792,  8vo,  which  was  written  at  the 
request  of  the  dowager  lady  Pembroke,  and  is  an  excellent 
book  for  popular  instruction.     In  two  years  after  he  pub- 
lished a  large  volume,  entitled  "  Observations  upon  the 
Plagues  inflicted  upon  the  Egyptians ;  in  which  is  shewn 
the  peculiarity  of  those  judgments,  and  their  correspond- 
ence with  the  rites  and  idolatry  of  that  people ;  with  a 
*  prefatory  Discourse  concerning  the  Grecian  Colonies  from 
Egypt,"  8vo.     This  is  certainly  to  be  reckoned  amongst 
Mr.  Bryant's  best  performances,  and  as  such  will  be  stu- 
diously read. 

Professor  Dal z el  having  communicated  to  the  royal  so- 
ciety of  Edinburgh,  and  afterwards  published  in  a  separate 
volume,  M.  le  Chevalier's  "  Description  of  the  Plain  of 
Troy,"  Mr.  Bryant, '  who  many  years  before  had  not  only 
considered,  but  written  his  sentiments  on  the  Trojan  war, 
first  published,  in  1795,  his  Observations  on  M.  le  Cheva,- 
lier's  treatise,  and,  in  1796,  a  Dissertation  concerning  the 
war  itself,  and  the  expedition  of  the  Grecians  as  described 
by  Homer ;  with  the  view  of  shewing  that  no  such  expe- 
dition was  ever  undertaken,  and  that  no  such  city  in  Phry- 
gia  existed.  Of  this  singular  publication  we  shall  only 
notice,  that  on  the  one  side  it  has  been  remarked  that  "  for 
the  repose  of  Mr.  Bryant's  well-earned  fame,  it  probably 
would  have  been  better  had  this  dissertation  never  been 
written.  Even  the  high  authority  with  which  he  is  armed 
could  not  warrant  him  in  controverting  opinions  so  long 
maintained  and  established  among  historians,  and  in  dis- 
proving facts  so  well  attested  by  the  most  extensive  evi- 
dence.  Great  and  natural  was  the  surprize  of  the  literary 
world  on  the,  appearance  of  this  publication ;  and  very  few, 
if  any,  were  the  proselytes  to  the  new  doctrine  which  it 

VquVIL  P 

ftie  BRYANT. 

inculcates.  It  was  answered  by  Mr.  Gilbert  Wakefield,  in 
a  very  indecent  letter  to  Mr.  Bryant ;  and  in  a  style  more 
Worthy  of  the  subject  by  J.  B.  8.  Morrit,  esq.  of  Rokeby 
park,  near  Greta  bridge  ;"  and  by  Dr.  Vincent.  On  the 
other,  hand,  it  has  been  suggested,  that  "  the  testimony  of 
antiquity  goes  for  nothing  in  this  case,  as  the  whole  de- 
pends on  the  authority  of  Homer  ;  and  unless  authors  can 
be  cited  anterior  to  him,  or  coeval  with  him,  or  who  did 
not  derive  their  information  from  him,  or  some  of  his  tran- 
scribers, the  whble  history  of  the  war  .must  rest  on  his  au* 
thority ;  and  if  his  authority  were  equal  to  his  genius,  the 
transactions  which  he  records  would  stand  in  need  of  no 
other  support.  But,  certainly,  as  the  subject  stands  at 
present,  were  the  alternative  proposed  to  us,  we  would 
rather  reject  the  whole  as  a  fable,  than  receive  the  half  as 
authentic  history." 

In  the  following  year  Mr.  Bryant  submitted  to  the  pub* 
lie  a  work  of  a  different  kind  and  character,  under  the  title 
of  "  The  sentiments  of  Philo  Judeeus  concerning  the 
AOrOZ,  or  Word  of  God,  together  with  large  extracts  from 
his  writings,  compared  with  the  scriptures  in  many  other 
particular  and  essential  doctrines  of  the  Christian  reli- 
gion," 1797,  8vo.  But,  learned  and  curious  as  this  treatise 
unquestionably  is,  it  appears  to  have  interested  the  'gene- 
ral reader  less,  perhaps,  than  any  of  his  other  productions* 
In  addition  to  those  already  noticed  may  be  added  his 
"  Observations  on  famous  controverted  passages  -in  Justin 
Martyr  and  Josephus,"  and  a  pamphlet  addressed  to  Mr* 
Melmoth,  written  with  less  temper  than  fnigbt  have  been 
wished.  Mr.  Bryant  closed  his  labours  with  a  qfl&rto  vo- 
lume of  u  Dissertations  on  the  prophecy  of  Balaam  ;  the, 
standing  still  of  the  sun  in  the  time  of  Joshua;  the  jaw* 
bone  of  the  ass  with  which  Samson  slew  the  Philistines; 
and  the  history  of  Jonah  and  the  whale :"  subjects  in  them* 
selves  exceedingly  curious,  and  treated  with  much  inge* 
nuity;  but  these  tracts  having  been  written  above  thirty 
years  betfdre,  Mr.  Bryant,  in  revising,  made  so  many  aU 
terations,  as,  through  a  defect  of  memory,  render  the 
remarks  in  one  part  inconsistent  with  those  in  another, 
which  materially  diminished  the  value  of  the  whole.  Other 
writings  to  a  considerable  extent  remain  in  the  hands  of 
his  executor,  and  various  small  poems,  verses,  &c.  are 
still  recollected  as  the  production  of  his  early  years.  Of 
this  sort  were  his  incomparable  verses  to  Bel  Cooke ;  bis. 

B  E  Y  A  N  T.  211 

ludifcrous  dissertation  on  pork,  and  his  apotheosis  of  a  cat, 
juvenile  pieces,  which  show  that  he  had  a  ^considerable  ta- 
lent for  humour. 

In  forming  a  general  estimate  of  Mr.  Bryant's  literary 
character,  it  will  be  found  that,  as  a  classical  scholar,  he 
had  few  equals;  his  acquaintance  with  history,  and  the  , 
topics  of  general  information,  was  of  very  uncommon  ex- 
tent, but  from  the  want  of  Oriental  literature,  and  the 
stricter  sciences,  he  yielded  too  often  to  the  impulses  of 
a  vigorous  fancy.  It  will,  notwithstanding,  be  found  from 
repeated  perusals  of  his  writings,  that  be  deservedly  ranks 
amongst  the  first  men  of  his  age,  and  from  having  conse- 
crated his  great  talents  and  acquisitions  to  the  service  of 
religion,  will  be  ever  entitled  to  the  veneration  of  mankind. 

In  his  person  Mr.  Bryant  was  lower  and  more  delicately 
formed  than  men  in  general,  and,  consequently,  less  ca- 
pable of  strong  exercise :  but  in  early  life  he  had  great 
agility,  particularly  in  swimming,  a  circumstance  which 
enabled  him  to  save  Dr.  Barnard,  afterward  head-master 
tff  Eton,  when  drowning.  In  his  ordinary  habits  of  life  he 
was  remarkable  for  his  temperance,  and  though  his  time 
arid  studies  were  principally  devoted  to  literature  and  the 
pursuit  of  truth,  yet  his  conversation  with  those  he  re- 
ceived and  conversed  with  was  uncommonly  sprightly,  as 
he  never  failed  to  mix  entertaining  anecdote  with  instruc- 
tion. In  his  person  he  w^s  particularly  neat,  and  in  his 
deportment  courteous.  His  liberality  was  often  conspL* 
cuous,  and  the  spirit  of  religion  diffused  itself  through  all 
bis  actions.  As  few  comparatively  live  so  long,  instances 
of  such  exemplary  merit  can  but  rarely  be  found.  He 
tried,  after  a  long  residence  at  Cypenham,  near  Windsor, 
Nov.  14,  1804,  of  a^mortincation  in  his  leg,  occasioned  by 
a  hurt  from  the  tilting  of  a  chair  in  reaching  down  a  book  - 
from  its'  shelf.  At  his  own  desire,  Mr.  Bryant  was  interred 
in  his  parish  church,  beneath  the  seat  he  there  occupied. 
He  left  his  valuable  library  to  King's  college,  Cambridge ; 
20002.  to  the  society  for  propagating  the  gospel,  and  10OQ/t 
to  the  superannuated  collegers  of  Eton  school,  to  be  dis- 
posed of  as  the  provost  and  fellows  think  proper.  * 

ERYDAL,  or  BRIDAL  (John),  a  law-writer  and  an- 
tiquary, son  and  heir  of  John  Brydal,  esq.  of  the  Rolls 

1  From  various  periodical  Journals.— Rees'tf  and  Brewster's  Cyclopedia.— » 
Baldwin'*  Literary  Journal,  vol.  IV.— Monthly  and  Crit.  Reviewi.— >NichoU'» 
Life  of  Bowyer.— Q*nL  Mag .  ke. 

T   2 

212  fe  R  Y  D  A  L. 


Liberty,  was  born  in  Somersetshire  about  1635,  and  be* 
came  a  commoner  of  Queen's  college,  Oxford,  in  Michael* 
mas  term,   1651,  where  he  took  a  degree. in  arts  in  1655, 
but  left  the  university   without  completing    it  by  deter- 
mination.    He  then  settled  iu  Lincoln's  inn,  and  after  the 
usual  course  of  law  studies  was  admitted  to  the  bar.    After 
the  restoration  he  became  secretary  to  sir  Harbottle  Grim- 
ston,  master  of  the  rolls.     When  he  died  is  uncertain,  as 
he  survived  the  publication  of  Wood's  Athens,  from  which  , 
we  have  extracted  this  brief  notice  of  him,  but  he  appears 
to  have   been  living  in  1704.     He  published  several  law 
treatises,  some  of  which  are  still  in  estimation  :  1.  "  Jus 
imaginis  apud  Anglos,  or  the  Law  of  England  relating  to 
the  Nobility  and  tientry,"  1671,  1675,  8vo.     2.  "Jus  Si- 
gilli;  or  the  law  of  England  touching  the  four  principal 
Seals,  the  great  seal,  privy  seal,  exchequer  seal,  and  the 
signet ;  also  those  grand  officers  to  whose  custody  those 
seals  are  committed,'9  1673,  24mo.     3.  "  Speculum  Juris 
Anglicani ;  or  a  view  4>f  the  Laws  of  England,  as  thejf  are 
divided  into  statutes,  common-law,  and  customs,"   1673, 
8vo.     4.  "  Jus  criminis,  or  an  abridgment  of  the  laws  of 
treason,    murther,   conspiracies,    poisonings,   &c."    1675, 
1679,  £vo.     5.  "  Camera  Regis,  or  a  short  view  of  Lon- 
don, viz.  antiquity,  &c.  officers,    courts,   customs,   fran- 
chises," &c.  1676,  8vo.    6.  "  Decus  et  tutamen  ;  or  a  pro- 
spect of  the  laws  of  England,  framed  for  die  safeguard  of 
the  king's  majesty,"  1679,  8vo.     7.  "  Ars  transferendi ;  of 
sure  guide  to  the  conveyancer,"   1697,   8vo.     8.  "  Non 
compos  mentis  ;  or,  the  law  relating  to  natural  fools,  mad 
folks,  and  lunatic  persons,"  L700,  8vo.     t.  "  Lex  Spurio- 
rum ;  or,  the  law  relating  to  bastardy,  collected  from  the 
common,  civil,  and  ecclesiastical  laws,"   1703,  8 vo.     10. 
"  Declaration  of  the  divers  preheminences  or  privileges 
allowed  by  the  laws  and  customs  of  England,  unto  the  first* 
born  among  her  majesty's  subjects  the  temporal  lords  in 
parliament,"  1704,  fol.     Wood  adds  another  .work,  "Jura 
Coronas;  or,  his  majesty's  royal  rights  and  prerogatives 
asserted  against  papal  usurpations,   and   all  other  anti- 
monarchical  attempts  and  practices,"   1680,  8vo, l 

BRYDGES  (Sir  Grey,  Lord  Chandos),   a  man  of 
abilities,  succeeded  his  father  William,  fourth  lord  Chan- 

*  Wood's  Athena,  rod.  II.— Cottier's  Diet  where,  father  and  son  seem  to  be 
confounded,  but  what  Collier  tajs  ^evidently  belongs  to  the  f&ther.^-Wortalfe 


B  R.Y  D6E«,  213 

ttos,  in  Nov:  1602.  He  was  a  friend  of  the  earl  of  Essex, 
in  whose  insurrection  he  was  probably  involved,  for  h& 
name  appears  on  the  list  of  prisoners  confined  in  the  Fleet 
on  that  account,  Feb.  1 600.  He  was  made  a  kpight  of  the 
bath  at  the  creation  of  Charles  duke  of  York,  Jan.  1604* 
and  in  August  1605  was  created  M.  A.  at  Oxford,  the  king 
being  present.  He  was  an  associate  of  that  active  and 
romantic  character,  lord  Herbert  of  Cherbury,  and  appears 
to  have  volunteered  his  services  in  the  Low  Countries, 
when  the  prince  of  Orange  besieged  the  city  of  J uliers.  in 
1610,  and  the  Low  Country  army  was  assisted  by  four 
thousand  English  soldiers,  under  the  command  of  sir  Ed- 
ward Cecil.  From  the  great  influence  which  his  hospitality 
and  popular  manners  afterwards  obtained  in  Gloucester- 
shire, and  his  numerous  attendants  when  he  visited  the 
court,  he  was  styled  king  of  Cotswould,  the  tract  of  coun- 
try on  the  edge  of  which  his  castle  of  Sudeley  was  situated. 
On  November  18,  1617,  he  was  appointed  to  receive  and 
introduce  the  Muscovite  ambassadors,  who  had  brought 
costly  presents  from  their  master  to  the  king.  He  died 
August  20,  1621.  There  is  no  doubt,  says  sir  EgertQU 
Brydges  (by  whom  the  preceding  notices  were  drawn  to- 
gether) that  lord  Chandos  was  a  mail  of  abilities  $ts  well  as 
splendid  habits  of  life,  and  by  no  means  a  literary  recluse, 
although  be  is  supposed  to  have  been  the  author  of  "  Horte 
subsecirs,  Observations  and  Discourses,"  Lond.  1620,  8vo, 
a  work  containing  a  fund  of  good  sense  and  shrewd  remark. 
In  sir  John  Beaumont's  poems  are  some  lines  on  his  death, 
highly  expressive  of  an  excellent  character.  *  . 

BRYE  (Theodore  de),  an  eminent  engraver,  was  born 
In  1528,  at  Leige,  but  resided  chiefly  at  Francfort,  where 
he  carried  on  a  considerable  commerce  in  prints.  It  does 
not  appear  to  what  master  he  owed  his  instructions  in  the 
art,  but  the  works  of  Sebast  Beham  were  certainly  of  great 
service  to  him.  He  copied  many  of  the  plates  engraved 
by  that  artist,  and  seems  to  have  principally  formed  his 
taste  from  them.  He  worked  almost  entirely  with  .the 
graver,  and  -seldom  called  in  the  assistance  of  the  point. 
He  acquired  a  neat,  free  style  of  engraving,  well  adapted 
to  smalt  subjects  in  which  many  figures  were  to  be  repre- 
sented, as  funeral  parades,  processions,  &c.  which  he  ese- 

\  Park's  Royal   and  Noble  Autbors>  toI,  II.— Censura  Literaria*  vol,  V.-* 
English  Poets,  yoi  VI.  p.  40. 

il*  BRYE. 

cuted  in  a  charming  manner.  He  also  drew  very  correctly. 
His  heads,  in  gefteral,  are  spirited  and  expressive,  and  the 
other  extremities  of  his  figures  well-marked.  His  back- 
grounds, though  frequently  very  slight,  are  touched  with  a 
masterly  hand.  He  died,  as  his  sons  inform  us  (in  the 
third  part  of  Boissard's  collection  of  portraits),  March  27, 
1 598.  The  two  first  parts  of  that  collection  were  engraved 
by  De  Brye,  assisted  by  his  sons,  who  afterwards  con- 
tinued it. 

His  great  works  are,  1.  "  The  plates  for  the  first  four 
Volumes  of  Boissard's  *  Roman  Antiquities'. "  2.  Those 
for  the  illustration  of  "  The  Manners  and  Customs  of  the 
Virginians,*'  in  the  "  Brief  true  repoTt  of  the  new  found 
land  of  Virginia,  published  by  Thomas  Hariot,  servant  to 
sir  Walter  Raleigh,  &c."  Francfort,  1 5U0.  3.  The  plates 
to  the  Latin  narrative 'of  the  u  Cruelties  of  the  Spaniards 
in  America,'*  1598  ;  and  4.  his  greatest  work,  "  Descriptio 
Indiae  Ortentalis  et  Occidentalis,"  1598,  5  vols.  fol.  He 
published  also  many  detached  plates,  the  most  remarkable 
ind  scarce  of  which  is  the  "Procession  for  the  funeral  of 
sir  Philip  Sidney.1'  This  is  a  long  roll,  contrived  and  in- 
Tented  by  Thomas  Lant,  gent,  servant  of  that  honourable 
knight,  and  engraven  in  copper  by  Derith  or  Theodore  de 
Brie,  in  the  city  of  London,  1578."  Prefixed  is  the  por- 
trait of  Mr.  Lant,  aged  thirty-two.  It  contains  thirty 
plates  (in  the  copy  we  have  seen,  but  Strutt  says  thirty- 
four)  and  has  usually  been  considered  as  the  first  English 
work  by  De  Brye.  There  was  a  copy  in  Mr.  Gough's  col- 
lection, which  was  purchased  at  his  sale  in  1810  by  sir 
Joseph  Banks  for  thirty-eight  guineas.  Mr.  Strutt  describes 
another  roll  by  De  Brye,  representing  the  procession  of 
the  knights  of  the  garter  in  1576,  which  was  considered  as 
unique.  The  copy  belonged  to  the  late  6ir*John  Fenn; 
De  Brye's  two  sons  were  engravers,  but  nothing  is  re- 
corded of  them,  unless,  as  already  noticed,  that  they  con- 
tinued Boissard's  portraits  and  Roman  antiquities.1 

BRYENNIUS  (Nicephorus),  was  a  native  of  Orestia, 
in  Macedonia,  and  married  the  princess  Anna  Comneira, 
daughter  of  Alexius  Comnenus,  who  raised  him  to  the 
rank  of  Caesar,  but  declined  announcing  him  as  his  suc- 
cessor in  prejudice  of  his  own  son.  After  the  death  of 
Alexius,  the  empress  Irene  and  her  daughter  Anna  at- 

1  Strait1!  Diet— Lord  Orford's  £ngraver9. 


tempted  to  elevate  Bryemnus  to  the  empire,  but  he  re- 
fused to  concur  iu  the  plot.  Having  been  sent  in  LI 37  Va 
besiege  Antioch,  he  fell  sick,  and  returning  to  Constant 
tinople,  died  in  that  city.  His  history  of  the  reigns  of 
Isaac  Comnenus  and  of  the  three  succeeding  emperors, 
was  comprised  in  four  books,  and  published  with  a  Latin 
translation,  by  the  Jesuit  Poussines,  at  Paris,  in  1661,  tQ 
which  the  annotations  of  Du  CangQ  were  annexed  in 

BRYENNiyS  (Manujs;*.),  tbQ  last  writer  on  music  in 
the  Greek  language  that.  has.  come  tQ  our  knowledge, 
flourished  upder  the  elder  Pal^eologqs,  about  the  ye^r 
1320,  audit  is  probable  that  he  was  a  descendant  of  th$ 
house  of  Brienne,  an  ancient  French  family,  that  weitf 
into  Greece  during  the  crusa^^s,  at  the  beginning  of  the 
thirteenth  century.  His  work  is,  divided  inlp  three  books* 
all  which  are  confined  tp  harmonics;  the  first  is  a  kind  of 
commentary  on  Euclid;  and  the  second  and  third  .Ifctit 
more  than  explanations  qf  the  doctrines  of  Ptolemy  t  M$i-> 
bomius  bad  promised  a  Latin  translation  of  this  book*  bjrt 
dying  before  it  was  finished,  Dr.  Wallis  perforated  tin? 
task,  and  it  now  constitutes  a  part  of  the  third  volume  of 
his  works,  published  at  Oxford,  1699,  3  vols,  fpl, 2 

BIJATtNANCAY  (Louis  Qasjiiel  pu),  ch/svalier  and 
count  of  Nan$ay,  was  born  near  Livarpt,  in  Normandy, 
March  2,  1732,  and  died  pn  his  estate  at  Nan<jay>  Sept. 
13,  1787.  He  was  minister  plenipotentiary  in  most  of 
the  courts  pf  Germany,  and  having  a  great  taste  for  Jus^ 
tpry,  politics,  and  antiquities,  passed  much  of  his  time  in 
pursuits  calculated  to  gratify  it  He  published  the  fol- 
lowing works,  all  of  which  were  well  received  by  hb 
toqntrymen:  I.  "Tableau  de  gouvernement  de  1'Alle- 
roagpe,"  1755,  12mo.  2*  "  Origines,  ou  1'ancien  gour 
vernement  de  la  France,  de  I'Altemagne,  et  cje  1' Italic,'* 
Hague,  1757,  4  vols,  Svo.  3.  "  L'Histoire  ancieppp  dea 
peuples  de  l'Europe,"  1772,  12  vols.  l£mo,  -4.  <Mle- 
cherches  sur  l'Histoire  d'Allemagne,"  1770*  2  vols.  fol« 
5.  "  Maximes  du  gouvernement  monarchiqi^"  1799, 
4  vols.  $vo,  and  several  other  dissertations  on  subjects  of 
history  and  politics,  He  wa$  aUo  autlvor  of  ft  tragedy 
named  "  Charlemagne,"  printed,  and  of  another,  u  Rosa*- 
ipond,"  which  remains  in  manuscript, 3 

1  Moreri. — Dupin. 

*  Burney'B  Hist,  of  Mwic,  vol.  H.-p-Ries's  CydopwdJa.  »:DtUt,Uikt, 

216  B  U  C. 

BUC  (George),  a  learned  antiquary,  was  born  in  Lin- 
colnshire, in  the  sixteenth  century,  and  flourished  in  the 
beginning  of  the  seventeenth.  He  was  descended  from 
the  ancient  family  of  the  Bucs,  or  Buckes,  of  West  Stan- 
ton, and  Herthill,  in  Yorkshire,  and  Melford-bal!>  in  Suf- 
folk. His  great-grandfather,  sir  John  Buc,  knight,  was 
one  >  of  king  Richard  the  Third's  favourites,  and  attended 
that  unfortunate  prince  to  the  battle  of  Boswortb,  where 
he  lost  his  crown  and  life.  In  the  first  parliament  of  king 
Henry  VII.  this  sir  John  Bue  was  attainted  for  being  one 
of  the  chief  aiders  and  assistants  to  the  king  just  now  men-* 
tioned,  in  the  battle  of  Boswortb,  and  soon  after  was  be- 
headed at  Leicester.  By  this  -attainder  bis  posterity  were 
reduced  to  very  great  distress ;  but,  through  the  interest 
6f  Thomas  duke  of  Norfolk,  the  great  patron  of  the  fa- 
mily, they  had  probably  some  of  their  estates  restored  to 
them,  and,  among  others,  that  in  Lincolnshire,  where  our 
author  was  born.  In  the  reign  of  king  James  I.  he  was  made 
oftg'of  the  gentlemen  of  his  majesty's  privy-chamber,  and 
Knighted.  He  was  also  constituted  master  of  the  revels, 
Wnose  officie  was  then  kept  on  St.  Peter's-hill,  in  London. 
What  he  mostly  distinguished  himself  by,  was  writing 
"  The  Life  and  Reign  of  Richard  III.  in  five  books," 
whereiny  in  opposition  to  the  whole  body  of  English  his- 
torians, he  endeavours  to  represent  that  prince's  person 
and*  actions  in  a  quite  different  light  from  what  they  have 
been  by  others;  and  takes  great  pains  to  wipe  off  the 
bloody  stains  that  have  been  fixed  upon  his  character.  He 
has  also  written  :  "  The  third  universitie  of  England  ;  or, 
a  treatise  of  the  foundations  of  all  the  colledges,  ancient 
schooles  of  priviledge,  and  of  houses  of  learning,  and  libe- 
rall  arts,  within  and  about  the  most  famous  citie  of  London. 
With  a  briefe  report  of  the  sciences,  arts,  and  faculties 
therein  professed,  studied,  and  practised/'  And  a  treatise 
of  *'  The  Art  of  Revels."  Mr.  Camden  gives  him  the  cha- 
racter of  "  a  person  of  excellent  learning,"  and  thankfully* 
acknowledges  that  he  "  remarked  many  things  in  his  his-; 
toriet,  and  courteously  communicated  his  observations  to 
bim/'  He  has  since  received  very  able  support,  and 
Richard  III.  has  found  a  powerful  advocate  in  Horace 
Walpole,  the  late  lord  Orford,  who  in  his  "Historic 
Doubts"  has,  with  much  ingenuity,  at  least,  shewn  that 
the  evidence  produced  in  confirmation  of  Richard's  crimes, 
is  fa*  from  being  decisive.    But  we  have  now  an  "  historic : 


.BUC.  217 

doubt"  to  bring  forward  of  more  importance  to  the  pre* 
sent  article,  which  we  find  in  a  note .  on  Malone's  Shak- 
speare,  in  the  following  words :  il  I  take  this  opportunity 
of  correcting  an  error  into  which  Anthopy  Wood  has  fallen, 
and  which  has  been  implicitly  adopted  in  the  new  edition 
of  the  Btographia  Britannica,  and  many  other  books.  The 
error  I  allude  to,  is,  that  this  sir  George  Buc,  who  was 
knighted  at  Whitehall  by  king  James  the. day  before  his 
coronation,  July  23,  160&,  was  the  author  *>f  the  cele- 
brated i '  History  of  king  Richard  the  Third  ;'  which  was. 
written « above  twenty  years  after  his  death,  by  George 
Buck,  esq.  who  was,  I  suppose,  his  son.  The  precise 
time  of  the  father's  death,  I  have  not  been  able  to  ascer- 
tain,  'there  being  no  will  of  his  in  the  prerogative  office  ;. 
but  Lbave  reason  to  believe  that  it  happened  soon  after 
the  year  1622.    He  certainly  died  before  August  1629." 

In  answer  to  thi%  Mr.  Ritson  asserts  that  there  can  be 
no  doubt  \  of  the  fact,  that  sir  George  Buc  was  the  author 
of  this  History,  although  published,  and  said  in  the  title 
to  be  "  composed  by  George  Bucke,  esq."  in  1646,  his 
original  MS,  (though  much  injured  by  fire)  being  still 
preserved  among  the  Cotton  MSS.  *  Mr.  Ritson  adds  that 
sir  George  died  in  4623.  He  has  also  enrolled  him 
among  his  poets,  on  account  of  "An  Eclog  treating  of 
crownes,  and  of  garlandes,  and  to  whom  of  right  they 
appertaine.  Addressed  and  consecrated  to  the  king* s  ma- 
jestie,"   1605,  4to,  and  of  some  other  verses. 

Sir  George  Buc's  History  of  Richard  is  printed  in  Ken- 
net's  Complete  History  of  England,  and  his  "  Third  Uni- 
versale" first  printed  in  1615,  fol.  is  appended  to  Stowe's 
Chronicle,  by  Howes,   163 l;1 

BUCER  (Martin),  an  eminent  German  reformer,  was 
born  in  1491,  at  Schelestadt,  a  town  of  Alsace.  At  the 
age  of  seven  he  took  the  religious  habit  in  the  order  of  St. 
Dominic,  and  with  the  leave  of  the  prior  of  his  convent, 
went  to  Heidelberg  to  learn  logic  and  philosophy.  Having 
applied  himself  afterwards  to  divinity,  he  made  it  his  en-, 
deavour  to  acquire  a  thorough  knowledge  of  the  Greek 
and  Hebrew.  About  this  time  some  of  Erasmus's  pieces 
came  abroad,  which  he  read  with  great  avidity,  and 
meeting  afterwards  with  certain  tracts  of  Luther,  and  com- 

1  B'wg.  Brit. — Ritson's  Bibliograpbia  Poetica. — Archaeologia,  vol.  I.  p.  xix. 
tol.  IX.  p.  134. 


paring  the  doctrine  there  delivered  with  the  sacred  scrip- 
tures,   he  began  to  entertain  doubts  concerning  several 
things  in  the  popish  religion.     His  uncommon  learning 
and  his  eloquence,  which  was  assisted  by  a  strong  and 
musical  voice,  and  his  free  censure  of  the  vices  of  the 
times,  recommended  him  to  Frederick  elector  palatine* 
who  made   him  one  of  hw  chaplains.     After  some  con- 
ferences with  Luther,  at  Heidelberg,  in  1 52 ! ,  lie  adopted 
nrjost  of  his  religious  notions,  particularly  those  with  re- 
gard to  justification.     However,    in    1532,    he  gave  the 
preference  to  the  sentiments  of  ZuingHus,  but  used  bis 
utmost  endeavours  to  re-unite  the  two  parties,  who  both 
opposed  the  Romish  religion.     He  is  looked  upon  as  one 
of  the  first  authors  of  the  reformation  at  Strasburg,  where 
he  taught  divinity  for  twenty  years,  and  was  one  of  the 
ministers  of  the  town.     He  assisted  at  many  conferences 
concerning  religion ;  and  in  1548,  was  sent  for  to  Augs- 
burg to  sign  that  agreement  betwixt  the  Protestants  and 
Papists,  which  was  called  the  Interim.     His  warm  oppo* 
sition  to  this  project  exposed  him  to  many  difficulties  and 
harships ;  the  news  of  which  reaching  England,  where  his 
fame  had  already  arrived,  Cranmer,  archbishop  of  Canter* 
bury,    gave   him   an  invitation  to  come  over,  which  he 
readily  accepted.     In   1549  an  handsome  apartment  waa 
assigned  him  in  the  university  of  Cambridge,   and  a  salary 
to  teach  theology.     King  Edward  VI.  bad  the  greatest  re- 
gard for  him  ;  being  told  that  he  was  very  sensible  of  the 
cold  of  this  climate,  and  suffered  much  for  want  of  a  Ger- 
man stove,  he  sent  him  an  hundred  crowns  to  purchase  one. 
He  died  of  a  complication  of  disorders,  in  1551,  and  was 
buried  at  Cambridge,  in  St.  Mary's  church,  with  great  fu-> 
neral  pomp.     Five  years  after,  in  the  reign  of  queen  Mary, 
his  body  was  dug  up  and  publicly  burnt,  and  his  tomb  de- 
molished ;  but  it  was  afterwards  set  up  again  by  order  of 
queen  Elizabeth.     He  married  a  nun,  by  whom  he  had 
thirteen  children.     This  woman  dying  of  the  plague,  he 
married  another,  and,  according  to  some,  upon  her  death,- 
be  took  a  third  wife.     His  character  is  thus  given  by  Burnet : 
u  Martin  Bucer  was  a  very  learned,  judicious,  pious,  and 
moderate  person.     Perhaps  he  was  inferior  to  none  of  all 
the  reformers  for  learning ;  but  for  zeal,  for  true  piety, 
and  a  most  tender  care  of  preserving  unity  among  the  fo- 
reign churches,  Melancthon  and  he,  without  any  injury 
done  to  the  rest,  may  be  ranked  apart  by  themselves.     He 

B  U  C  E  R.  *1» 

was  mock  opposed  by  the  Popish  party  at  Cambridge; 
who,  though  they  complied  with  the  law,  ami  s6  kept  tfifeir 
places,  yet,  either  in  the  way  of  argument,  as  if  it  had 
been  for  disputed  sake,  or  i-H  such  point 9  as  were  not  de- 
termined, set  themselves  much  to  lessen  his  esteetft.  Nor 
was  he  furnished  naturally  with  that  quickness  that  is  ne- 
cessary for  <a  disputant,  from  which  they  studied  to  draw 
advantages  ;  and  therefore  Peter  Martyr  wrote  to  him  to 
avoid  all  public  disputes."  His  writings  were  in  Latin: 
and  in  German,  and  so  numerous,  that  it  is  computed  they 
would  form  eight  or  nine  folio  volumes.  H19  anxiety  to 
reconcile  the  'Lutherans  and  Zuinglians  led  him  to  use 
many  general'  aitd  perhaps  ambiguous  expresskms  in  his 
writings.  He  seems  to  have  thought  Luther's  notion,  of 
the  sacrament  too  strong,  and  that  of  Zuinglius  too  weak. 
Verbeiden  in  Latin,  and  Lupton  in  English,  have  given  a 
list  of  his  works,  but  without  size  or  dates. -1 

BUCHAN  (Elspeth,  or  Elizabeth)*  the  foundress  of  a 
set  of  modern  fanatics,  and  the  daughter  of  John  Simpson', 
the  keeper  of  an  inn  at  Fitmy-Can,  the  half-way  house 
between  Banff  and  Portsoy,  in  the  north  of  Scotland,  was 
born  in  173$;  and,  when  she  had  completed  her  one~and~ 
twentieth  year,  was  sent  to  Glasgow,  where  she  entered  into 
the  service  of  Mr.  Martin,  one  of  the  principal  proprietors  of 
the  Delfts  work  there.  In  this  situation  she  had  remained 
but  a  short  time,  when  she  accepted  proposals  of  marriage 
from  Robert  Buchan,  one  of  the  workmen  in  the  service 
of  the  same  Mr.  Martin.  Fo^  some  years,  Robert  and 
Elspetb  Buchan  lived  happily  together,  having  many  chil- 
dren* whom  they  educated  in  'a  manner  suitable  to  their 
station  in  life.  At  the  time  of  her  marriage,  Mrs.  Buchan 
was  of  the  episcopal  persuasion,  but  the  hdsband  being  a 
bnrgher-seceder,  she  adopted  his  principles,  and  entered 
into  communion  with  that  sect  She  had  always  been  a  con- 
stant reader  of  the  scriptures ;  and  taking  a  number  of 
passages  in  a  strictly  literal  sense,  she  changed  her  opi- 
nions about  the  year  177*,  became  the  promulgator  of  many 
singular  doctrines,  and  soon  brought  over  to  her  notions 
Mr.  Hugh  Whyte,    a  dissenting  minister  at  Irvine,  and 

1  Melchior  Adam  in  vitis  Theologoruni.— Batesii  Vita,  p.  25.0.-— Strype** 
Life  of  sir  John  Cheke. — Gen.  Diet. — Mosheim  and  Mil  tier. — Verheiden's  Effi- 
gies.— Lupton's  Lives. — Fuller's  Abel  Redivivus. — Burnet's  Hist,  of  the  Refor- 
mation, and  StrypeXLives  of  the  Archbishop*,  Annate  and  Memorials.  Several 
MSS.  respecting  him  are  in  the  library  of  C,  C.  Callege,  Cambridge,  the  British 
Museum,  &c. 

320  B.UCHA  N. 

connected  with  Mr.  Bell  in  Glasgow,  and  Mr.  Bain  in 
Edinburgh  ;  and  who,  upon  Mr.  Whyte's  abdication  of  bi» 
charge,  settled  Mr.  Robertson  in  his  place  at  Irvine.  She 
went  on  continually  making  new  converts  till  April  1790, 
at  which  time  the  populace  in  Irvine  rose,  assembled 
round  Mr.  Whyte's  house,  and  broke  all  the  windows; 
when  Mrs.  Buchan  and  the  whole  of  her  converts,  of  whom 
the  above-mentioned  were  a  part,  to  the  number  of  forty* 
six  persons,  left  Irvine.  The  Buchanites  (for  so  they  were 
immediately  called)  went  through  Mauchlin,  Cumnock  old 
and  new,  halted  three  days,  at  Kirconnel,  passed  through 
Sanquhar  and  Thoruhill,  and  then  settled  at  a  farm-house, 
the  out-houses  of  which  they  had  all  along  possessed,  pay- 
ing for  them,  as  well  as  for  whatever  they  wanted. 

The  gentleman  from  whom  this  narrative  was  received, 
being  a  merchant  in  Glasgow,  and  having  occasion  to  go 
to  that  country*  spent  a  great  part  of  two  days  in  their 
company  in  August  1784,  conversing  with  most  of  them  ; 
and  from  him  we  shall  give  what  he  was  able  to  pick  up  of 
their  particular  notions : 

"  The  Buchanites  pay  great  attention  to  the  bible ;  be- 
ing always  reading  it,  or  having  it  in  their  pocket,  or  under 
their  arm,  proclaiming  it  the  best  book  in  the  world.  They 
read,  sing  hymns,  preach,  and  converse  much  about  reli- 
gion ;  declaring  the  last  day  to  be  at  hand,  and  that  no 
one  of  all  their  company  shall  ever  die,  or  be  buried  in  the 
earth ;  but  soon  shall  hear  the  voice  of  the  last  trumpet, 
when  all  the  wicked  shall  be  struck  dead,  and  remain  so 
for  one  thousand  years :  at  the  same  moment  they,  the  Bu- 
chanites, shall  undergo  an  agreeable  change,  shall  be 
caught  up  to  meet  the  Lord  in  the  air,  from  whence  they 
shall  return  to  this  earth,  in  company  with  the  Lord  Jesus, 
with  whom  as  their  king  they  shall  possess  this  earth  one 
thousand  years,  the  devil  being  bound  with  a  chain  in  the 
interim.  At  the  end  of  one  thousand  years,  the  devil  shall 
be  loosed,  the  wicked  quickened,  both  shall  assail  th£ir 
camp,  but  be  repulsed,,  with  the  devil  at  their  head,  while 
they  fight  valiantly  under  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  as  their 

"  Since  the  Buchanites  adopted  their  principles,  they 
neither  marry,  nor  are  given  in  marriage,  nor  consider 
themselves  bound  to  any  conjugal  duties,  or  mind  to  in- 
dulge themselves  in  any  carnal  enjoyments;  but  having 
one  common  purse  for  their  cash,  they  are  all  sisters  and 

ftuaHAU,  221 

brothers,  living  a  holy  life  as  the  angels  of  God ;  and  be- 
ginning and  continuing  in  the  same  holy  life,  they  shall 
live. under  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  their  king,  after  his  se- 
cond coming.  The  Buchanites  follow  no  industry,  being 
commanded  to  take  no  thought  of  to-morrow ;  but,  observ- 
ing how  the  young  ravens  are  fed,  and  how  the  lilies  grow, 
th^y.  assure  themselves  God  will  much  more  feed  and  clothe 
them.  They,  indeed,  sometimes  work  at  mason-wright 
and  husbandry  work  to  people  in  their  neighbourhood  ;  but 
then  they  refuse  all  wages,  or  any  consideration  whatever, 
but  declare  their  whole  object  in  working  at  all  is  to  mix 
with  the  world,  and  inculcate  those  important  truths  of 
which  they  themselves  are  so  much  persuaded. 

"  Some  people  call  Mrs.  Buchan  a  witch ;  which  she 
treats  with  contempt.  Others  declare  she  calls  herself  the 
virgin  Mary, .which  title  she  also  refuses;  declaring  she 
has  more  to  boast  of,  *  viz.  that  the  virgin  Mary  was  only 
Christ's  mother  after  the  flesh,  whereas  she  assures  herself 
to  be  Christ's  daughter  after  the  spirit. 

"  Her  husband  is  still  in  the  burgher-secession  commu- 
nion ;  and  when  I  asked  Mrs.  Buchan,  and  others  of  the 
Buchanites  who  knew  me,  if  they  had  any  word  to  any  of 
vtbeir.  acquaintances  in  Glasgow?  they  all  declared  they 
minded  not  former  things  and  former  connections;  but 
that  the  whole  of  their  attention  was  devoted  to  their  fel- 
low-saints, the  living  a  holy  life,  and  thereby  hastening 
the  second  coming  of  their  Lord  Jesu&  Christ." 

Mrs.  Buchan  died  about  the  beginning  of  May  1791  ; 
and  as  her  followers  were  before  greatly  reduced  in  num- 
ber, it  is  probable  that  nothing  more  will  be  heard  of  them*1 
BUCHAN  (William),  a  medical  writer  of  great  popu- 
larity, descended  of  a  respectable  family  in  Roxburghshire, 
was  born  at  Ancram  in  the  year  1729.  Having  passed 
through  the  usual  school  education,  he  Was  sent  to  the 
university  at  Edinburgh.  His  inclination  leading  him  to 
mathematics,  he  became  so  considerable  a  proficient  in 
that  branch  of  science,  as  to  be  enabled  to  give  private 
lessons  to  many  of  the  pupils.  Having  made  choice  of  me* 
dicine  for  his  profession,  he  attended  the  lectures  of  the 
•everal  professors,  necessary,  to  qualify  him  for  practice; 
aud  as  he  was  of  a  studious  turn  of  mind,  his  progress  in 
knowledge  may  be  supposed  to  have  been  equal  to  bis  ap^ 

*  L»*t  e4&on  of  thU  DtyfoMrjr. 

283  BUCHA  N. 

.  After  having  passed  a  period  of  not  less  tfean  nine  years 
at  the  university,  he  first  settled  in  practice  at  Sheffield, 
in  Yorkshire.  He  was  soon  afterwards  elected  physician  to 
a  large  branch  of  the  Foundling  hospital  then  established  at 
Ackwortb.  In  the  course  of  two  years  he  reduced  the  an- 
nual number  of  deaths  among  the  children  from  one  half 
( to  one  in  fifteen ;  and  by  the  establishment  of  due  regula- 
tions for  the  preservation  of  health,  greatly  diminished  the 
previously  hurthensome  expense  of  medical  attendance. 
In  this  situation,  he  derived  from  experience  that  know- 
ledge of  the  complaints,  and  of  the  general  treatment  of 
children,  wbicl*  was  afterwards  published  in  "  The  Do- 
mestic Medicine,"  and  in  the  "  Advice  to  Mothers  ;** 
works  which,  considering  their  very  general  Affusion,  have 
no  doubt  tended  to  ameliorate  the  treatment  of  children, 
and  consequently  to  improve  the  constitutions  of  the  pre* 
sent  generation  of  the  inhabitants  of  this  country.  Wheri 
that,  institution  was  dissolved,  in  coosequeoce  of  parliament 
withdrawing  their  support  from  it,  Dr  Bucfaan  returned  to 
Edinburgh,  where  he  became  a  fellow  of  the  royal  college 
of  physicians,  and  settled  in  the  practice  of  his  profession, 
relying  in  some  measure  on  the  countenance  and  support 
of  the  relations  of  the  lady  he  married,  who  was-  of  4  re- 
spectable  family  in  that  city.  On  the  death  of  one  of  the 
professors,  the  doctor  offered  himself  as  a  candidate  for 
the  vacant  chair,  but  did  not  succeed. 

.  About  this  period,  the  work  entitled  "  Domestic  MedU 
cine"  was  first  published,  with  die  view  of  laying  open  the 
science  of  medicine,  and  rendering  it  familiar  to  the  com- 
prehension of  mankind  in  general.  In  this  plan  be  wats 
encouraged  by  the  late  Dr.  Gregory,  of  liberal  memory* 
who  was  of  opinion,  that  to  render  onedicine  generally  in- 
telligible was  the  only  means  of  putting  an  end  to  the  im- 
postures of  quackery.  The  work  was  also  patronised  by, 
aad  dedicated  to,  sir  John  Pringle,  then  president  of  the  * 
royal  society,  and  a  distant  relation  of  the  author.  This 
work  has.  had  a  degree  of  success  unequalled  by  any  other 
medical  book  in  the  English  language.  It  has  also  been* 
translated  into  every  European  language.  On  its  appear- 
ing in  Russian,  the  late  empress  Catharine  transmitted  to 
the  author  a  large  and  elegant  medallion  of  gold,  accom- 
panied by  a  letter  expressive  of  her  sentiments  of  the  uti- 
lity of  his  exertions  towards  promoting  the  welfare  of  man- 
kind in  general*    Yet  successful  as  this  work  has  proved,, 


buchak  m 

Dr.  Btaefaan's  expectations  from  it  were  not  great/  and  he 
sold  the  copyright  in  1771  for  a  very  inconsiderable  sum; 
but  the  liberal  purchaser,  the  late  Mr*  Cadell,  and  his  suc- 
cessors, made  the  doctor  a  handsome  present  on  revising 
each  edition,  of  which  he  lured  to  see  nineteen  published, 
amounting  to  upwards  of  80,000  copies,  it  has  likewise 
been  printed  in  Ireland  and  America,  and  pirated  in  vari- 
ous shapes  in  England,  but  without  much  diminution  either 
of  the  sale  or  credit  of  the  authentic  work 

.  On  the  death  of  Fergusson,  the  celebrated  lecturer  o*i 
natural  philosophy,  which  took  place  about  the  year  1775, 
be  bequeathed  to  the  doctor  the  whole  of  his  apparatus. 
Unwilling  that  this  collection,  which  at  that  period  was 
perhaps  the  best  this  country  could  boast  of,  should  re- 
main shut  up  and  useless,  the  doctor,  with  the  assistance 
of  his  son,  who  conducted  the  experimental  part,  delivered 
several  courses  of  lectures,  during  three  years,  at  Edin* 
burgh,  with  great  success,  the  theatre  being  always  crowded 
with  auditors.  <  On  removing  to  London,  he  disposed  of 
this  apparatus  to  Dr.  Lettsom.  Of  natural  philosophy,  the 
part  which  particularly  attracted  the  doctor's  attention  was 
astronomy.  Nothiug  delighted  him  more  than  to  point  out 
the  celestial  phenomena  on  a  fine  starlight  evening  to  any 
young  person  who  appeared  willing  to  receive  information ; 
and  the  friendship  of  the  late  highly  respectable  astrono- 
mer royal,  Dr.  Maskelyne,  afforded  him  every  facility  of  ' 
renovating  his  acquaintance  with  the  planetary  bodies, 
whenever  so  inclined. 

He  was  possessed  of  a  most  retentive  memory,  which  wnt 
particularly  exemplified  in  his  recollection  of  the  Bible* 
which  in  his  more  early  years  he  had  been  much**  accus- 
tomed to  peruse  with  attention.  On  an  appeal  being  made 
to  him  concerning  amy  particular  text  of  scripture,  he 
hardly  ever  erred  in  giving  the  very  words  of  which  it  con- 
listed,,  and  pointing  out  the  precise  chapter  and  verse 
where  it  was  to  be  found.  The  same  faculty  furnished  him 
with  an  infinite  fond  of  amusing  anecdotes,  which  he  used 
«q  rel&te  in  a  good-humoured  and  entertaining  manner.* 
This  talent  rendered  his  company  much  courted  by  private  * 
cifdes,  and  interfered  with  that  assiduous  attention  to- 
business  requisite  to  .ensure  success  to  a  medical  praeti- 
tioner  in  the  metropolis;  which  his  popular  reputation  aw* 
pleasing  manners  were  in  other  respects  well  calculated  to 
obtain.     He  latterly  confined  his  practice  to  giving  advice  ' 


at  home,  and  in  that  way  did  more  business  than  most 
people  acquainted  with  his  habits  supposed. 

The  doctor  had  a  prepossessing  exterior,  and  was  of  a 
mild,  humane,  and  benevolent  disposition,  which  not  only, 
embraced  all  the  human  race,  but  was  extended  to  the 
whole  of  the  animal  creation.  He  was  blessed  with  an  ex- 
cellent constitution,  never  having  experienced  sickness  till 
within  a  year  of  his  decease,  when  he  began  sensibly  to 
decline.  The  immediate  cause  of  his  death,  of  the  ap-» 
proach  of  which  he  was  sensible,  and  which  he  met  with 
the  same  gentleness  and  equanimity  which  characterized 
every  action  of  his  life,  appeared  to  be  an  accumulation  of 
water  in  the  chest.  He  died  Feb.  2*,  1805,  in  the. se- 
venty-sixth  year  of  his  age,  and  is  buried  in  the  cloisters 
of  Westminster- abbey.  Two  children  survive  him,  a  daugh* 
ter  and  a  son,  the  latter  of  whom,  a  man  of  profound,  and 
general  learning,  has  been  for  some  years  settled  in  prac- 
tice as  a  physician  in  Percy-street,  London. 

Besides  the  works  above-mentioned,  Dr.  Buchan  pub- 
lished a  "Treatise  on  the  Venereal  Disease,"  1796,  which 
has  passed  through  several  editions ;  "  Cautions  concern- 
ing Cold-bathing,  and  drinking  Mineral-waters,*'  178.6,*- 
8yo;  and  "  A  Letter  to  the  Patentee,  concerning  the  me- 
dical properties  of  Fleecy  Hosiery,"  1700,  8vo«* 

BUCHANAN  (George),  a  Scottish  historian,  and  La- 
tin poet,  of  great  eminence,  and  uncommon  abilities  and 
learning,  was  descended  from  an  ancient  family,  and  was 
born  at  Killairn,  in  the  shire  of  Lenox,  in  Scotland,  in  the 
month  of  February  1506.  His  father  died  of  the  stone  in 
the  prime  of  life,  whilst  his  grandfather  was, yet  living ;  by 
whose  extravagance .  the  family,  which  before  was. but  in 
low  circumstances,  was  now  nearly  reduced  to  the  extre- 
mity of  want.  He  had,  however,  the  happiness  of  a  very 
prudent  mother,  Agnes,  the  daughter  of  James  Heriot  of 
Trabrown,  who,  though  she  was  left  a  widow  with  five  sons, 
and  three  daughters,  brought  them  all  up. in  a  decent  man*:  * 
aer,  by  judicious  management..  She  had  a  brother,  Mr; 
James  Heriot,  who,  observing  the  marks- of  genius  which, 
young  George  Buchanan  discovered  when  at  school,  sepi  « 
him  to  Paris  in  1520  for  his  education.  There  he  closely 
applied  himself  to  his  studies,  and  particularly  cultivated 
hi?  poetical  talents:  but  before  he  had  been  there  "quite* 

»  Gent.  Mag.  1805.— Memoirs  of  William  Smellie,  F.  R.  S.  and  F.  A.S.S. 
lrhicfc  contain  a  correspondence  with  Pr«  Bucbaa,  &<v 


tiro  years,  the  death  of  his  uncle,  and  his, own  ill  state  of 
health,  and  want  of  money,-  obliged  him  to  return  home. 
Having  arrived  in  his  native  country,  he  spent  almost. a 
year  in  endeavouring  to  re-establish  his  health;  and  in 
152  3^  in  order  to  acquire  some  knowledge  of  military  af- 
fairs, he  made  a  campaign   with  the  French  .auxiliaries, 
who*  came  over  into  Scotland  with  John  duke  of  Albany. 
But  in  this  new  course  of  life  he  encountered  so  many 
hardships,-  that  be  was  confined  to  bis  bed  by  sickness  all 
the  ensuing  winter.     He  had  probably  much  more  propen- 
sity to  his  books,  than  to  the  sword ;  for  early  in  the  fol- 
lowing spring  he  went  to  St.  Andrews,  and  attended  the 
lectures  on  logic,  or  rather,  as  he  says,  on  sophistry,  which 
were  read  in  that  university  by  John  Major,  or  Many  a 
professor  in  St.  Saviour's  college,  and  assessor  to  the  dean 
of  Arts,  whom  he  soon  after  accompanied  to  Paris.     After 
struggling  for  about  two  years  with  indigence  and  ill  for- 
tune, he  was  admitted,  in  1526,  being  then  not  more  than 
twenty  years  of  age,  in  the  college  of  St.  Barbe,.  where  he^ 
took  the  degree  of  B.  A.  in  1527,  and  M.  A.  in  1528,  and 
in  1 529  was  chosen  procurator  nationis,  and  began  then  to 
teach  grammar,  which  he  continued  for  about  three  years. 
But  Gilbert  Kennedy,:  earl  of  Cassils,  a  young  Scottish 
nobleman,  being  then  in  France,  and  happening  to  fall 
into  th£  company  of  Buchanan,  was  so  delighted  with  his 
wit,  and  the  agreeableness  of  his  manners,  that  he  pre- 
vailed upon  him  to  continue  with  him  five  years.     Accord* 
ing  to  Mackenzie,  he  acted  as  a  kind  of  tutor  to  this  young 
nobleman  ;  and,  during -his  stay  with  him,  translated  Lin- 
acre's  Rudiments  of  grammar  out  of  English  into  Latin  ; 
wtech  Was  printed  sit  Paris,  by  Robert  Stephens,  in"1533, 
and  dedicated  to  the  earl  of  Cassils.'    He  returned  to  Scot- 
land with  that  nobleman,  whose  death  happened  about  two 
ydfcrs  after ;  and  Buchanan  had  then  an  inclination  to  re* 
tuto-to  France :  but  James  V.  king  of  Scotland* prevented 
hinty  by  appointing  him   preceptor  to  his  .natural  son, 
James,' afterwards  the  abbot  of  Kelso,  .who  died  in  1548, 
apd  net,  as  some  say,  the  earl  of  Murray,  regent  of  that 
kingdom.     About  this  time,    he   wrote  a  satirical  poem 
.against    the  •  Franciscan    friars,    entitled,    "  Somnium ;" 
which  irritated  them  to  exclaiqi  against  him  as  a  heretic. 
Their  Glamours,  however,  only  increased  the  dislike  which 
he  had  conceived  against  diem,  on  account  of  .their  disor- 
derly and  licentiqu*  Jiyes ;  and  inclined  bim  the  more, 
Vol*  VII.  Q 


•wards  Lutheranism,  to  which  he  seems  to  have  had  before 
no  inconsiderable  propensity.  "About  the  year  1538,  the 
king  haying  discovered  a  conspiracy  against  himself,  in 
which  he  suspected  that  some  of  the  Franciscans  were  con- 

-  ceroed,  commanded  Buchanan  to  write  a  poem  against 
that  order.     But  he  had  probably  already  experienced  the 

.  inconveniency  of  exasperating  so  formidable  a  body ;  for 
he  only  wrote  a  few  verses  which  were  susceptible  of  a 
double  interpretation,  and  be  pleased  neither  party.  The 
king  was  dissatisfied,  that  the  satire  was  not  more  poig- 
nant ;  and  the  friars  considered  it  as  a  heinous  offence,  to 
mention  them  in  any  way  that  was  not  honourable.  But 
the  king  gave  Buchanan  a  second  command,  to  write 
against  them  with  more  severity ;  which  he  accordingly 
did  in  the  poem,  entitled,  "  Franciscanus ;"  by  which  he 
.  pleased  the  king,  and  rendered  the  friars  his  irreconcile- 

-  able  enemies.     He  soon  found,  that  the  animosity  of  these 

-  ecclesiastics  was  of  a  more  durable  nature  than  royal  fa- 
vour :  for  the  king  had  the  meanness  to  suffer  him  to  feeL 
the  weight  of  their  resentment,  though  it  had  been  chiefly 

•  excited  by  obedience  to  his  commands.  It  was  not  the 
Franciscans  only,  but  the  clergy  in  general,  who  were  in- 
censed against  Buchanan  :  they  appear  to  have  made  a 
common  cause  of  it,  and  they  left  no  stone  unturned  till 
they  had  prevailed  with  the  king  that  he  should  be  tried 
for  heresy.  He  was  accordingly  imprisoned  at  the  begin- 
ning of  1539,  but  found  means  to  make  his  escape,  as  be 
gays  himself,  out  of  his  chamber- window,  while  his  guards 
were  asleep.  He  fled  into  England,  where  he  found  king 
Henry  the  Eighth  persecuting  both  protestants  and  papists. 
Not  thinking  that  kingdom,  therefore,  a  place  of  safety, 
he  again  went  over  into  France,  to  which  he  was  the  more 
inclined  because  he  had  there  some  literary  friends,  2nd 

•was  pleased  with  the  politeness  of  French  manners.  But 
when  he  came  to  Paris,  he  had  the  mortification  to  find 

« there  cardinal  Beaton,  who  was  his  great  enemy,  and  who 
appeared  there  as  ambassador  from  Scotland.  Expecting, 
therefore,  to  receive  some  ill  offices  from  him,  if  he  con- 
tinued at  Paris,  he  withdrew  himself  privately  to  Bour- 
deaux,  at  the  invitation  of  Andrew  Govea,  a  learned  Por- 
tuguese, who  was  principal  of  a  new  college  in  that  city. 

;  Buchanan  taught  in  the  public  school*  there  three  years ;  in 

-  which  time  he  composed  two  tragedies,  the  one  entitled, 
"Baptistes,  sive  CaluBmia,"  and  the  other  "Jephthcfe, 


Vbtum*;"  and  also  translated  the  Medea  and  Alcestii 
of  Euripides.  These  were  all  afterwards  published;  but 
they  were  originally  written  in  compliance  with  the  rules 
of  the  school,  which  every  year  required  some  new  dra- 
matic exhibition ;  and  his  view  in  choosing  these  subjects 
was,  to  draw  off  the  youth  of  France  as  much  as  possible 
from  the  allegories,  which  were  then  greatly  in  vogue,  to 
a  just  imitation  of  the  ancients ;  in  which  he  succeeded  be- 
yond his  hopes.  During  his  residence  at  Bourdeaux,  the 
emperor  Charles  V.  passed  through  that  city  ;  upon  which 
Buchanan  presented  his  imperial  majesty  with  an  elegant 
Latin  poem,  in  which  the  emperor  was  highly  compli- 
mented, and  at  which  he  expressed  great  satisfaction.  But 
the  animosity  of  cardinal  Beaton  still  pursued  our  poet : 
•for  that  haughty  prelate  wrote  letters  to  the  archbishop  of 
Bourdeaux,  in  which  be  informed  him,  that  Buchanan  had 
fled  his  country  for  heresy;  that  he  had  lampooned  the 
church  in  most  virulent  satires ;  and  that  if  he  would  put 
him  to  the  trial,  he  would  find  him  a  most  pestilentioua 
heretic.  Fortunately  for  Buchanan,  these  letters  fell  into 
Che  hands  of  some  of  his  friends,  who  found  means  to  pre- 
vent their  effects :  and  the  state  of  public  affairs  in  Scot- 
land, in  consequence  of  the  death  of  king  James  V.  gave 
the  cardinal  so  much  employment,  as  to  prevent  any  far- 
ther prosecution  of  his  rancour  against  Buchanan. 

In  1543,  he  quitted  Bourdeaux,  on  account  of  the  pes- 
tilence being  there ;  and  about  this  time  seems,  to  have  had 
some  share  in  the  education  of  Michael  de  Montaigne,  th* 
celebrated  anthor  of  the  Essays.  In  1544,  he  went  to 
Paris,  where  he  taught  the  second  class  of  the  college  of 
Bourbon,  as  Tumebus  did  the  first,  and  Muretus  the  third; 
«nd  it  appears  that  in  some  part  of  this  year  he  was  afflicted 
with  the  gou£  In  1547,  he  went  into  Portugal  with  hj| 
friend  Andrew  Govea,  who  had  received  orders  from  the 
king  his  master  to  return  home,  and  bring  with  him  a,  cer- 
tain number  of  learned  men,  qualified  to  teach  the  Aristo-% 
telian  philosophy,  and  polite  literature,  in  the  university 

*  A  translation  of  the  Baptistes  was,  1578,  when  it  was  printed  at  London* 

published,  in   1641*  which  Mr.  Peck  His  translation  of  the  Medea  of  Euri- 

sapposed  to  have  been  made  by  Mil-  pides  was  acted  at  Bourdeaux  in  1549, 

ton,  and  therefore  re-printed  it  with  his  His  Jephthes  was  published  at  Paris  in 

New  Memoirs  of  the  Life  and  Poetical  1554,  and  his  translation  of  the  Alces* 

Works  of  Milton,  published  in  4to,  in  tis  of  Euripides  at  the  same  place  i* 

1740.     The  Baptistes,  though  the  first  155$.  % 
written,  was  not  published  till  the  year 

a  2 



which  he  had  lately  established  at  Coimbra.  Re  says,  tfiat 
he  the  more  readily  agreed  to  go  to  Portugal,  because  that 
"  all  Europe  besides  was  either  actually  engaged  in  foreign 
or  domestic  wars,  or  upon  the  point  of  being  so ;  and  that 
this  corner  of  the  world  appeared  to  him  the  most  likely  to 
be  free  from  tumults  and  disturbances.  Besides  which, 
his  companions  in  that  journey  were  such,  that  they  seemed 
.rather  his  familiar  friends  than  strangers,  or  foreigners; 
for  with  most  of  them  he  had  been  upon  terms  of  much  in- 
timacy for  some  years;  and  they  were  men  well  known  to 
.the  world  by  their  learned  works  *•** 

During  the  life  of  Govea,  who  was  a  great  favourite  of 
his  Portuguese  majesty,  matters  went  on  extremely  well 
with  Buchanan  in  Portugal  5  but  after  the  death  of  Govea, 
which  happened  in  1548,  a  variety  of  ill  treatment  was 
practised  against  the  learned  men  who  followed  him,  arid 
particularly  against  Buchanan.  He  was  accused  of  being 
author  of  the  poem  against  the  Franciscans,  of  having 
eaten  flesh  in  time  of  Lent,  and  of  having  said  that,  with 
respect  to  the  Eucharist,  St.  Augustine  was  more  favourable 
to  the  doctrine  of  the  reformers,  than  to  that  of  the  church 
of  Rome.  Besides  these  enormities,  it  was  also  deposed 
•against  him  by  certain  witnesses,  that  they  had  heard  from 
divers  reputable  persons,  that  Buchanan  was  not  orthodox 
as  to  the  Romish  faith  and  religion.  These  were  sufficient 
reasons  in  that  country  for  putting  any  man  into  the  in- 
quisition ;  and  accordingly,  Buchanan  was  confined  there 
about  a  year  and  a  half.  He  was  afterwards  removed  to  a 
more  agreeable  prison,  being  confined  in  a  monastery  till 
he  should  be  better  instructed  in  the  principles  of  the 
Romish  church.  He  says  of  the  monks. under  whose  care 
he  was  placed,  that  "  they  were  altogether  ignorant  of  re* 
£jgion,  but  were  otherwise,  men  neither  bad  in  their  mo- 
rals,  nor  rude  in  their  behaviour."  It  was  during  his  re- 
sidence in  this  monaster}*,  that  he  began  to  translate  the^ 

*  Mackenzie  says,  that  "before  Bu- 
chanan undertook  this  voyage  for  Por- 
tugal, he  caused  his  friend  Andrew 
Govea  to  inform  the  king  of  Portugal, 
.by  a  letter,  of  the  whole  affair  between 
him  and  the  Franciscans  in  Scotland, 
and  that  the  satire  be  had  writ  against 
them,  was  not,  as  his  enemies  gave 
*ut,  to  defame  the  catholics,  but  wrote 
in  obedience  to  the  king  bis  .master¥ 

command,  whom  the  Franciscans  had 
offended.  The  king  of  Portugal  being 
satisfied  with  this  apology,  Govea,  Ni- 
cholas Gruchiut,  GulteUou*  Garaoiia- 
tis,  Jacobus  Tssviuy,  fiettus  Venetua* 
Mr.  Buchanan,  and  hia  brother  Mr. 
Patrick  Buchanan,  embarked  for  Porta* 
gal,  where  they  safaly  arrived  ittJba 
•year  1547t» 

*  * 



Psalms  of  David*  into  Latin  verse;  and  which  he  exe- 
cuted, sajs  Mackenzie,  "  with  such  inimitable  sweetness 
and  elegancy,  that  this  version  of  the  Psalms  will  be 
esteemed  and  admired  as  long  as  the  world  endures,  or 
men  have  any  relish  for  poetry.'1  Having  obtained  his 
liberty  in  155 1,  be  desired  a  passport  of  the  king,  in  order 
to  return  to  France ;  but  his  majesty  endeavoured  to  re- 
tain him  in  his  service,  and  assigned  him  a  small  pension 
till  he  should  procure  him  an  employment.  But  these 
uncertain  hopes  did  not  detain  him  long  in  Portugal ;  and 
indeed,  it  was  not  to  be  supposed  that  the  treatment  which 
be  had  received  there,  could  give  a  man  of  Buchanan's 
temper  any  great  attachment  to  the  place.  He  readily 
embraced  an  opportunity  which  offered  of  embarking  for 
England,  where,  however,  he  made  no  long  stay,  though 
some  advantageous  offers  were  made  him.  Edward  VI. 
was  then  upon  the  throne  of  England,  but  Buchanan,  ap- 
prehending the  affairs  of  that  kingdom  to  be  in  a  very 
unsettled  state,  went  over  into  France  at  the  beginning  of 

.  the  year  1553.  It  seems  to  have  been  about  this  time  that 
he  wrote  some  of  those  satirical  pieces  against  the  monks, 

:  which  are  found  in  his  "  Fratres  Fraterrimi."  He  was  also 
probably  now  employed  at  Paris  in   teaching  the  belles- 

,lettres;  but  though  be  seems  to  have  been  fond  of  France, 

*  Mr.  Granger  observes,  that  "  the 
most  applauded  of  Buchanan's  poetical 
,-  works  is  his  translation  of  the  Psalms, 
particularly  of  the  104th." — «  This 
psalm  has  been  translated  into  Latin 
by  nine  Scottish  poets.  Eight  of  these 
.  translations  were  printed  at  Edinburgh, 
1699,  12mo,  together  with  the  Poetic 

•  Duel  of  Dr.  George  Eglisem  with  Bu- 
chanan. The  former  accused  that 
great  poet  of  bad  Latin,  and  bad 
poetry,  in  his  version  of  this  psalm, 
and  made  no  scruple  of  preferring  his 
own. translation  of  it  to  Buchanan's." 
Eglisem  made  an  appeal  to  the  uni- 
versity of  Paris,  concerning  the  justice 

uof  his  own  criticisms  on  Buchanan. 

v  Tn  the  second  volume  of  the  "  Poeta- 
rum  Scotorum  Musso  Sacrse,"  pub- 
lished at  Edinburgh,   m   1139,  is  re- 

•  printed  the  piece  mentioned  by  Mr. 
Granger,  .under  the  following  title  : 
"  Poeticum    Duelhims    sen    Georgii 

'  Eglisemmii  cum,  Georgio  Bucbanano 
pro  dignitate  Paraphrases  Psalmi  civ. 
certamen.  Cui  adnectitur  Qui.  Bar- 
elaii,  amosuiorum  artium  fc  medicine 

doctoris,  de  eodem  certamine  judi- 
cium ;  nee  non  consilium  collegii  me- 
dici  Parisiensis  de  ejusdem  Eglisemmii 
mania,  quod  carmine  exhibuit  A  re- 
turns Jonstenus,  M .  D."  The  vanity 
and  absurdity  of  Eglisem  are  ridiculed, 
in  this  with  much  humour.  Barclay 
says,  that  "  it  would  be  more  difficult 
to  find  in  Buchanan's  translation  any 
verses  that  are  not  good,  than  it  would 
be  to  find  any  in  EgliseaVs  that  are  not 
bad."  In  the  Poeticum  Duellum  the 
versions  of  the  104th  psalm  by  Bu- 
chanan and  Eglisem  are  printed  oppo- 
site to  each  other  ;  and  at  the  end,  of 
the  second  volume  of  the  Poetarum 
Scotorum,  besides  the  pieces  con- 
cerning Buchanan  and  Eglisem,  are 
six  other  versions  of  the  same  psalm, 
by  Scottish  poets,  the  last  of  whom  it 
Dr.  Archibald  Pitcairne.  These  are 
the  versions  mentioned  by  Mr. Granger, 
but  he  enumerates  one  more  than  there 
are,  there  being  only  eight  in  the 
whole,  including  those  of  Buchanan 
and  Eglisem. 



yet  he  sometimes  expresses  his  dissatisfaction  lit  his  treat- 
merit  and  situation  there.  The  subject  of  one  of  his  elegies 
is  the  miserable  condition  of  those  who  were  employed  in, 
teaching  literature  at  Paris.  His  income  was,  perhaps, 
small ;  and  he  seems  to  have  bad  no  great  propensity  to 
ceconomy  ;  but  this  is  a  disposition  too  common  among  the 
votaries  of  the  Muses,  to  afford  any  peculiar  reproach 
against  Buchanan.  In  1555,  the  marshal  de  BrisSac,  to 
whom  he  had  dedicated  his  "  Jephthes,"  sent  for  Buchanan 
into  Piedmont,  where  he  then  commanded,  and  made  him 
preceptor  to  Timoleon  de  Coss6,  his  son ;  and  he  spent 
five  years  in  this  station,  partly  in  Italy,  and  partly  in 
France.  This  employment  probably  afforded  him  much 
leisure ;  for  he  now  applied  himself  closely  to  the  study  of 
the  sacred  writings,  in  order  to  enable  him  to  form  the 
more  accurate  judgment  concerning  the  subjects  in  con- 
troversy between  the  Protestants  and  Papists.  It  was  also 
during  this  period  that  he  composed  his  ode  upon  the 
taking  of  Calais  by  the  duke  of  Guise,  his-  epithalamium 
upon  the  marriage  of  Mary  queen  of  Scots  to  the  Dauphin 
of  France,  and  part  of  his  poem  upon  the  Sphere. 

In  the  year  1561,  be  returned  to  Scotland,  and  finding 
the  reformation  in  a  manner  established  there,  he  openly 
renounced  the  Romish  religion,  and  declared  himself  a 
Protestant,  but  attended  the  court  of  queen  Mary,  and 
even  superintended  her  studies..  In  1563  the  parliament 
appointed  him,  with  others,  to  inspect  the  revenues  of  the 
universities,  and  to  report  a  model  of  instruction.  He 
was  also  appointed  by  the  assembly  of  the  church,  to  re- 
vise the  "  Book  of  Discipline."  In  1564  the  queen  gave 
him  a  pension  of  five  hundred  pounds  Scotch,  which  has 
been,  not  very  reasonably,  made  the  foundation  of  a  charge 
of  ingratitude  against  him,  because  he  afterwards  could  not 
dafend  the  queen's  conduct  with  respect  to  the  mur- 
der of  her  husband,  and  her  subsequent  marriage  with 
Bothwell.  About  1566  he  was  made  principal  of  St  Leo- 
nard's college,  in  the  university  of  St.  Andrew's,  where  he 
taught  philosophy  for  some  time ;  and  he  employed  his 
leisure  hours  in  collecting  all  his  poems,  such  of  them  ex- 
cepted as  were  in  the  hands  of  his  friends,  and  of  which 
he  had  no  copies.  In  1567,  on  account  of  his  uncommon 
abilities  and  learning,  he  was  appointed  moderator  of  the 
general  assembly  of  the.  church  of  Scotland.  He  joined 
himself  to  the  party  that  acted  against  queen  Mary,  and 



appears  to  have  been  particularly  connected  with  the  earl 
of  Murray,  who  had  been  educated  by  him,  and  for  whom 
he  had  a  great  regard.  He  attended  that  nobleman  to  the 
conference  at  York,  and  afterwards  at  Hampton -court, 
being  nominated  one  of  the  assistants  to,tbe  commissioner* 
who  were  sent  to  England  against  queen  Mary.  He  had 
been  previously  appointed,  in  an  assembly  of  the  Scottish 
nobility,  preceptor  to  the  young  king  James  VI.* 

During  his  residence  in  England,  he  wrote  some  enco* 
mi&stic  verses  in  honour  of  queen  Elizabeth,  and  several 
English  ladies  of  rank,  from  whom  he  received  present. 
He  appears  to  have  been  very  ready  to  receive  favours  of 
that  kind ;  and,  like  Erasmus,  not  to  have  been  at.  all 
backward  in  making  his  wants  known,  or  taking  proper 
measures  to  procure  occasional  benefactions  from  the  great. 
In  1571  he  published  his  *•'  Detectio  Mariae  Reginae,'Vin 
which  he  very  severely  arraigned  the  conduct  and  cha- 
racter of  queen  Mary,  and  expressly  charged /her  with, 
being  concerned  in  the  murder  of  her  husband  lord 
Darnly.  At  the  beginning  of  1570,  his  pupil,  the  earl 
of  Murray,  regent  of  Scotland,  was  assassinated,  which, 
Mackenzie  says,  "  was  a  heavy  stroke  to  him,  for  he  loved 
him  as  his  own  life."  He  continued,  however,  to  be  in 
favour  with  some  of  those  who  were  invested  with  power 
in  Scotland ;  for,  after  the  death  of  the  earl  of  Murray,  he 
was  appointed  one  of  the  lords  of  the  council,  and  lord 
privy  seal.  It  appears  also  that  he  had  a  pension  of  one 
hundred  pounds  a  year,  settled  on  him  by  queen  Eliza- 
beth. In  1579  he  published  his  famous  treatise  "  De  Jure 
Regni  apud  Scotos ;"  which  he  dedicated  to  king  James. 
In  1582  he  published  at- Edinburgh,  his  "  History  <rf  Scot- 
land," in  twenty  books,  on  which  he  had  chiefly  em- 
ployed the  last  twelve  or  thirteen  years  of  his  life.     He 

*  It  appears  from  a  story  related 
by  Mackenzie,  that  Buchanan  bad  not 
the  most  profound  reverence  for  the 
Tank  of  his  royal  pupil.  The  young 
king  being  one  day  at  play  with  his 
fellow  pupil,  the  master  of  Erskine,  the 
earl  of  Mar's  eldest  son,  Buchanan, 
who  was  reading,  desired  them  to  make 
less  noise.  Finding  that  they  disre- 
garded his  admonition,  he  told  bis  ma- 
jesty, that  if  he  did  not  hold  his  tongue, 
he  would  certainly  whip  him.  The 
king  replied,  he  should  be  glad'  to  see 
who  would  bell  the  cat,  alluding  to  tha 

fable.  Upon  this,  Buchanan  threw 
his  book  from  him  in  a  passion,  and 
gave  his  majesty  a  severe  whipping. 
The  old  countess  of  Mar,  who  was  in 
an  adjoining  apartment,  hearing  .-the 
king  ory,  ran  to  him,  and  inquired 
what  was  tbe  matter.  He  told  her, 
that  the  master,  for  so  Buchanan  was 
called,  had  whipped  him.  v  She  imme- 
diately asked  Buchauan  "  howhedurtt 
put  his  band  on  the  Lord's  anointed  ?" 
His  reply  was,  *'  Madam,  I  have  whip- 
ped his  a—,  you  may  kits  it  if  yoa 
plqase."  «<»? 

338  BUCHANA'  N. 

died  at  Edinburgh  the  same  year,  on  the  5th  of  December 
in  the  seventy-sixth  year  of  his  age.  Towards  the  close  of 
his  life,  he  had  sometimes  resided  at  Stirling.  It  is  said, 
that  when  he  was  upon  his  death-bed,  he  was  informed 
that  the  king  was  highly  incensed  against  him  for  writing 
his  book  "  De  Jure  Regni,"  and  his  "  History  of  Scot- 
land ;"  to  which  he  replied,  that  "  he  was  not  much  con- 
cerned about  that ;  for  he  was  shortly  going  to  a  place 
where  there  were  few  kings."  We  are  also  told,  that  when 
he  was  dying,  he  called  for  his  servant,  whose  name  -was 
Young,  and  asked  him  how*  much  money  he  had  of  his ; 
and  finding  that  it  was  not  sufficient  to  defray  the  expences 
6f  bis  bUrial,  he  commanded  him  to  distribute  it  amongst 
the  poor.  His  servant  thereupon  asked  him :  • "  Who  then 
would  be  at  the  charge  of  burying  him  ?"  Buchanan  re- 
plied, "  That  he  was  very  indifferent  about  that ;  for.  if 
he  were  once  dead,  if  they  would  not  bury  him,  they 
might  let  him  lie  where  he  was,  or  throw  his  corpse  where 
they  pleased."  Accordingly,  he  was  buried  at  the  ex- 
pence  of  the  city  of  Edinburgh.  Archbishop  Spotswood 
says  of  Buchanan,  that  "  in  his  old  age  he  applied  himself 
to  write  the  /Scots  History,  which  he  renewed  with  such* 
judgment  and  eloquence,  as  no  country  can  shew  a  better: 
only  in  this  he  is  justly  blamed,  that  he  sided  with  the 
factions  of  the  time,  and  to  justify  the  proceedings  of  the 
noblemen  against  the  queen,  he  went  so  far  in  depressing 
the  royal  authority  of  princes,  and  allowing  their  coutroul- 
ment  by  subjects ;  his  bitterness  also  in  writing  of  the 
queen,  and  of  the  times,  all  wise  men  have  disliked ;  but 
otherwise  no  man  bath  merited  better  of  his  country  for 
learning,  nor  thereby  did  bring  to  it  more  glory.  He  was 
buried  in  the  common  burial-place,  though  worthy  to  have 
been  laid  in  marble,  and  to  have  bad  some  statue  erected 
to  his  memory ;  but  such  pompous  monuments  in  his  life 
he  was  wont  to  scorn  and  despise,,  esteeming  it  a  greater 
credit,  as  it  was  said  of  the  Roman  Cato,  to  have  it  asked, 
Why  doth  be  lack  a  statue  ?  than  to  have  had  one,  though 
never  so  glorious,  erected.*'  - 

Mr.  Teissier  says,  that  "  it  cannot  be  denied  but  Bu- 
chanan was  a  man  of  admirable  eloquence,  of  rare  prudence, 
and  of  an  exquisite  judgment;  he  has  written  the  History 
of  Scotland  with  such  elegancy  and  politeness,  that  he 
surpasses  all  the  writers  of  his  9ge$  and  he  has  even  equalled 
the  ancients  themselves,  without  excepting  either  Sallust 

B  U  C  H  ANAR  23S 

or  Titus  Livius.  But  be  is  accused  by  some  of  being  an 
unfaithful  historian,  and  to  have  shewn  in  his  history  at* 
extreme  aversion  against  queen  Mary  Stuart ;  but  his 
master-piece  is  his  Paraphrase  upon  the  Psalms,  in  whichf 
he  outdid  the  most  famous  poets  amongst  the  French  and 

Mr.  James  Crawford,  in  his  "  History  of  the  House  of 
Este,"  says,  "  Buchanan  not  only  excelled  ail  that  went 
before  him  in  his  own  country,  but  scarce  had  his  equal 
m  that  learned  age  in  which  he  lived.     He  spent  the  first 
flame  and  rage  of  his  fancy  in  poetry,  in  which  he  did 
imitate  Virgil  in  heroics,  Ovid  in  elegiacs,  Lucretius  in 
philosophy,  Seneca  in  tragedies,  Martial  in  epigrams,  Ho- 
lace  and  Juvenal  in  satires.  Hecopied  after  these  great  mas- 
ters so  perfectly,  that  nothing  ever  approached  nearer  the 
original :  and  his  immortal  Paraphrase  on  the  Psalms  doth 
shew,  that  neither  the  constraint  of  a  limited  matter,  the 
darkness  of  expression,   nor  the  frequent  return  of  the 
same,  or  the  like  phrases,  could  confine  or  exhaust  that 
vast  genius.    At  last,  in  his  old  age,  when  his  thoughts 
were  purified  by  long  reflection  and  business,  and  a  true 
judgment  came  in  the  rpom  of  one  of  the  richest  fancies 
that  ever  was,  he  wrote  our  History  with  such  beauty  of 
style,  easiness  of  expression,  and  exactness  in  all  it$  parts, 
that  no  service  or  honour  could  have  been  done  the  nation 
like  it,  had  he  ended  so  noble  a  work  as  he  begun,  and 
carried  it  on  till  James  the  Fifth's  death.     But  being  un- 
happily engaged  in  a  faction,  and  resentment  working  vio- 
lently upon  him,  he  suffered  himself  to  be  so  strangely 
biassed,  that  in  the  relations  he  gives  of  many  of  the  tran- 
sactions of  his  own  time,  he  may  rather  pass  for  a  satirist 
than  an  historian." 

Burnet  says,  that  "  in  the  writings  of  Buchanan  there 
appears,  not  only  all  the  beauty  and  graces  of  the  Latin : 
tongue,  but  a  vigour  of  mind,  and  quickness  of  thought, 
far.  beyond  Bembo,  or  the  other  Italians,  who  at  that  time 
affected  to  revive  the  purity  of  the  Roman  style.  It  was 
but  a  feeble  imitation  of  Tully  in  them ;  but  his  style  is  so 
natural  and  nervous,  and  his  reflections  on  things  are  so 
solid  (besides  his  immortal  poems,  in  which  he  shews  how 
well  be  could  imitate  all  the  Roman  poets,  in  their  several: . 
ways  of  writing,  that  he  who  compares  them  will  be  often 
tempted  to  prefer  the  copy  to  the  original),  that  he  is 

tU  BUC  HAN  A  N,' 

justly  reckoned  the  greatest  and  best  of  our  modern 

The  celebrated  Thuanus  observes,  that  "  Buchanan* 
being  old,  began  to  write  the  history  of  his  own  country; 
and  although,  according  to  the  genius  of  his  nation,  he 
sometimes  inveighs  against  crowned  heads  with  severity, 
yet  that  work  is  written  with  so  much  purity,  spirit,  and 
judgment,  that  it  does  not  appear  to  be  the  production  of 
a  man  who  had  passed  all  his  days  in  the  dust  of  a  school, 
but  of  one  who  had  been  all  his  life-time  conversant  in 
the  most  important  affairs  of  state.  Such  was  the  great- 
ness of  his  mind,  and  the  felicity  of  his  genius,  that  the 
meanness  of  his  condition  and  fortune  has  not  hindered 
Buchanan  from  forming  just  sentiments  of  things  of  the 
greatest  moment,  or  from  writing  concerning  them  with  a 
great  deal  of  judgment." 

Dr.  Robertson,  speaking  of  Buchanan's  History  of  Scot- 
land, says,  that  "  if  his  accuracy  and  impartiality  had  been, 
in  any  degree,  equal  to  the  elegance  of  his  taste,  and  to 
the  purity  and  vigour  of  his  style,  his  history  might  be 
placed  on  a  level  with  the  most  admired  compositions  of 
the  ancients.  But,  instead  of  rejecting  the  improbable 
tales  of  chronicle  writers,  he  was  at  the  utmost  pains  to 
adorn  them ;  and  hath  clothed  with  all  the  beauties,  and 
graces  of  fiction,  those  legends  which  formerly  had  only 
its  wildness  and  extravagance."  In  another  place,  the 
same  celebrated  historian  observes,  that  "  the  happy  genius 
of  Buchanan,  equally  formed  to  excel  in  prose  and  in 
vjerse,  more  various,  more  original,  and  more  elegant,  than 
that  of  almost  any  other  modern  who  writes  in  Latin,  re- 
flects, with  regard  to  this  particular,  the  greatest  lustre  on 
his  country" 

The  genius  and  erudition  of  Buchanan  have  procured 
him,  as  a  writer,  the  applause  even  of  his  enemies :  but, 
as  a  man,  he  has-been  the  subject  of  the  most  virulent  in- 
vectives. Far  from  confining  themselves  to  truth,  they 
have  not  even  kept  within  the  bounds  of  probability ;  and 
some  of  the  calumnies  which  have  been  published  against 
him,  related  by  Bayle,  are  calculated  only  to  excite  our 
risibility.  The  learned  John  Le  Clerc  has  very  ably  shewn, 
that  there  is  much  reason  to  conclude,  that  many  of  the 
severe  censures  which  have  been  thrown  out  against  Bu- 
chanan, were  the. result  of  ignorance,  of  prejudice,  and  of 

BUCH  A'NAN,  »*•■ 

party  animosity.    That  be  was  himself  influenced  by  some! 
degree  of  partiality  to  the  party  with  which  he  was  con- 
nected, that  he  was  sometimes  deceived  by  the  reports  of 
others,  and  that  in  the  earlier  part  of  his  History,  his  zeal 
for  the  ^honour  of  his  country  has  led  him  into  some  nrisre-* 
presentations*  may  be  admitted  :  but  we  do  not  apprehend 
that  he  wilfully  and  intentionally  violated  the  truth,  or  that 
there  is  any  just  ground  for  questioning  his  integrity.     Le 
Clerc  observes,  that-  as  to  the  share  which  Buchanan  had 
in  public  affairs,  it  appears  even  from  the  Memoirs  of  sir 
James  Melvil,  who  was  of  the  opposite  p&rty,    that  "  he 
distinguished  himself  by  his  probity,  and  by  his  modera- 
tion."    The  prejudices  of  many  writers  against  him  have 
been  very  great:  he  had  satirized  the  priests,  and  many 
of  them  therefore  were  his  most  inveterate  enemies ;  he 
was  generally  odious  to  the  bigotted  advocates  for  the  Ro- 
mish church,  and  to  the  partisans  of  Mary ;  and  his  free 
and  manly  spirit  rendered  him  extremely  disagreeable  to 
court  flatterers  and  parasites,  and  the  defenders  of  tyranny. 
His  dialogue  "  De  Jure  Regni,"  which  certainly  contains 
some  of  the  best  and  most  rational  principles  of  govern* 
m'ent,  whatever  may  be  thought  of  some  particular  senti- 
ments, and  which:  displays  uncommon  acuteness  and  ex- 
tent of  knowledge,  has  been  one  source  of  the  illiberal 
abuse  that  has  been  thrown  out  against  him.     But  it  is  a 
performance  that  really  does  him  great  honour ;  and  the 
rather,  because  it  was  calculated  to  enforce  sound  maxims 
of  civil  policy,  in  an  age  in  which  they  were  generally 
little   understood.     Some  farther  testimonies    of  authors 
concerning  him  may  be  found  in  our  references. 

Dr.  Lettice  concludes  a  well-written  life  of  him  by  re- 
marking, that  Buchanan,  with  regard  to  his  person,  is  said 
to  have  been  slovenly,  inattentive  to  dress,  and  almost  to 
have  bordered  upon  rusticity  in  his  manners  and  appear- 
ance. The  character  of  his  countenance  was  manly  but 
austere,  and  the  portraits  remaining  of  him  bear  testimony 
to  this  observation.  But  he  was  highly  polished  in  his 
language  and  style  of  conversation,  which  was  generally 
much  seasoned  with  wit  and  humour.  On  every  subject 
he  possessed  a  peculiar  facility  of  illustration  by  lively 
anecdotes  and  short  moral  examples ;  and  when  his  know- 
ledge and  recollection  failed  in  suggesting  these,  his  in- 
vention immediately  supplied  him.  He  has- been  too  justly 
reproached  with  instances  of  revenge,  and  forgetfuiness  of 

5$6  BUCHANA  N. 

obligations.  These  seem  not,  however,  to  have  been  cha- 
racteristic qualities,  but  occasional  failures  of  his  nobler 
nature,  and  arising  from  too  violent  an  attachment  t& 
party,  and  an  affection  too  partial  towards  individuals  To 
the.  same  source,  perhaps,  may  be  traced  that  easiness  of 
belief  to  which  he  is  found  too  frequently  to  resign  his  bet- 
ter judgment.  His  freedom  from  anxieties  relative  to  for** 
iune,  and  indifference  to  outward  and  accidental  circum- 
stances, gained  him,  with  some,,  the  reputation  of  a  Stoie 
philosopher ;  but  as  a  state  of  mind  undisturbed  by  the 
vicissitudes  of  life,  and  a  disposition  to  leave  the  morrow 
to  take  care  of  itself,  are  enjoined  by  one  far  better  than 
Zeno,  let  us  not  forget  that  Buchanan  is  affirmed  moreover 
to  have  been  religious  and  devout,  nor  -unjustly  place  so 
illustrious  a  figure  in  the  niche  of  an  Athenian  portico, 
which  claims  no  inferior  station  in  the  Christian  temple. ' 

BUCHOLTZER,orBUCHOLCER  (Abraham),  usual- 
ly ranked  among  the  German  reformers,  was  born  §ept» 
28,  1529,  at  Schonaw  near  Wittemberg,  at  which  univer- 
sity be  was  educated,  and  where  he  contracted  an  acquain- 
tance with  Melancthon,  and  while  he  was  studying  the 
scriptures  in  their  original  languages,  imbibed  the  prin- 
ciples of  the  reformation.  In  1555  he  went  into  Silesia, 
where  the  senate  of  Grunbergue  invited  him  to  superin- 
tend a  school  newly  erected  in  that  city.  This  offer,  by 
Melancthon' s  advice,  he  accepted  in  the  following  year, 
and  raised  the  school  to  a  very  high  degree  of  reputation. 
Melancthon  had  so  good  an  opinion  of  him  as  to  declare 
that  no  young  man  could  be  supposed  unfit  for  a  univer- 
sity, who  had  been  educated  under  Bucholtzer.  Nor  was 
he  less  celebrated  as  a  preacher ;  and  upon  account  of  his 
services  in  promoting  the  reformation,  enjoyed  the  favour 
and  patronage  of  Catherine,  widow  of  Henry  duke  of 
Brunswick,  Ernest  prince  of  Anhalt,  and  other  persons  of 
rank.  He  died  at  Freistad  in  Silesia,  Oct  14,  1584.  He 
composed  a  chronology  from  the  beginning  of  the  world  to 
the  year  15SO,  under  the  title  of  "  Isagoge  chronological 
which  was  often  reprinted.1 

*  Btog.  Brit.— Chalmers's  Life  of  Ruddiman  passim,  bat  especially  from  p» 
&10.— Hume,  Robertson,  and  Stuart's  Histories,  as  far  as  respect  queen  Mary. 
«— Laing's  History  of  Scotland,  and  an  elaborate  review  of  it  in  the  British  Critic. 
—Mackenzie's  Scotch  writers,  vol.  III.  &c  &c.  ,  . 

»  Melchior  Adam  in  witis  Theolog.— Frehcri  Theatrum. — Fuller's  Abel  Redi- 
virus.— Moreri.— Vossios  <te  SctaiL  Mathemau— Blount's  Centura.— $axfi 

BOOK.         ""  Stif 

.  BUCK  (Samuel)  was  an  ingenious  English  engraver, 
who,  agisted  by  his  brother  Nathaniel,  drew  and  engraved 
a  large  number  of  plates  of  various  sizes,  consisting  of 
views  of  churches,  monasteries,  abbies,  castles,  and  other 
ruins.'    They  executed  also  views  of  the  principal  cities 

.  and  tojrns  in  England  and  Wales,  and  among  them  a  very 
large  one  of  the  cities  of  London  and  Westminster.  They 
are  all  done  in  the  same  style,  the  back-grounds  being 
slightly  etched,  and  the  buildings  finished  with  the  graver* 
in  a  stiff  manner.  Their  drawings,  especially  those  of  the 
ruins,  &c.  appear  to  have  been  too  hastily  made,  and  are 
frequently  inaccurate ;  but,  in  many  instances,  they  are 
the  only  views  we  have  of  the  places  represented ;  and  in 
lome,  the  only  views  we  can  have,  as  several  of  the  ruins 
engraved  by  them,  have  since  that  time  been  totally  de- 
stroyed. Their  prints  amount  in  the  whole  to  about  500,: 
and  still  bear  a  great  price.  Samuel  Buck  died  at  hid 
apartments  in  the  Temple,  in  the  eighty-fifth  year  of  hi* 
age,  August  Y779.  A  few  months  before  his  death  a  libe- 
ral subscription  was  raised  for  his  support.  His  brother 
bad  been  dead  many  years  before.1 
.  ■  BUCKERIDGE  (John),  an  eminent  English  prelate, 
jpras  the  son  of  William  Buckeridge,  by  Elizabeth  his  wife, 
daughter  of  Thomas  Keblewhy te  of  Basilden  in  Berks,  son 
of  John  Keblewhy  te,  unde  to  sir  Thomas  White,  founder 
of  St.  John's  college,  Oxford.  He  was  educated  in  Mer- 
chant Taylors9  school,  and  thence  sent  to  St.  John's  col- 
lege, O&on,  in  1578,  where  he  was  chosen  fellow,  and  pro- 
ceeded, through  other  degrees,  to  D.  D.  in  the  latter  end 
of  1596.  After  leaving  the  university,  he  became  chap- 
lain to  Robert  earl  of  Essex,  and  was  rector  of  North  Fam- 
bridge  in  Essex^and  of  North  Kilworth in  Leicestershire,  and 

'was  afterwards  one  of  archbishop  Whitgift's  chaplains,  and 
B»de  prebendary  of  Hereford,  and  of  Rochester.  In  1604, 
he  was  preferred  to  the  archdeaconry  of  Northampton ; 
$nd  the  same  year,  Nov.  5,  was  presented  by  king  James 
to  the  vicarage  of  St.  Giles's,  *  Cripplegate,  in  which  he 
succeeded  Dr.  Andrews,  then  made  bishop  of  Chichester. 
About  the  same  time  he  was. chaplain  to  the  king;  was 
elected  president  of  St.  John's  college,  1605,  and  installed 

canon  of  Windsor,  April  15,.  1606.     His  eminent  abilities 
in  the  pulpit  were  greatly  esteemed  at  court ;  insomuch 

l  Strutt.-^Qcnt  Mag.  1770,  p.  S7,  424,—  Nichols'*  Bowyer. 

-    v        ■  '        ~      • 


that  he  was  chosen  to  be  cine  of  the  four  (Dr.  Andrews, 
bishop  of  Chichester,  Dr.  Barlow  of  Rochester,  and  Dr. 
John  King,  dean  of,  Christ-church,  Oxford,  being  the 
other  three)  who  were  appointed  to  preach  before  the  king 
at  Hampton-court  in  September  1606,  in  order  to  bring 
the  two  Melvins  and  other  presbyterians  of  Scotland  to  a  # 
right  understanding  of  the  church  of  England.  He  took 
his  text  out  of  Romans  xiiu  1.  and  managed  the  discourse 
(as  archbishop  Spotswood,  who  was  present,  relates),  both 
soundly  and  learnedly,  to  the  satisfaction  of  all  the  hearers, 
only  it  grieved  the  Scotch  ministers  to  hear  the.  pope  and 
presbytery  so  often  equalled  in  their  opposition  to  sove- 
reign princes.  * 

In  the  year  16 1 1  he  was  promoted  to  the  see  of  Roches- 
ter, to  which  he  was  consecrated  June  9.  Afterwards,  by 
the  interest  of  his  sometime  pupil,  Dr.  Laud,  then  bishop 
of  Bath  and  Wells,  he  was  translated  to  Ely  in  1628; 
where,  having  sat  a  little  more  than  three  years,  he  died 
May  23,  1631,  and  on  the  31st  was  buried  in  the  parish 
church  of  Bromley  in  Kent,  without  any  memorial,  al- 
though he  appears  to  have  been  a  very  pious,  learned,  and 
worthy  bishop,  and  had  been  a  benefactor  to  the  parish. 
His  works  are  "  De  Potestate  Pap®  in  rebus  temporalibus, 
sive  in  regibus  deponendis  usurpata :  adversus  Robertum 
Cardinalem  Bellarminum,  lib.  II.  In  quibus  respondetur 
authoribus,  scripturis,  rationibus,  exemplis  contra  Gul.  Bar- 
claium  allatis,"  Lon.  1614,  4to.  He  published  also  "A 
Discourse  on  Kneeling  at  the  Communion,"  and  some  oc- 
casional sermons,  of  which  a  list  may  be  seen  in  Wood. l 


BUCKLAND  (Ralph),  a  popish  divine  of  some  note, 
was  born  at  West  Harptre,  the  seat  oAjf^afc^nt  family 
of  his  name  in  Somersetshire,  about  1564.  In  1579,  he 
was  admitted  commoner  in  Magdalen  college,  Oxford,  and 
afterwards  passed  some  years  in  one  of  the  inns  of  court 
•Having  at  last  embraced  the  popish  religion,  he  spent  se- 
ven years  in  Doway  college,  and  being  ordained  priest, 
returned  to  England,  acted  as  a  missionary  for  about  twenty 
years,  and  died  in  1611.  He  published,  1.  A  translation 
of  the  "  Lives  of  the  Saints9-  from  Surhis.  2.  "  A  Per* 
suasive  against  frequenting  Protestant  Churches,"  12 ma 

*  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I. — Benthata's  Ely.— Spotswood's  Hist.  p.  497,  where  he  if 
termed  bishop  of  Recbestejc,  which  Eentham  says  he  wai  not  untfi  ISII.-** 
ledge9*  Illustration*,  vol.  III,  311. 

BUCK  LAND.  «t 

3.  "  Seven  sparks  of  the  enkindled  flame/  with  four  lamen- 
tations, composed  in  the  hard  times  of  qtie£n  Elizabeth," 
12mo.  From  this  book,  archbishop 'Usher,  in  a  sermon 
preached  in  1640,  on  Nov.  5,  produced  some  passages 
hinting  at  the  gun*  powder  plot.  The  passages  are  not, 
perhaps,  very  clearly  in  point,  nor  oan  we  suppose  any 
person  privy  to  the  design' fool  enough  at  the  same  time  to 
give  warning  of  it.  This  Buckland  also; wrote  "  De  Per-* 
secutiona  Vandalica,"  a  translation  from  the  Latin  of  Vic* 
tor,  bishop  of  Biserte,  or  Utica. l'  * 

BUCKLER  (Benjamin),  D.  D.  a  learned  and  ingenious 
English  clergyman  and  antiquary,  wa$  born  in  1716,  and 
educated  at  Oriel  college,  Oxford,  where  he  took  his  mas- 
ter* $  degree  in  1739.  He.  was  afterwards  elected  a  fellow 
of  All-Souls  college,  where  he  proceeded  B.  D.  in  1755, 
and  D.  D.  in  1759.  In  1755  he  was  presented  to  the  vi- 
carage of  Cumner  in  Berkshire,  by  the  earl  of  Abingdon. 
He  was  also  rector  of  Frilsham  in  the  same  county.  He 
.died  and  was  buried  at  Cumner,  Dec.  24,  1780,  being  at 
that  time  likewise  keeper  of  the  archives  in  the  university 
of  Oxford,  to  which  office  he  was  elected  in  1777.  His 
talents  would  in .  all  probability  .have  advanced  him  to 
higher  stations,  had  they  been  less  under  the.  influence  of 
those  honest  principles,  which,  although  they  greatly  dig- 
nify a  character,  are.  not  always  of  use  on  the  road  to  pre- 
ferment In  truth,  says  the  author  of  his  epitaph*,  he 
preserved  his  integrity  chaste  and  pure :  he  thought  li- 
berally, and  spoke  openly ;  a  mean  action  was  his  con- 
tempt. He  possessed  not  great  riches,  secular  honours, 
or  court  favours ;  but  he  enjoyed  blessings  of  a  much 
higher  estimation,  a  competency,  a  sound  mind,  an  honest 
.heart,  a  good  conscience,  and  a  faith  unshaken. 

Dr»  Buckler,  who  was  an  able-  antiquary,  assisted  his 
friend  and  contemporary,  Mr.  Justice  B.lackstone,  in  his 
researches  respecting  the  right  of  fellowships,  &c.  in  All- 
Souls  college,  and  drew  up  that  valuable  work,  the  "  Stem- 
mata  Cbicheleana ;  or,  a  genealogical  account  of  some  of 
.the  families  derived  from  Thomas  Chichele,  of  Highasi* 
JFerrers,  in  the  county  of  Northampton;  all  whose  de- 

.         i  Ath.  Ox.  I Dodd's  Ch.  Hist  vol.  II. 

'  4 

*  By  a  strange  mistake,  this  epitaph  that  Dr.  Bucilcr  had  an  opportunity  of 

is  said  (Gent.  Mag.  1792,  p.  224.)  to  contributing  to  the  erection  of  his.  sta* 

hare  been  written  by  Mr.  Justice  Black-  tue  in  All-Souls  college. 
stone,  who  had  then  been  dead  so  long 


•240  ''BUCKLER.' 

scendants  are  held  to  be  entitled  to  fellowships  in  AU-S011W 
college,  Oxford,  by  virtue  of  tbeir  consanguinity  to  arch* 
bisbop  Chicheie,  the  founder/'  Oxford,  1765,  4to.  •  The 
college  having  afterwards  purchased,  at  Mr.  Anstis's  sale, 
many  large  MS  volumes  by  him,  relating  to  the  history 
and  constitution  of  this  college,  and  the  case  of  founder's 
kindred,  Dr.  Buckler  published  "  A  Supplement  •  to  the 
Stemmata,"  Oxford,  1775,  and  afterwards  went  on  con- 
tinuing it,  as  information  offered  itself,  but  no  more  has 
been  published.  We  find  him  also  as  one  of  the  proctors, 
signing  his  name  to  a  pamphlet,  which  he  probably  wrote, 
entitled  "  A  reply  to  Dr.  Huddesford's  observations  relat- 
ing to  the  delegates  of  the  press,  with  a  narrative  of  the 
proceedings  of  the  proctors  with  regard  to  their  nomination 
of  a  delegate,'9  Oxford,  1756,  4to.  In  this  it  is  the  ob- 
ject to  prove,  against  Dr.  Huddesford,  that  the  right  of 
nominating  such  delegates  is  in  the  proctors  absolutely, 
and  that  the  vice-chancellor  has  not  a  negative. 

Long  before  this;  Dr.  Buckler  afforded  a  proof  of  ex- 
cellent humour.  Mr.  Pointer  having  in  his  account  of  the 
antiquities  of  Oxford,  a  superficial,  and  incorrect  work, 
degraded  the  famous  mallard  of  All-Souls  into  a  goose, 
Buckler  published,  but  without  his  name,  "  A  complete 
vindication  of  the  Mallard  of  All-Souls  college  against  the 
injurious  suggestions  of  the  rev.  Mr.  Pointer/9  Lond.  1750, 
8vo,  and  a  second  edition,  1751.  This  produced  another 
exquisite  piece  of  humour,  entitled  "  Proposals  for  print- 
ing by  subscription,  the  History  of  the  Mallardians."  This 
was  to  have  been  executed  in  three  parts,  the  contents  of 
which  will  give  tbe  reader  some  idea  of  Mr.  Bilson's  hu- 
mour, and  that  of  Rowe  Mores,  who  assisted  him  in  drawing 
up  the  proposals,  and  bore  the  expence  of  some  engravings 
which' accompany  it.  u  Part  I.  Of  the  origin  of  the  Mai* 
lardians.  Of  the  foundation  of  the  house  of  Mallardians. 
The  intent  of  that  foundation,  and  how  far  it  has  been 
answered.  Of  the  affinity  between  the  Mallardians  and 
the  order  of  the  Thelemites.  Of  the  library  of  the  Mal- 
lardians ;  and  of  the  cat  that  was  starved  to  death  in'  iC 
Part  II.  Of  the  manners  of  the  Mallardians*  Of  their  co- 
messations,  <:ompotations,  ingurgitations,  and  other  enor- 
mities, from  their  first  settlement  till  their  visitation  by 
archbishop  Cranmer.  Part  III.  The  subject  of  the  second 
part  co  •  tin ued  fiom  the  death  of  archbishop  Cranmer  to 
the  dissolution  of  Bradgate-Hall,  alia*  les  Tunnys,  {ire. 


♦the  Three  Tuns  Tavern).  To  the  whole  will  be  added,  * 
full  account  of  the  annual  festival  of  the  Mai  lard  ians.  Of 
the  adventures  common  at  this  festival.  Of  the  presidents, 
or  lords  of  this  festival,  with  their  characters  drawn  at 
length.  Of  the  Swopping-Song  of  the  Mai  lard  ians,  with 
annotations  on  the  same.  Of  the  progress  of  the  Mallar- 
dians  to  Long  Crendon,  and  of  their  demeanour  to  Da- 
inosels.  And,  lastly,  a  true  history  of  their  doughty  cham- 
pion Pentrapolin  a  Calamo,  usually  styled  by  way  of  emi- 
nence, The  Buckler  of  the  Mallardians." — Dr.  Buckler 
published  also  two  occasional  sermons  in  1759.  * 

BUCQUET  (John  Baptist  Michel),  an  eminent  French 
physician,  censor  royal,  doctor-regent  and  professor  of 
chemistry  in  the  faculty  of  medicine  at  Paris,  an  adjunct 
of  t^he  academy  of  sciences,  arid  an  ordinary  associate  of 
the^ royal  medical  society,  was  born  at  Paris,  Feb.  18,  1746. 
His  father  intended  him  for  the  bar,  but  his  inclination 
soon  led  him  to  relinquish  that  profession  for  the  study  of 
the  various  sciences  connected  with  medicine,  in  all  which 
he  made  great  proficiency,  and  gave  lectures  on  mine- 
ralogy end  chemistry.  His  plan  and  familiar  mode  of 
teaching  soon  procured  him  numerous  pupils,  and  connect- 
ing himself  with  Lavoisier  and  other  eminent  chemists,  he 
instituted  a  variety  of  experiments  which,  while  they  pro- 
cured him  the  notice  and  honours  of  his  profession,  much 
impaired  his  health,  and  at  a  very  early  age,  he  was  so  de- 
bilitated in  body  and  mind,  as  to  require  the  use  of  stimu- 
lants to  excite  a  momentary  vigour ;  he  is  even  said  to 
have  taken  one  hundred  grains  of  opium  in  a  day.  By 
these  means  he  was  enabled  to  protract  his  existence  until 
Jan.  24,  1780,  when  he  died  completely  exhausted,  al- 
though only  in  his  thirty-fourth  year.  Except  his  papers 
in  the  literary  journals,  we  know  of  only  one  publication 
of  Bucquet's,  "  Introduction  a  Petude  des  corps  naturels, 
tir6s  du  regne  vegetal,"  1773,  2  vols.  12 mo.  This  was 
intended  for  the  use  ofhis  pupils. a 

BUDDEUS  (John  Francis),  a  celebrated  Lutheran  di- 
vine, was  born  June  25,  1667,  at  Anclam,  a  town  in  Po- 
meKinia,  where  his  father  was  a  clergyman,,  who  bestowed 
great  pains  on  his  education,  with  a  view  to  the  same  pro- 
fession.    Before  he  went  to  the  uniyersity,  he  was  taught 

'  •  * 

1  Gough's  Topography,  vol.  IL— Gent.  Mag.  1792,  p.  224,  &c— Nicholas 
Bowyer.  «  .,  '   • 

*  Eloges  des  Academiciens,  vol'.  II.  1799.— -Diet.  Hist. 

Vol.  VII.  ft 

242  BUDDEUS. 

Greek  and  Latin,  Hebrew,  Chaldaic,  and  Syriac,  and  bad 
veral  times  read  the  scriptures  in  their  original  tongues.  In 
1685,  at  the  age  of  eighteen,  he  was  sent  to  Wittemberg, 
where  he  studied  history,  oriental  learning,  and  the  canon 
law,  under  the  ablest  professors,  and  with  a  success  pro- 
portioned to  the  stock  of  knowledge  he  had  previously  ac- 
cumulated. In  1687  he  received  the  degree  of  M,  A.  and 
printed  on  that  occasion  his  thesis  on  the  symbols  of  the 
Eucharist.  In  1689  he  was  assistant  professor  of  philo- 
sophy ;  and  some  time  after,  having  removed  to  Jena,  gave 
lessons  to  the  students  there  with  the  approbation  and  es- 
teem of  the  professors.  In  1692  he  was  invited  to  Co- 
bourg,  as  professor  of  Greek  and  Latin.  In  1693,  when 
Frederick,  elector  of  Brandenburgh,  afterwards  king  of 
Prussia,  founded  the  university  of  Halle,  Buddeus  was 
appointed  professor  of  moral  and  political  philosophy,  and  , 
after  filling  that  office  for  about  twelve  years,  he  was  re- 
called to  Jena  in  1705,  to  be  professor  of  theology.  The 
king  of  Prussia  parted  with  him  very  reluctantly  on  this 
occasion,  but  Buddeus  conceived  his  new  office  so  much 
better  calculated  for  his  talents  and  inclination,  that  he 
retained  it  for  the  remainder  of  his  life,  refusing  many 
advantageous  offers  in  other  universities  ;  and  the  dukes  of 
Saxony  of  the  Ernestine  branch,  to  whom  the  university 
of  Jena  belongs,  looking  upon  Buddeus  as  its  greatest  or- 
nament, procured  him  every  comfort,  and  bestowed  their 
confidence  on  him  in  the  case  of  various  important  affairs. 
in  171*4,  he  was  made  ecclesiastical  counsellor  to  the  duke 
of  Hildburghausen  ;  and  afterwards  was  appointed  inspec- 
tor of  the  students  of  Gotha  and  Altenburgh  ;  assessor  of 
the  Concilium  cretins,  which  had  the  care  of  the  university 
of  Jena ;  and  he  was  several  times  pro-rector,  the  dukes 
of  Saxony  always  reserving  to  themselves  the  rectorate  of 
tiiat  university.  Under  his  care  the  university  flourished 
in  an  uncommon  degree,  and  being  an  enemy  to  the  scho- 
lastic mode  of  teaching,  he  introduced  that  more  rational 
and  philosophical  system  which  leads  to  useful  knowledge. 
Amidst  all  these  employments,  he  was  a  frequent  and  po- 
pular preacher,  carried  on  an  extensive  correspondence 
with  the  learned  men  of  his  time,  and  yet  found  leisure  for 
the  composition  of  his  numerous  works.  He  died  Nov.  19, 
J  729.  A  very  long  list  of  his  works  is  given  in  our  autho- 
rity ;  the  principal  are :  1.  u  Elementa  Philosophise  prac-  r 
ticse,  instrtimenuUs  et  theoretic*,"  2  vok.  &vq.     2,  "In- 

B  U  D  D  B  U  S.  24* 

ttttutiones  Theologiae  M  oralis,"  1711,  4to,  often  reprinted. 
3.  "  Historia  Ecclesiastica  Veteris  «Testamenti,"  1715, 
1718,  2  vols,  4to.  4.  "  Institutiones  Theologicae,  Dog-* 
maticae,  variis  observation  ib  as  illustratse,"  1723,  3  vols.  4to. 
5.  "  Miscellanea  Sacra,"  1727,  3  vols.  4to.  6.  u  The 
Great  German  Histbrical  Dictionary,"  2  vols,  folio,  and 
often  reprinted,  was  principally  drawn  up  by  our  author, 
and  published  with  his  name. l 

BUDEUS,  or  BUDE'  (William),  an  eminent  scholar 
and  critic,  the  descendant  of  an  ancient  and  illustrious 
family  in  France,  lord  of  Marli-ia-ville,  king's  counsellor, 
and  master  of  requests,  was  born  at  Paris  in  1467.  He 
was  the  second  son  of  John  Bude,  lord  of  Vere  and  Villiers, 
secretary  to  the  king,  and  one  of  the  grand  officers  of  the 
French  chancery.  In  his  infancy  he  was  provided  with 
masters ;  but  such  was  the  low  state  of  Parisian  education 
at  that  time,  that  when  sent  to  the  university  of  Orleans  to 
study  law,  he  remained  there  for  three  years,  without 
making  any  progress,  for  want  of  a  proper  knowledge  of 
the  Latin  language.  Accordingly,  on  his  return  home,  his 
parents  had  the  mortification  to  discover  that  he  was  as 
ignorant  as  when  he  went,  disgusted  with  study  of  any 
kind,  and  obstinately  bent  to  pass  his  time  amidst  the 
gaieties  and  pleasures  of  youth,  a  course  which  his  fortune 
enabled  him  to  pursue.  But  after  he  had  indulged  this 
humour  for  sorne  time,  an  ardent  passion  for  study  seized 
him,  and  became  irresistible.  He  immediately  disposed 
of  his  horses,  dogs,  &c.  with  which  he  followed  the  chace, 
applied  himself  to  study,  and  in  a  short  time  made  very 
considerable  progress,  although  he  had  no  masters,  nor 
either  instruction  or  example  in  his  new  pursuit.  He  be- 
came, in  particular,  an  excellent  Latin  scholar,  and  although 
his  style  is  not  so  pure  or  polished  as  that  of  those  who 
formed  themselves  in  early  life  on  the  best  models,  it  is 
far  from  being  deficient  in  fluency  or  elegance.  His  know- 
ledge of  the  Greek  was  so  great  that  John  de  Lascaris,  the 
most  learned  Grecian  of  his  time,  declared  that  Budd  might 
be  compared  with  the  6rst  orators  of  ancient  Athens.  This 
language  is  perhaps  complimentary,  but  it  cannot  be  de- 
nied that  his  knowledge of  Greek  was  very  extraordinary, 
considering  how  little  help  he  derived  from,  instructions.. 
He,  indeed,  employed  at  a  large  salary,  one  Hermonymus, 

1  Bibliotheqve  Germanique,  vol.  XXII.— Chaufepie  Diet.— Saxji  Ononis*. 

R  2 

244  B  U  D  E  U  S. 

but  soon  found  that  be  was  very  superficial,  and  had  ac- 
quired the  reputation  of  a   Greek  scholar  merely  from 
knowing  a  little  mcfre  than  the  French  literati,  who  at  that 
time  knew  nothing.     Hence  Bud£  used  to  call  himself  oi/to- 
IJLO&vn  &  o^tfiaSvis,  i.  c.  self-taught  and  late  taught.   The  work 
by  which  he  gained  most  reputation,  and  published  under 
the  title  u  De  Asse,"  was  one  of  the  first  efforts  to  clear  up 
the  difficulties  relating  to  the  coins  and  measures  of  the 
ancients;  and  although  an  Italian,  Leonardus  Portius,  pre- 
tended to  claim  tome  of  his  discoveries,  Bud6  vindicated 
his  right  to  them  with  spirit  and  success.     Previously  tp 
this  he  had  printed  a  translation  of  some  pieces  of  Plutarch, 
and   "  Notes  upon   the  Pandects."      His    fame  having 
reached  the  court,  he  was  invited  to  it,  but  was  at  first 
rather  reluctant.     He  appears  to  have  been  oneNof  those 
who  foresaw  the  advantages  of  a  diffusion  of  learning,  and 
at  the  same  time  perceived  an  unwillingness  in  the  court 
to  entertain  it,  lest  it  should  administer  to  the  introduction 
of  what  was  called  heresy.     Charles  VIII.  was  the  first 
who  invited  him  to  court,  but  died  soon  after :  his  suc- 
cessor Louis  Xlf.  employed  him    twice  on  embassies  to 
Italy,  and  made  him  his  secretary.     This  favour  continued 
in  the  reign  of  Francis  I.  who  sent  for  Bude  to  %cotirt  when 
it  was  held  at  Ardres  at  the  interview  of  that  monarch  with 
Henry  VIII.  the  king  of  England.     From  this  time  Francis 
paid  him  much  attention,  appointed  him  his  librarian,  and 
master  of  the  requests,  while  the  Parisians  elected  him 
provost  of  the  merchants.     This  political  influence  he  em- 
ployed in  promoting  the  interests  of  literature,  and  sug- 
gested to  Francis  I.  the  design  of  establishing  professor- 
ships for  languages  and  the  sciences  at  Paris.     The  ex- 
cessive heats  of  the  year  1540  obliging  the  king  to  take  a 
journey  to  the  coast  of  Normandy,  Bud£  accompanied  his 
majesty,  but  unfortunately  was  seized  with  a  fever,  which 
carried  him  off  Aug.  23,  1540,  at  Paris.     His  funeral  was 
private,  and  at  night,  by  his  own  desire.     This  circum- 
stance created  a  suspicion  that  he  died  in  the  reformed  re- 
ligion ;  but  of  this  there  is  no  direct  proof,  and  although 
he  occasionally  made  free  with  the  court  of  Rome  and  the 
corruptions  of  the  clergy  in  his  works,  yet  in  them  like- 
wise he  wrote  with  equal  asperity  of  the  reformers.     Eras- 
mus called  him  portentum  Gallite,  the  prodigy  of  France. 
There  was  a  close  connection  between  these  two  great 
men.     "  Their  letters,"  says  the  late  Dr,  Jortin,  "  though 

BUDEUS.  245 

full  of  compliments  and  civilities,  are  also  full  of  little 
bickerings  and  contests  :  which  shew  that  their  friendship 
was  not  entirely  free  from  some  small  degree  qf  jealousy 
and  envy;  especially  on  the  side  of  Bud£,  who  yet  in  ' 
other  respects  was  an  excellent  person/'  It  is  not  easy 
to  determine  on  which  side  the  jealousy  lay ;  perhaps  it 
was  on  both.  Bud6  might  envy  Erasmus  for  his  superior 
taste  and  wit,  as  well  as  his  more  extensive  learning;  and  * 
perhaps  Erasmus  might  envy  Bud6  for  a  superior  know- 
ledge of  the  Greek  tongue,  which' was  generally  ascribed 
to  him. 

Bud£  was  a  student  of  incessant  application,  and  when 
we  consider  him  as  beginning  his  studies  late,  and  being 
afterwards  involved  in  public  business,  and  the  cares  of  a 
numerous  family,  it  becomes  astonishing  that  he   found 
leisure  for  the  works  he  gave  to  the  public.     He  appears 
in  general  to  haye  been  taken  with  the  utmost  reluctance 
from  his  studies.     He  even  complains  in  the  preface  to  his 
book  "  De  Asse,"  that  he  had  not  more  than  six  hours 
study  on  his  wedding-day.     He  married,  however,  a  lady 
who  assisted  him  in  his  library,  reaching  him  what  books 
he  requested,  and  looking  out  particular  passages  which  he 
might  warft.     In  one  of  his  letters  he  represents  himself  as 
married  to  two  wives,  by  one  of  whom  he  had  sons  and 
daughters ;  and  by  the  other  named  Philologia,  he  had 
books,  which  contributed  to  the  maintenance  of  his  natu- 
ral issue.     In  another  he  remarks  that,  for  the  first  twelve 
years  of  his  marriage,  he  had  produced  more  children  than  % 
books,  but  hopes  soon  to  bring  his  publications  on  a  par 
with  his  children.     It  is  of  him  a  story  is  told,  which,  if 
we  mistake  not,  has  been  applied  to  another :  One  day  a 
servant  entered  his  study,  in  a  great  fright,  and  exclaimed 
that  the  house  was  on  fire.   BudI  said  calmly,  "  Why  don't 
you  inform  your  mistress  ?  you  know  1  never  concern  my- 
self about  the  house !" — What  affords  some  probability 
that  Bud6  had  imbibed  the  sentiments  of  the  reformers  in 
his  latter  days,  is  the  circumstance  of  his  widow  retiring  to 
Geneva,  with  some  of  her  family,  and  making  an  open 
profession  of  the ,  protestant  religion.     It  appears  by  the 
collections  in  Baillet,  Blount,  and  Jortin  in  his  "  Life  of 
Erasmus,"  that  the  eulogies  which  Bud6  received  from  the 
learned  men  of  his  time  are  exceedingly  numerous.     His 
works  were  printed  at  Basil  in  1557,  4  vols,  folio.     The 
,  most  important  of  them  is  his  "  Commentarii  Gracse  Lin- 

ue  B  U  D  E  U  S. 

guse,"  which    is  still  highly  valued  by  Greek   scholars. 
The  best  edition  is  that  of  Basil,  1556,  fol. 1 

BUDDEN  (John),  a  civilian  of  Oxford,  the  son  of  John 
Budden  of  Canford,  in  Dorsetshire,  was  born  in  that 
county  in  1566,  and  entered  Merton  college  in  1582,  but 
was  admitted  scholar  of  Trinity  college  in  May  of  the  fol- 
lowing year,  where  he  took  his  bachelor's  degree.  He 
was  soon  after  removed  to  Gloucester  hall,  wbere  he  took 
•  his  master's  degree,  but  chiefly  studied  civil  law.  He  was 
at  length  made  philosophy  reader  of  Magdalen  college, 
and  took  his  bachelor  and  doctor's  degrees  in  civil  law  in 
1602.  In  1609  he  was  made  principal  of  New-inn,  and 
soon  after  king's  professor  of  civil  law,  and  principal  of 
Broadgate's  hall,  where  he  died  June  11,  1620,  and  was 
buried  in  the  chancel  of  St  Aldate's  church.  Wood  says 
he  was  a  person  of  great  eloquence,  an  excellent  rheto- 
rician, philosopher,  and  civilian.  He  wrote  the  lives  of 
"  William  of  Wainflete,"  founder  of  Magdalen  college,  in 
Latin,  Oxon,  1602,  4to,  reprinted  in  "Batesii  Vitas;"  and 
of  "  Archbishop  Morton,"  London,  1607,  8vo.  He  also 
made  the  Latin  translation  of  sir  Thomas  Bodley's  statutes 
for  his  library ;  and  sir  Thomas  Smith's  "  Common  Wealth 
of  England;"  and  from  the  French  of  P.  Frodius,  a  civilian, 
"  A  Discourse  for  Parents'  Honour  and  Authority  over  their 
Children,"  Lond.  1614,  8vo.8 

BUDGELL  (Ectstace),  esq.  a  very  ingenious  but  un- 
fortunate writer,  was  born  at  St.  Thomas,  near  Exeter, 
about  1685,  and  educated  at  Christ-church,  Oxford.  His 
'father,  Gilbert  Budgell,  D.  D.  descended  of  an  ancient 
family  in  Devonshire  ;  his  mother,  Mary,  was  only 
daughter  of  Dr.  William  Gulston,  bishop  of  Bristol,  whose 
sister  Jane  married  dean  Addison,  and  was  mother  to  the 
famous  Addison.  After  some  years  stay  in  the  university, 
Mr.  Budgell  went  to  London,  and  was  entered  of  the  In- 
ner Temple,  in  order  to  study  law,  for  which  his  father 
always  intended  him  ;  but  his  inclinations  led  him  more  to 
study  polite  literature,  and  keep  company  with  the  gen- 
teelest  persons  in  town.  During  his  stay  at  the  Temple, 
he  contracted  a  strict  intimacy  and  friendship  with  Ad- 
dison, who  was  first  cousin  to  his  mother ;  and  when  Addi- 
son was  appointed  secretary  to  lord  Wharton,  lord-lieu- 

l  Gen.  Diet.— Moreri. — Vita  per  Lud.  Regium  Codstantioum,  Paris,  1542, 
■  4to,  and  in  JUtesii  Vitie.— Jortin's  Erasmus.— Bafllet  Jugemeos  de  Savans,— 
gaxi't  Onomast.  *  Wood'r  Ath,  vol.  L 


tenant  of  Ireland,  he  offered  to  make  his  friend  Eus- 
tace one  of  the  clerks  of  his  office,  which  Mr.  Budgell 
readily  accepted.  This  was  in  April  1710,  when  he  was 
about  twenty-five  years  of  age.  He  had  by  this  time  read 
the  classics,  the  most  reputed  historians,  and  the  best 
French,  English,  and  Italian  writers,  and  became  con- 
cerned with  Steele  and  Addison,  not  in  writing  the  Tatler, 
as  has  been  asserted,  but  the  Spectator,  which  was  begun 
in. ITU.  All  the  papers  marked  with  an  X  were  written* 
by  him,  and  the  whole  eighth  volume  is  attributed  to  Ad- 
dison and  himself,  without  the  assistance  of  Steele.  Se- 
veral little  epigrams  and  songs,  which  have  a  good  deal  of 
wit  in  them,  together  with  the  epilogue  to  the  "  Distressed 
Mother,"  which  had  a  greater  run  than  any  thing  of  the 
kind  before,  were  also  written  by  Mr.  Budgell  near  this 
time  ;  all  which,  together  with  the  known  affection  of  Ad- 
dison for  him,  raised  his  character  so  much  as  to  give  him 
considerable  consequence  in  the  literary  and  political 
world.  Upon  the  laying  down  of  the  Spectator,  the 
Guardian  was  set  up  ;  and  to  this  wort  our  author  contri- 
buted, along  with  Addison  and  Steele.  In  the  preface  it 
is  said,  that  those  papers  marked  with  an  asterisk  were 
written  by  Mr.  Budgell. 

Having  regularly  made  his  progress  in  the  secretary  of 
state's  office  in  Ireland,  upon  the  arrival  of  George  I.  in 
England,  he  was  appointed  under  secretary  to  Addison, 
and  chief  secretary  to  the  lords  justices  of  Ireland.  He 
was  made  likewise  deputy-clerk  of  the  council  in  that 
kingdom;  and  soon  after  chosen  member  of  the  Irish* 
parliament,  where  he  acquitted  himself  as  a  very  good 
speaker,  and  performed  all  his  official  duties  with  great 
exactness  and  ability,  and  with  very  singular  disinterest- 
edness. In  1717,  when  Addison  became  principal  secre- 
tary of  state  in  England,  he  procured  for  Mr.  Budgell  the 
place  of  accomptant  and  comptroller-general  of  the  revenue 
in  Ireland,  and  might  have  had  him  for  bis  under-secre- 
tary ;  but  it  was  thought  more  expedient  for  his  majesty's 
service  that  he  should  continue  where  he  was.  He  held 
these  several  places  till  1718,  at  which  time  the  duke  of 
Bolton  was  appointed  lord-lieutenant  His  grace  carried 
over  with  him  one  Mr.  Edward  Webster,  whom  he  made  a 
privy-counsellor  and  his  secretary.  A  misunderstanding 
arising  on  some  account  or  other,  between  this  gentleman 
and  Mr.  Budgell,  the  latter  treated  Mr.  Webster  himself, 


his  education,  bis  abilities,  and  his  family,  with  the  utmost 
contempt.  Mr.  Budgell  was  indiscreet  enough  (for  he 
was  naturally  proud  and  full  of  resentment)  to  write  a  lam- 
poon, prior  to  this,  in  which  the  lord- lieutenant  was  not 
spared ;  and  which  he  published  in  spite  of  all  Addison 
could  say  against  it.  Hence  many  discontents  arose  be- 
tween them,  till  at  length,  the  lord-lieutenant,  in  support 
of  his  secretary,  superseded  Mr.  Budgell,  and  very  soon 
after  got  him  removed  from  the  place  of  accomp tan t- ge- 
neral. Mr.  Budgell,  not  thinking  it  safe  to  continue  longei* 
in  Ireland,  set  out  for  England,  and  soon  after  his  arrival 
published  a  pamphlet  representing  his  case,  entitled  "  A 
Letter  to  the  lord  ***,  from  Eustace  Budgell,  esq.  ao 
compt ant- genial  of  Ireland,  and  late  secretary  to  their 
excellencies  tne  lords  justices  of  that  kingdom;"  eleven 
hundred  copies  of  which  were  sold  ,off  in  one  day,  either 
from  curiosity,  or  sympathy  with  his  sufferings,  which 
seem  about  this  time  to  have  affected  his  reason.  In  the 
Postboy  of  Jan.  17,  1719,  he  published  an  advertisement 
to  justify  his  character  against  reports  which  had  been 
spread  to  bis  disadvantage ;  and  he  did  not  scruple  to  de- 
clare in  all  companies,  that  his  life  was  attempted  by  his 
enemies,  which  deterred  him  from  attending  his  seat  in 
parliament.  Such  behaviour  made  many  of  his  friends 
conclude  him  delirious;  his  passions  were  certainly  very 
strong,  nor  were  his  vanity  and  jealousy  less  predominant. 
Addison,  who  had  resigned  the  seals,  and  was  retired  into 
the  country  for  the  sake  of  his  health,  found  it  impossible 
to  stem  the  tide  of  opposition,  which  was  every  where 
running  against  his  kinsman,  through  the  influence  and 
power  of  the  duke  of  Bolton ;  and  therefore  dissuaded  him 
in  the  strongest  terms  from  publishing  his  case,  but  to  no 
manner  of  purpose :  which  made  him  tell  a  friend  in  great 
anxiety,  that  "  Mr.  Budgell  was  wiser  than  any  man  he 
ever  knew,  and  yet  he  supposed  the  world  would  hardly 
believe  that  he  acted  contrary  to  his  advice." 

Mr.  Budgell's  great  and  noble  friend  lord  Halifax,  to 
whom  in  1713  he  had  dedicated  a  translation  of  "  Theo- 
phrastus's.  Characters,"  was  dead,  and  lord  Orrery,  who 
held  him  in  the  highest  esteem,  had  it  not  in  bis  power  to 
serve  him.  Addison  had  indeed  got  a, promise  from  lord 
Sunderland,  that,  as  soon  as  the  present  clamour  was  a 
little  abated,  he  would  do  something  for  him ;  but  that 
gentleman's  death,  happening  in  1719,  put  an  end  to  all 
hopes  of  succeeding  at  court :  where  he  continued,  never- 

B  U  D  G  E  L  L.  249 

m  theless,  to  make  several  attempts,  but  was  constantly  kept 
down  by  the  weight  of  tbe  duke  of  Bolton.  One  case 
seems  peculiarly  hard.  The  duke  of  Portland,  who  was 
appointed  governor  of  Jamaica,  made  Budgell  his  secre- 
tary, who  was  about  to  sail,  when  a  secretary  of  «tate  was 
sent  to  the  duke,  to  acquaint  him  "  that  he  might  take 
any  man  in  England  for  his  secretary,  excepting  Mr. 
Budgell,  but  that  he  must  not  take  him.'"  In  1720,  the 
fatal  year  of  the  South  Sea,  he  was  almost  ruined,  having 
lost  above  20,000/.  in  it.  He  tried*  afterwards  to  get  into 
parliament  at  several  places,  and  spent  50001.  more  in 
unsuccessful  attempts,  which  completed  his  ruin.  And 
from  this  period  he  began  to  behave  and  live  in  a  different 
manner  from  what  he  had  done  before;  wrote  libellous 
pamphlets  against  sir  Robert  Walpole  and  the  ministry, 
and  did  many  unjust  things  in  regard  to  his  relations,  being 
distracted  in  his  own  private  fortune,  as  indeed  he  was 
judged  tp  be  in  his  senses.  In  1727  he  had  1000/.  given 
him  by  the  duchess  of  Marlborough,  to  whose  husband, 
the  famous  duke,  he  was  related  by  his  mother's  side,  with 
a  view  to  his  getting  into  parliament.  She  ,knew  that  he 
had  a  talent  for  speaking  in  public,  that  he  was  acquainted 
with  business,  and  would  probably  run  any  lengths  against 
the  ministry.  But  this  scheme  failed,  for  he  could  never 
get  chosen.  In  1730  he  joined  the  band  of  writers  against 
the  administration,  and  published  many  papers  in  the 
"  Craftsman."  He  published  also,  about  the  same  time, 
many  other  pieces  of  a  political  nature.  In  1733,  he  be- 
gan a  weekly  pamphlet  called  "  The  Bee,"  which  he  con- 
tinued for  about  a  hundred  numbers,  making  seven  or 
eight  volumes,  8vo.  During  the  progress  of  this  work, 
which  was  entirely  filled  with  his  own  disputes  and  con- 
cerns, and  exhibited  many  proofs  of  a  mind  deranged  by 
oppression,  or  debased  by  desperate  efforts  to  retrieve  his 
character,  Dr.  Tindal  died,  by  whose  will  Mr.  Budgell 
had  2000/.  left  him  ;  and  the  world  being  surprised  at  such, 
a  gift  from  a  man  entirely  unrelated  to  him,  to  the  ex^ 
elusion  of  the  next  heir,  a  nephew,  and  the  continuator 
of  Rapin's  History  of  England,  immediately  imputed  it 
to  his  making  the  will  himself.     Thus  the  satirist : 

"  Let  Budgell  charge  low  Grub-street  on  my  quill, 

And  write  whate'er  he  please — except  my  Will."        Pope. 

It  was  thought  he  had   some  hand'  in  publishing  Dr. 
Tindal' s  "  Christianity  as  old  as  the  Creation,"  for  he  often 

J50  B  U  D  G  £  I  L, 

talked  of  another  additional  volume  on  the  same  subject, 
but  never  published  it.  However,  he  used  to  inquire  very 
frequently  after  Dr.  Conybeare's  health,  who  had  been 
employed  by  queen  Anne  to  answer  the  first  volume,  and 
rewarded  with  the  deanery  of  Christ-church  for  his  pains ; 
saying,  "  he  hoped  Mr.  Dean  would  live  a  little  longer, 
that  he  might  have  the  pleasure  of  making  him  a  bishop  ; 
for  he  intended  very  soon  to  publish  the  other  volume  of 
Tindal,  which  would  certainly  do  the  business." 

After  the  cessation  of  "  The  Bee,"  he  became  so  in- 
volved in  law-suits,  that  he  was  reduced  to  a  very  unhappy 
situation.  He  now  returned  to  his  original  destination  of 
the  bar,  and  attended  for  some  time  in  the  courts  of  law ; 
%  but  finding  himself  incapable  of  making  any  progress,  and 
being  distressed  to  the  utmost,  he  determined  at  length 
on  suicide.  Accordingly,  in  1736,  he  took  a  boat  at  So- 
merset stairs,  after  filling  bis  pockets  with  stones,  and 
ordered  the  waterman  to  shoot  the  bridge ;  and,  while  the 
boat  was  going  under,  threw  himself  into  the  river,  where 
he  perished  immediately.  Several  days  before,  he  had 
been  visibly  distracted  in  his  mind,  but  no  care  was  taken 
of  him.  He  was  never  married,  but  left  one  natural 
daughter  behind  him,  who  afterwards  took  his  name,  and 
was  some  time  an  actress  at  Drury-lane.  The  morning 
before  he  committed  this  act  upon  himself,  he  endeavoured 
to  persuade  this  lady,  who  was  then  only  eleven  years  old, 
to  accompany  him,  which  she  very  wisely  refused.  Upon 
his  bureau  was  found  a  slip  of  paper,  on  which  were  writ- 
ten these  words : 

«  What  Cato  did,  and  Addison  apprcVd, 
Cannot  be  wrong." 

which,  however,    as  far  as  respects  Addison's  approval, 
was  a  mere  delusion  of  his  own  brain. 

Mr.  Budgell,  as  a  writer,  is  very  agreeable ;  not  argu- 
mentative, or  deep,  but  ingenious  and  entertaining ;  and 
his  style  was  thought  peculiarly  elegant,  and  almost 
ranked  with  Addison's,  and  it  is  certainly  superior  to  that 
of  most  English  writers*  Besides  what  are  above  men- 
tioned, be  published  :  "  Memoirs  of  the  Lives  and  Cba-' 
racters  of  the  family  of  the  Boyles,"  1737,  8vo,  thijrd 
edition,  a  work  of  unquestionable  authority,  in  most  of  the 
facts.  Except  this  and  his  papers  in  the  Spectator,  none 
•f  his  works  are  now  in  request ;  but  his  life  is  interesting 

B  U  D  G  E  L  Li  251 

and  instructive.  His  wayward  temper ;  indulgence  of  pas- 
sion and  spleen ;  irregular  ambition  ;  and  bis  connection 
with  Tindal,  which  ended  in  a  dereliction  of  moral  and 
religions  principle,  sufficiently  explain  the  causes  of  his 
unbappiness,  and  afford  an  important  lesson. 1 

BUFFALMACCO  (Buonamioo),  an  eminent  Italian 
painter,  was  born  at  Florence  in  1262,  and  was  for  some 
years  a  disciple  of  Andrea  Tassi.  He  was  pleasant  in  bis 
conversation,  and  somewhat  ingenious  in  his  compositions. 
A  friend,  whose  name  was  Bruno,  consulting  him  one  day 
how  he  might  give  more  expression  to  his  subject,  Buffal- 
macco  answered,  that  he  had  nothing  to  do,  but  to  make 
the  words  come  out  of  the  mouths  of  his  figures  by  labels, 
on  which  they  might  be  written,  which  had  been  before 
practised  by  Cimabue.  Bruno,  thinking  him  in  earnest, 
did  so,  as  several  CTerman  painters  did  after  him ;  who,  im- 
proving upon  Bruno,  added  answers  to  questions,  and 
made  their  figures  enter  into  a  kind  of  conversation.  Buf- 
falmacco  died  in  1340.  * 

BUFFIER  (Claude),  a  learned  metaphysician,  and  vo- 
luminous writer,  was  born  in  Poland,  of  French  parents, 
May  25,  1661.  His  parents  having  removed  to  Rouen,  he 
was  educated  there,  and  afterwards  entered  among  the  Je- 
suits at  Paris  in  1679,  and  took  the  four  vows  in  1695. 
In  1698  he  went  to  Rome,  not  at  the  invitation  of  the  ge- 
neral of  his  order,  as  has  been  asserted,  but  merely  to  see 
that  celebrated  city,  in  which  he  remained  about  four 
months,  and  then  returned  to  Paris,  where  he  passed  the 

freater  part  of  his  life  in  the  Jesuits  college.  Here  he  was 
rst  employed  on  the  "  Memoires  de  Trevoux,"  and  after- 
wards wrote  his  nuiherous  separate  publications.  He  died 
JVlay  .17,  1737.  His  eloge  appeared  in  the  "  Memoires0 
in  the  same  year,  but  principally  regards  his  writings,  as 
his  life  appears  to  have  passed  without  any  striking  or  cha- 
racteristic circumstances,  being  entirely  devoted  to  the 
composition  of  works  of  learning  or  piety,  of  which  the 
following  is  supposed  to  be  a  correct  list :  1.  Some  French 
verses  on  the  taking  of  Mons  and  Montmelian,  inserted  in 
the  "  Recueil  de  vers  choisis,"  Paris,  170 1, 12mo.  2.  "  La 
vie  de  FHermite  de  Compiegne,"  Paris,  1692,  1737,  12 mo. 
3.  "  Vie  de  Dominique  George,"  abbot  of  Valricher,  Paris, 
1696,  12mo.     4.  "  Pratique   de   la   memoire   artificieUe 

*  Biog.  Brit.— Gibber's  LiYei,  vol.  V.— British  Essayists,  vol  VI.  Pret  t* 
the  Spectator.  f  PUking fcm. 

252  BUFFIER. 

pour  apprendre  et  pour  retenir  la  chronologie,  Phistoire 
universelle,  &c."  Paris,  1701,  3  vols,  and  often  reprinted 
and  extended  to  4  vols.  5.  u  Veritas  consolantes  du  Chris- 
tianisme,"  ibid.  1718,  2d  edit.  16mo.  6.  "  Histoire  de 
Porigine  du  royaume  de  Sicile  et  de  JNaples,"  ibid.  1701, 
12  mo.  7.  "  La  pratique  desdevoirs  des  cure's,"  from  the 
Italian,  Lyons,  1702,  12mo.  8.  "  Abr6g6  de  Phistoire 
d'Espagne,"  Paris,  1704,  12mo.  9.  "  Examen  de  pre- 
jug£s  vulgaires  pour  disposer  P  esprit  a  juger  sainement 
de  tout,"  ibid.  1704,  l2u*o.  10.  "  Les  Abeilles,"  a  fable. 
1 L  "  Le  degat  du  Parnasse,  ou  La  Fausse  Utterature,"  a 
poem,  ibid.  1705.  12.  "  La  vie  du  comte  Louis  de  Sales," 
ibid.  1708,  12mo,  afterwards  translated  into  Italian,  and 
often  reprinted.  1 3.  "  Grammaire  Francoise  sur  un  plan 
nouveau,"  ibid.  1709,  12 mo,  often  reprinted.  14.  "  Le 
veritable  esprit  et  le  saint  emploi  des  fetes  de  Peglise," 
ibid.  1712,  12mo.  15.  "  Les  principes  du  raisonnement 
exposes  en  deux  logiques  nouvelles,  avee  des  remarques 
sur  les  logiques,"  &c.  ibid.  1714,  12mo.  16.  **  Geogra- 
phic universelle  avec  le  secours  des  vers  artificiels  et  avec 
des  cartes,"  ibid.  1715,  2  vols*  12mo.  17.  "  Homere  en 
arbitrage,"  ibid.  1715;  two  letters  addressed  to  the  mar- 
chioness Lambert,  on  tbe  dispute  between  madame  Dacier 
and  de  la  Motte,  on  Homer.  18.  "  Hist,  chronologique  du 
dernier  siecle,  &c."  from  the  year  1600,  ibid.  1715,  12 mo. 
1^.  "  Introduction  a  Phistoire  de  maisons  souveraines  de 
PEurope,"  Paris,  1717,  3  vols.  12mo.  20.  "  Exercice  de  la: 
pict6,"  &c  ib.  1718,  often  reprinted.  21.  "  Tableau  chro- 
nologique  de  Phistoire  uo  i verse!  le  en  forme  de  jeu,"  Paris, 
1718.  22.  "  Nouveaux  elemens  cPhistoire  et  de  geogra- 
phic," Paris,  1718.  23:  "  Sen ti mens  Chretien  sur  les 
principales  Veritas  de  la  religion,"  in  prose  and  verse,  and 
with  engravings,  1718,  12 mo.  24.  "  Trait£  des  pre- 
mieres verites,"  Paris,  1724,  12 mo.  A  translation  of  this, 
one  of  father  Buffer's  most  celebrated  works,  was  pub- 
lished in  1781,  under  the  title  of  "  First  Truths,  and  tbe 
origin  of  our  opinions  explained ;  with  an  inquiry  into  the 
sentiments  of  moral  philosophers,  relative  to  our  primary 
notions  of  things,"  8vo.  The  author  has  proved  himself 
to  be  a  metaphysician  of  considerable  abilities,  and  with 
many  it  will  be  no  diminution  of  his  merit,  that  he  starts 
some  principles  here,  which  were  afterwards  adopted  and 
expanded  by  Drs.  Reid,  Oswald,  and  Beattie,  under  the 
denomination  of  common  sense.     To  prove  how  much 

B  U  F  F  I  E  R.  25$ 

these  gentlemen  have  been  indebted  to  him,  appears  to  be 
the  sole  object  of  this  translation,  and  especially  of  the 
preface,  which,  says  one  of  the  literary  Journals,  "  though 
it  is  not  destitute  of  shrewdness,  yet  is  so  grossly  illiberal, 
that  we  remember  not  -to  have  read  any  thing  so  offensive 
to  decency  and  good  manners,  even  in  the  rancorous  pro- 
ductions of  some  of  the  late  controvertists  in  metaphysics* 
The  writer  hath  exceeded  Dr.  Priestley  in  the  abuse  of  the 
Scotch  doctors  ;  but  with  a  larger  quantity  of  that  author's 
virulence,  hath  unluckily  too  small  a  portion  of  his  inge- 
nuity and  good  sense,  to  recompense  for  that  shameful  af- 
front to  candour  and  civility  which  is  too  flagrant  in  every 
page,  to  escape  the  notice  or  indignation  of  any  unpreju- 
diced reader." 

Father  Buffier's  next  work,  which  may  be  considered  as 
a  supplement  to  tfye  former  was,  25%  "  Elemens  de  Meta- 
physique  a  la  portee  de  tout  le  monde,"  ibid.  1725,  12 mo. 
26.  "  Traits  de  la  society  civile,"  ibid.  1726.  27.  "Trails 
philosophiques  et  pratiques  d'eloquence  et  de  poesie," 
ibid.  1728,  %  vols.  12  mo.  28.  "Exposition  des  preuves 
les  plus  seusibles  de  la  veritable  religion,"  ibid.  1732, 
12mo.  Besides  these  he  contributed  some  papers  on  phi- 
lological subjects  to  the  u  Memoires  de  Trevoux."  The 
greater  and  best  part  of  the  preceding  works  were  collected 
and  published  in  a  folio  volume  in  1732,  under  the  title, 
"  Cours  des  Sciences  sur  des  principes  nouveaux  et  sim- 
ples, &c."  with  additions  and  corrections,  the  whole  form- 
ing an  useful  and  perspicuous  introduction  to  the  sciences. 
Buffier  was  not  only  one  of  the  ablest  and  most  industrious 
writers  of  his  time,  but  one  of  the  safest ;  and  his  having 
made  no  progress  in  infidelity,  while  he  professed  to  be  a 
metaphysician,  seems  to  be  the  principal  objection  which 
succeeding  French  philosophers  brought  against  him. l 

BUFFON  (George  Louis  Le  Cleuc,  Count  of)  the 
most  eminent  French  naturalist  of  the  eighteenth  century, 
the  son  of  a  counsellor  of  the  parliament  of  Dijon,  was 
born  at  Montbard  in  Burgundy,  September  the  7th,  1707. 
Having  manifested  an  early  inclination  to  the  sciences,  he 
gave  up  the  profession  of  the  law,  for  which  his  father  had 
designed  him.  The  science  which  seems  to  have  engaged 
his  earliest  attachment  was  astronomy ;  with  a  view  to 
which  he  applied  with  such  ardour  to  the  study  of  geome- 

1  Moreri.— -Diet.  Hist— Monthly  Review,  vol.  LXIII, 

i$*  B  U  FFON. 

try,  that  he  always  carried  in  his  pocket  .the  elements  of 
Euclid.     At  the  age  of  twenty  he  travelled  into  Italy,  and 
in  the  course  of  his  tour  he  directed  his  attention  to  the 
phenomena  of  nature  more  than  to  the  productions  of  art : 
and  at  this  early  period  he  was  also  ambitious  of  acquiring 
the  art  of  writing  with  ease  and  elegance.     In  1728  he 
succeeded  to  the  estate  of  bis  mother. « estimated  at  about 
12,000/.  a  year;  which  by  rendering  his  circumstances  af- 
fluent and  independent,  enabled  him  to  indulge  his  taste . 
in  those  scientific  researches  and  literary  pursuits,  to  which 
his  future  life  was  devoted.     Having  concluded  his  travels, 
at  the  age  of  twenty-five,  with  a  journey  to  England,  he 
afterwards  resided  partly  at  Paris,  where,  in  1739,  he  was 
appointed  superintendant  of  the  royal  garden  and  cabinet, 
and  partly  oik  his  estate  at  Montbard.     Although  he  was- 
fond  of  society,  and  a  complete  sensualist,  he  was  indefa- 
tigable in  his  application,  and  is  said  to  have  employed 
fourteen  hours  every  day  in  study ;  he  would  sometimes 
return  from  the  suppers  at  Paris  at  two  in  the  morning, 
when  he  was  young,  and  order  a  boy  to  call  him  at  five ; 
and  if  he  lingered  in  bed,  to  drag  him  out  on  the  floor. 
At  this  early  hour  it  was  his  custom,  at  Montbard,  to  dress, 
powder,  dictate  letters,  and  regulate  his  domestic  concerns. 
At  six  he  retired  to  his  stujly,  which  was  a  pavilion  called 
the  Tower  of  St.  Louis,  about  a  furlong  from  the  house,  at 
the  extremity  of  the  garden,  and  which  was  accommodated 
only  with  an  ordinary  wooden  desk  and  an  armed  chair. 
Within  this  was  another  sanctuary,  denominated  by  prince 
Henry  of  Prussia  u  the  Cradle  of  Natural  History,"  in 
which  he  was  accustomed  to  compose,    and  into  which 
no  one  was  suffered  to  intrude.     At  nine  his  breakfast, 
which  consisted  of  two  glasses  of  wine  and  a  bit  of  bread, 
was  brought  to  his  study  ;  and  after  breakfast  he  wrote  for 
about  two  hours,  and  then  returned  to  his  house.     At  din- 
ner  he  indulged  himself  in  all  the  gaieties  and  trifles  which 
occurred  at  table,  and  in  that  freedom  of  conversation, 
which  obliged  the  ladies,  when  any  of  character  were  his 
guests,  to  withdraw.     When  dinner  was  finished,  he  paid 
little  attention  either  to  his  family  or  guests ;  but  having 
slept  about  an  hour  in  his  room,  he  took  a  solitary  walk, 
and  then  he  would  either  converse  with  his  friends  or  sit  at 
h^s  desk,  examining  papers   that  were   submitted  to  his 
judgment.     This  kind  of  life  he  passed  for  fifty  years  ;  and 
to  one  who  expressed  his  astonishment  at  his  great  reputa- 

.    ^A 

BUFFON.  26* 

tion,  be  replied,  €t  Have  not  I  spent  fifty  years  at  my 
desk  ?"  At  nine  he  retired  to  bed.  In  this  course  he  pro- 
longed his  life,  notwithstanding  his  excessive  indulgences 
with  women,  and  his  excruciating  sufferings  occasioned  by 
the  gravel  and  stone,  which  he  bore  with  singular  fortitude 
and  patience,  to  his  8 1st  year ;  and  retained  his  senses  till 
within  a  few  hours  of  his  dissolution,  which  happened  on 
the  16th  of  April,  1788.  His  body  was  embalmed,  and 
presented  first  at  St.  Medard's  church,  and  afterwards  con* 
veyed  to  Montbard,  where  he  had  given  orders  in  his  will 
to  be  interred  in  the  same  vault  with  his  wife.  His  funeral 
was  attended  by  a  great  concourse  of  academicians,  and 
persous  of  rank,  and  Jiterary  distinction ;  and  a  crowd  of  at 
least  20,000  spectators  assembled  in  the  streets  through 
which  the  hearse  was  to  pass.  When  his  body  was  opened, 
57  stones  were  found  in  his  bladder,  some  of  which  were  as 
large  as  a  small  bean  :  and  of  these  37  were  crystallized  in 
a  triangular  form,  weighing  altogether  two  ounces  and  six 
drams.  All  his  other  parts  were  perfectly  sound ;  his  brain, 
was  found  to  be  larger  than  the.  ordinary  size ;  and  it  was 
the  opinion  of  the  gentlemen  of  the  faculty  who  examined 
the  body,  that  the  operation  of  the  lithotomy  might  have 
.  been  performed  without  the  least  danger ;  but  to  this  mode 
of  relief  M.  Buffon  had  invincible  objections.  He  left  one 
son,  who  fell  a  victim  to  the  atrocities  under  Robespierre. 
This  son  had  erected  a 'monument  to  his  father  in  the  gar- 
dens of  Montbard;  which  consisted  of  a  simple  column, 
with  this  inscription  ; 

"  Excels®  turn  humilis  columna 
Parenti  suo  filius  Buffon,  1785." 

The  father,  upon  seing  this  monument,  burst  into  tears, 
and  said  to  the  young  man,  "  Son,  this  will  do  you  ho- 
nour." iBuffon  was  a  member  of  the  French  academy, 
and  perpetual  treasurer  of  the  academy  of  sciences.  With 
a  view  to  the  preservation  of  his  tranquillity,  he  wisely 
avoided  the  intrigues  and  parties  that  disgracefully  occu- 
pied most  of  the  French  literati  in  his  time ;  nor  did  he 
ever  reply  to  the 'attacks  that  were  made  upon  his  works. 
In  1771  his  estate  was  erected  into  a  comt£;  and  thus  the 
decoration  of  rank,  to  which  he  was  by  no  means  indif- 
ferent, was  annexed  to  the  superior  dignity  he  had  ac- 
quired as  one  of  the  most  distinguished  members  of  the  re- 
public of  letters. 

With  respect  to  personal  character,  his  figure  was  noble 

256  BUFFON, 

aud  manly,  and  bis  countenance,  even  in  advanced  age,  - 
and  notwithstanding  excruciating   pains,  which   deprived 
him  of  sleep  sometimes  for  sixteen  successive  nights,  was 
calm  and  placid,  and  exhibited  traces  of  singular  intelli- 
gence.    Vanity,  however,  which  seemed  to  have  been  his 
predominant  passion,  extended  even  to  his  person  and  to 
all  his  exterior  ornaments.     He  was  particularly  fond  of 
having  his  hair  neatly  dressed,  and  for  this  purpose  he 
employed  the  friseur,  in  old  age,  twice  or  thrice  a  day. 
To  his  dress  he  was  peculiarly  attentive  ;  and  took  pleasure 
in  appearing  on  Sundays  before  the  peasantry  of  Montbard 
in  laced  clothes.     At  table,  as  already  noticed,  he  indulged 
in  indelicate  and  licentious  pleasantries,  and  he  was  fond 
of  hearing  every  gossiping  tale  which  his  attendants  could 
relate.     In  his  general  intercourse  with  females  he  was  as 
lax  and  unguarded  as  in  his  conversation.     During  the  life 
of  his  wife,  he  was  chargeable  with  frequent  infidelities  ; 
and  he  proceeded  to  the  very  unwarrantable  extreme  of 
debauching  young  women,  and  even  of  employing  means 
to  procure  abortion.     His  confidence,  in  the  latter  period 
of  his  life,  was  almost  wholly  engrossed  by  a  mademoiselle 
Blesseau,  who  lived  with  him  for  many  years.     His  vanity 
betrayed  itself  on  a  variety  of  occasions  in  relation  to  his 
literary  performances,  which  were  often  the  subjects  of 
his  discourse,  and  even  of  his  commendation.     When  he 
was  recommending  the  perusal  of  capital  works  in  every 
department  of  taste  and  science,  he  added,  with  singular 
presumption   and   self-confidence  j.    "  Capital    works    are 
►  scarce;  I  know  but  five  great  geniuses ; — Newton,  Bacon, 
Leibnitz,  Montesquieu,  and  myself P     He  was  in  the  ha- 
bit of  reciting  to  those  who  visited  him  whole  pages  of  his 
compositions,  for  he  seemed  to  know  them  almost  all  by 
heart ;  but  notwithstanding  his  vanity,  he  listened  to  ob- 
jections, entered  into  a  discussion  of  them,  and  surren-. 
dered  his  own  opinion  to  that  of  others,  when  his  judg- 
ment was  convinced.     He  expressed  himself  with  rapture 
concerning  the  pleasures  accruing  from  study ;    and  be 
declared  his  preference  of  the  writings  to  the  conversations 
t  of  learned  men,  which  almost  always  disappointed  him  ;  and 
therefore  he  voluntarily  secluded  himself  from  society  with 
such,  and  in  company  was  fond  of  trifling.    He  maintained, 
however,  an  extensive  correspondence  with  persons  of  rank 
and  eminence,  but  his  vanity  was  perpetually  recurring, 
particularly  towards  the  end  of  his  life,  when  his  infidelity 

BUFFO.N.  257 

suggested  to  him  that  immortal  renown  was  the  most  pow- 
erful of  death-bed  consolations  *. 

Of  his  infidelity,  his  works  afford  ample  evidence  ;  but' 
in  bis  contempt  for  religion,  he  contrived  to  add  hypocrisy 
to  impiety,  attending  with  regularity  the  external  obser- 
vances of  religion,  under  pretence  that,  as  there  must  be  a 
religion  for  the  multitude,  we  should -avoid  giving  offence. 
"  I  have  always,"  he  said,  "  named  the  Creator;  but  it  is 
only  putting,  mentally  in  its  place,  the  energy  of  nature, 
which  results  from  the  two  great  laws  of  attraction  and  im- 
pulse. When  the  Sorbonne  plagued  me,  I  gave  all  the 
satisfaction  which  they  solicited  :  it  was  a  form  that  I  de- 
spised, but  men  are  silly  enough  to  be  so  satisfied.  For 
the  same  reason,  when  I  fall  dangerously  ill,  I  shall  not 
hesitate  to  send  for  the  sacraments.  This  is  due  to  the 
public  religion.  Those  who  act  otherwise  are  madmen." 
Yet,  gross  as  this  hypocrisy  was  as  to  externals,  it  wa* 
not  permitted  to  interfere  with  his  personal  vices.  .These  - 
he  practised  to  the  last  with  a  zest  of  unfeeling  profligacy 
that  has,  perhaps,  never  been  exceeded ;  the  debauching 
of  female  children  forming  his  constant  and  his  last  delight. 
He  never  fails  to  allude  to  sensual  gratifications  in  his 
wo  As,  and  never  lost  sight  of  the  object  in  practice.  Yet 
this  is  the  man  to  whom  one  of  his  countrymen,  Herault 
de  Sechelles,  applied  the  epithets  "  great  and  good,"  an 
encomium  which  has  been  translated  in  some  of  the  English 
journals  without  remark. 

His  first  publication  was  a  translation  from  the  English 
of  "  Hales' s  Vegetable  Statics,"  1735,  which  was  followed 
in  1740  by  a  translation  from  the  Latin  of  "Newton's 
Fluxions.'*  His  "  Theory  of  the  Earth"  was  first  published 
in  1 744,  whieh  was  included  in  his  more  celebrated  work 
entitled  "  Natural  History,  general  and  particular,"  which 
commenced  in  1749,  and  at  its  completion  in  1767  ex- 
tended to  15  vols.  4to,  or  31  vols.  12mo;  and  supplements, 
amounting  to  several  more  volumes,  were  afterwards  added* 
In  the  anatomical  part  the  author  was  aided  by  M.  D' Au-  % 
benton,  but  in  all  the  other  parts  Buffon  himself  displays 
his  learning,  genius,  and  eloquence,  and  indulges  his  fancy 

*  Buffon,  daring  tbe  greater  pari  of  de  Buffon  (and  many  were  addressed 
his  life,  was  highly  respected  in  all  to  him  fr6m  every  part  of  the  world), 
Europe;  and  it  is  said,  that  during  the  they  immediately  forwarded  them  to 
war  1755 — 62,  whenever  the  captains  Paris  unopened, — a  mark  of  reverence 
of  English  privateers  found  in  their  for  genius  which  we  are  happy  to  re- 
prizes any  boxes  addressed  to  count  cord. 

Vol.  VII.  S 

253  BUFFON. 

in  exploring  and  delineating  the  whole  ceconomy  of  nature* 
To  this  work,  which  includes  only  the  history  of  quadru^ 
peds,  he  added,  in  1776,  a  supplementary  volume,  con-' 
taining  the  history  of  several  new  animals,  and  additions* 
to  most  of  those  before  described.  As  this,  as  well  as  his* 
other  works,  has  been  so  long  before  the  public,  it  would 
be  unnecessary  to  enter  in  this  place  on  their  excellences- 
or  defects.  All  succeeding  naturalists  have  found  some-r 
thing  to  blame  and  something  to  praise  in  his  works,  with? 
respect  to  facts,  and  much  indeed  with  regard  to  theory. 

After  th£  completion  of  his  history  of  quadrupeds  in 
1767,  Buffon  was  interrupted  in  the  prepress  of  his  labours- 
by  a  severe  and  tedious  indisposition ;  and  therefore  the 
two  first  volumes  of  his  "  History  of  Birds"  did  not  appear 
till  1771.  In  the  composition  of  the  greatest  part  of  these 
he  was  indebted  to  the  labours  of  M.  Gueneau  de  Mont- 
beillard,  who  adhered  so  closely  to  Buffon' s  mode  of  think- 
ing and  of  expression,  that  the  public"  could  not  perceive 
any  difference.  The  four  subsequent  volumes  were  the 
joint  production  of  both  writers :  and  each  author  prefixed 
his  name  to  his  own  articles.  The  three  remaining  vo- 
lumes were  written  by  Buffon  himself,  with  the  assistance 
of  the  abbe  Bexon,  who  formed  the  nomenclature,  drew 
up  most  of  the  descriptions,  and  communicated  several 
important  hints.  The  work  was  completed  in  1783,  but 
on  account  of  the  much  greater  number  of  species  of  birds 
than  of  quadrupeds,  the  want  of  systematic  arrangement 
is  more  to  be  regretted  in  this  than  in  the  other  history. 
A  translation  of  Buffon's  "  Natural  History,"  by  Mr. 
Smellie  of  Edinburgh,  comprised  in  8  vols.  8vo,  was  pub- 
lished in  1781  ;  to  which  a  9th  volume  was  added  in  1786, 
containing  a  translation  of  a  supplementary  volume  o£ 
Buffon,  consisting  chiefly  of  curious  and  interesting 
facts  with  regard  to  the  history  of  the  earth.  The  trans- 
late* has  omitted  the  anatomical  dissections  and  mensura- 
tions of  M.  D'Aubentop,  which  greatly  enhanced  the  bulk, 
as  well  as  the  price  of  the  original,  and  which  the  author 
himself  had  omitted  in  the  last  Paris  edition  of  his  per- 
formance. There  are  likewise  some  other  omissions,  which 
are  not  very  important,  respecting  the  method  of  studying 
natural  history,  methodical  distributions,  and  the  mode  of 
describing  animals.  These  omissions  have  been  amply 
compensated  by  the  translator's  addition  of  short  distinctive 
descriptions  to  each  species  of  quadrupeds,  of  the  figures 

BUFFON,  «ft 

of  several  new  animals,  and  of  the  synonyms,  as  Well  as 
the  generic  and  specific  characters  given  by  Linnasus, 
Klein,  Brisson,  and  other  naturalists,  together  with  occa- 
sional notes.  Buffon's  "  History  of  Birds,"  in  9  vols.  8vo, 
with  notes  and  additions,  translated  by  Mr.  Leslie,  was 
also  published  in  1793. 

In  1774  Buffon  began  to  publish  a  "  Supplement"  to 
his  Natural  History,  consisting  of  the  "  History  of  Mine- 
rals," which  contains  many  curious  and  valuable  experi- 
ments, as  well  as  much  theory,  too  lax  for  the  rigour  of 
modern  science.  The'  concluding  volume  may  be  consi- 
dered as  a  kind  of  philosophical  romance.  It  comprehends 
what  the  author  fancifully  denominates  the  "  Epochas  of 
Nature,"  or  those  great  changes  in  the  state  of  the  garth 
which  he  supposes  to  have  successively  resulted  from  his 
hypothesis  of  its  original  formation  out  of  tjie  sun.  Of 
these  epochas  he  enumerates  seven,  of  which  six  are  sup- 
posed to  have  been  previous  to  the  creation  of  man.  In 
the  description  of  these  epochas,  as  to  both  their  causes 
and  effects,  the  author  has  indulged  the  sport  of  fancy, 
and  formed  a  sort  of  fairy  tale,  which  he  has  contrived  to 
render  amusing  and  instructive.  His  works  have  been  col- 
lected and  published  in  35  vols.  4 to,  and  62  vols.  12 mo, 
and  of  the  whole  or  parts  of  them  new  editions  occasionally 
appear.  After  he  had  completed  bis  "  History  of  Mine- 
rals," he  had  formed  a  design  of  composing  the  "  History 
of  Vegetables;"  but  this  project  was  defeated  by  his  death. 
Several  of  the  subjects  that  occur  in  his  "  Natural  History,** 
and  its  supplements,  have  been  discussed  in  separate  me- 
moirs, and  may  be  found  in  the  Memoirs  of  the  royal  aca- 
demy of  sciences  at  Paris,  for  the  years  1737,  1738,  1739, 
1741    and  1742. 1  ' 

BUGENHAGIUS,  or  BUGENHAGEN  (John),  one  of 
the  German  reformers,  sometimes,  from  his  native  country, 
called  Pomeranus,  was  born  at  Julin,  or  Wollin,  near 
Stetin,  in  Pomerania,  June  24,  1 485,  and  his  parents  be- 
ing of  some  rank  in  the  state  were  enabled  to  give  him  a 
very  liberal  education.  He  was  sent  early  to  the  univer- 
sity of  Grypswald,  where  he  employed  his  time  so  Assi- 
duously in  classical  learning,  that,  at  the  age  of  twenty,  he 
taught  school  at  Treptow,  and  raised  that  school  to  a  very 
high  degree  of  reputation*    The  first  impressions  he  ap- 

1  Rees's  and  Brewster's  Cyclopaedias.— Herault  Sechelles,  in  Peltier's  Paris 
jamdantVannee  1795  and  1796,— Jiloges  det  Acad«raiciens,  valv  IV, 

S  2 


peats  to-  have  received  of  the  necessity  of  a  reformation 
was  from  a  tract  of  Erasmus :  this  induced  him  to  look 
with  more  attention  into  the  sacred  volume,  and  he  pro- 
ceeded to  instruct  others  by  lecturing  in  his  school  on  va- 
rious parts  of  the  Old  and  New  Testament.     As  a  preacher 
he  likewise  became  very  popular,  and  chiefly  on  account 
of  his  learning,  in  which  he  exceeded  many  of  his  contem- 
poraries.    His  knowledge  extending  also  to  history  and 
antiquities,  prince  Bogislaus  engaged  him  to  write  a  "  His- 
tory of  Pomerania,"  ^furnishing  him  with  money,  books* 
and  records,,  and  this  was  completed  in  two  years,  but  it 
was  long  unpublished,  the  prince  reserving  it  in  manu- 
script, for  the  use  of  himself  and  his  court.     It  appeared 
at  last  in  1727,  4to.     He  was  still,  however,  attached  to 
the  religious  principles  in  which  he  had  been  brought  up, 
until  in  1521  Luther's  treatise  on  the  Babylonish  captivity 
was  published.     Even  when  he  began  first  to  read  this,  he 
declared  the  author  to  be  "  the  most  pestilent  heretic  that 
ever  infested  the  church  of  Christ ;"  but  after  a  more  at- 
tentive perusal,   he  candidly  recanted   this  unfavourable 
opinion,    in   the   following  strong    terms,    "  The    whole 
world  is  blind,  and  this  man  alone  sees  the  truth."     It  is* 
probable  that  be  had  communicated  this  discovery  to  bis 
'brethren,  for  we  find  that  the  abbot,  two  aged  pastors  of 
the  church,  and  some  other  of  the  friars,  began  to  be  con- 
vinced of  the  errors  of  popery  about  the  same  time.     Bu- 
genhagius  now  avowed  the  principles  of  the  reformation  so 
openly,  that  he  found  it  necessary  to  leave  Treptow,  and 
being  desirous  of  an  interview  with  Luther,  went  to  Wit- 
temberg,  where  he  was  chosen   pastor  of  the  reformed 
church.     Here  he  constantly  taught  the  doctrines  of  the 
reformation,  both  by  preaching  and  writing,  for  thirty-six; 
years.     He  always  opposed  the  violent  and  seditious  prac- 
tices of  Carlostadt,  and  lived  on  the  most  friendly  terms, 
with  Luther  and  Melancthon.     At  first  he  thought  Luther 
bad  been  too  violent  in  his  answer  to  Henry  VIII.  of  Eng- 
land, but  he  changed  his  opinion,  and  declared,  that  the: 
author  had  treated  that  monarch  with  too  much  lenity* 

His  public  services  were  not  confined  to  Wittemberg* 
In  1522,  he  was  requested  to  go  to  Hamburgh,  to  draw 
up  for  them  certain  doctrinal  articles,  the  mode  of  church 
government,  &c.  and  he  also  erected  a  school  in. the  monas- 
tery of  St.  John.  In  1530.  he  performed  the  same  services 
for  the  reformed  church  of  Lubeck.  .  In  1537,  he  was  soli* 

B  U  G  E  N  B  A  <?  I  U  S.  &6j 

cited  by- Christian  king  of  Denmark  to  assist  Ms  majesty  id 
promoting  the  refQrmation,  and  erecting  schools  in  his  domi- 
nions. All  this  he  appears  to  have  performed  on  an  extensive 
pcale,  for  his  biographers  inform  us  that  besides  new  mo- 
delling the  church  of  Denmark,  and  substituting  superior 
tendants  for  bishops,  he  appointed  ministers  in  the  king- 
doms of  Denmark  and  Norway,  to  the  number  of  twenjy- 
four  thousand.  He  assisted  Jikewise  in  1542,  in  the  ad- 
vancement of  the  reformation  in  the  dukedom  of  Brunswick 
and  other  places.  At  length,  after  a  life  devoted  to  these 
objects,  he  died  April  20,  1558.  He  wrote  a  "  CoHMfterf- 
tary  on  the  Psalms ;"  annotations  on  St.  Paul's  Epistles ; 
a  harmony  of  the  Gospels,  &c.  and  assisted  Luther  in 
translating  the  bible  into  German.  He  used  to  keep  the 
.day  on  which  it  was  finished  as  a  festival,  calling  it  the 
"  Feast  of  the  translation."  His  own  works  were  princi- 
pally written  ia  Latin.  * 

BULKLEY  (Charles),  a  protestant  dissenting  minister, 
was  born  in  London,  Oct  18,  1719.  His  mother  was  the 
daughter,  by  a  second  wife,  of  the  celebrated  Matthew 
Henry.  He  was  educated  first  at  Chester,  from  whence 
he  went  to  Dr.  Doddridge's  academy  at  Northampton  iii 
1736,  and  commenced  preacher  in  the  summer  of  1740, 
his  first  settlement  being  at  Wei  ford,  in  Northamptonshire. 
He  appears  to  have  afterwards  remqyed  to  London,  but 
quitted  the  presbyterian  sect,  was  baptized  by  immersion, 
and  joined  the  general  baptists.  He  preached  likewise  at 
Colchester,  but  how  long  cannot  be  ascertained.  In  1743, 
he  was  chosen  minister  of  a  meeting  in  White's  alley, 
Moorfields.  In  1745,  this  congregation  removed  to  Bar- 
bican, fcnd  in  1780  to  Worship-street,  Shoreditch,  wbe*e 
it  remained  until  his  death  April  15,  1797.  Before  this 
event  his  infirmities  had  unfitted  him  for  public  service ; 
yet  at  one  period  he  must  have  enjoyed  great  popularity, 
as  he  was  chosen  to  succeed  Dr.  James  Foster,  in  the  Old 
Jewry  lecture.  Besides  several  single  sermons,  preached 
on  particular  occasions,  he  published  1.  "  Discourses  on 
several  subjects,"  1752.  2.  "A  Vindication  of  Lord 
Shaftesbury's  writings,"  1753.  3.  "  Notes  on  Lord  Bo- 
lingbroke's  Philosophical  Writings,"  1755,  8vo.  4.  _"  Ob- 
servations on  Natural  Religion  and  Christianity,  candidly 
proposed  in  a  Review  of  the  Discourses  lately  published 

1  Melchior  Adam.— Freheri  Tbeatrum.— Miliwr's  Ch.  Hist,  vol.  V.  App.  p.  8. 

— Saxii  Onoma&ticon, 

£62  B  V  L  K  L  E  Y. 

by  the  lord  bishop  of  London,1'  1 757.  5.  "  CEconomy  of  the 
Gospel/9  17<64,  4to.  6.  "  Discourses  on  the  Parables  and 
Miracles  of  Christ,"  1770,  4  vols.  7.  "  Catechetical  Ex- 
ercises," 1774.  8.  "  Preface  to  notes  on  the  Bible,"  1791, 
and  after  his  death,  "  Notes  on  the  Bible,"  3  vols.  8vo.  * 

BULKLEY  (Peter),  an  English  divine,  was  born  at 
Woodhill,  in  Bedfordshire,  1582,  and  educated  at  St. 
John's  college,  Cambridge,  where  he  obtained  a  fellowship. 
He  had  an  estate  left  to  him  by  his  father,  whom  he  suc- 
ceeded in  the  living  of  Woodhill.  Here  he  remained  for 
twenty-one  years,  until  he  was  silenced  for  non-conformity 
by  archbishop  Laud.  On  this  he  converted  his  estate  into 
money,  and  went  to  New  England  in  1635,  and  carrying 
with  him  some  planters,  they  settled  at  a  place  which  they 
called  Concord,  and  where  they  succeeded  better  than 
Mr.  Bulkley  did,  who  sunk  his  property  in  improvements. 
He  died  there  March  9,  1658-9.  His  only  publication 
was  entitled  "  The  Gospel  Covenant  opened,"  165],  4to, 
which  passed  through  several  editions,  and  was  one  of  the 
first  books  published  in  that  country. l 

BULL  (George),  bishop  of  St.  David's,  was  born 
March  25,  1634,  in  the  parish  of  St.  Cuthbert,  at  Wells 
in  Somersetshsre.  He  was  descended  from  an  ancient  and 
genteel  family,  seated  at  Shapwick  in  that  county.  Our 
prelate's  father,  Mr.  George  Bull,  dedicated  his  son  to  the 
church  from  his  infancy,  having  declared  at  the  font,  that 
he  designed  him  for  holy  orders,  but  he  died  when  George 
was  but  four  years  old,  and  left  him  under  the  care  of 
guardians,  with  an  estate  of  two  hundred  pounds  per  an- 
num. When  he  was  fit  to  receive  the  first  rudiments  of 
learning,  he  was  placed  in  a  grammar-school  at  Wells,  from 
whence  he  was  soon  removed  to  the  free-school  of  Tiverton, 
in  Devonshire,  where  he  made  a  very  quick  progress  in 
classical  learning,  and  became  qualified  for  the  university 
at  fourteen  years  of  age. 

He  was  entered  a  commoner  of  Exeter- college,  in 
Oxford,  the  10th  of  July,  1648,  under  the  tuition  of  Mr. 
Baldwin  Ackland,  and  though  he  lost  much  time  in  the 
pursuit  of  pleasures  and  diversions,  yet,  by  the  help  of 
logic,  which  he  mastered  with  little  labour,  and  a  close 
way  of,  reasoning,  which  was  natural  to  him,  he  soon 
gained    the    reputation    of  a    smart  disputant,    and   a* 

?  Erant'0  Funeral  Sermon,  in  Prot  Dissenters  Magazine,  vol.  IV. 
I  Weal's  Hist,  Qf  PwiMws,  and  Hilt,  of  New  England,  vol,  I.  p.  3Q3, 

BULL.  261 

such  was  taken  notice  of  and  encouraged  by  his  su- 
periors, particularly  Dr.  Conant,  rector  of  the  college, 
and  Dr.  Prideaux,  bishop  of  Worcester,  who  at  that  time 
resided  in  Oxford.  He  continued  in  Exeter-college  till 
January,  1649,  at  which  time  having  refused  to  take  the 
oath  to  the  Commonwealth  of  England,  he  retired  with  bit 
tutor,  Air.  Ackland,  who  had  set  him  the  example,  to 
North- Cadbury,  in  Somersetshire,  where  he  continued 
under  the  care  of  that  good  and  able  man,  till  he  was 
about  nineteen  years  of  age.  This  retreat  gave  him  an 
opportunity  of  frequent  converse  with  one  of  his  sisters, 
whose  good  sense,  and  pious  admonitions,  weaned  him 
entirely  from  all  youthful  vanities,  and  influenced  him  to 
a  serious  prosecution  of  his  Studies.  And  now,  by  the 
advice  of  his  friends  and  guardians,  he  put  himself  under 
the  care  of  Mr.  William  Thomas,  rector  of  Ubley,  in  So* 
mersetshire,  a  puritan  divine,  in  whose  house  he  boarded, 
with  some  of  his  sisters,  for  the  space  of  two  years.  To 
this  gentleman's  principles,  however,  he  had  no  lasting  at- 
tachment, and  as  he  advanced  in  reading,  he  began  to 
study  Hooker,  Hammond,  Taylor,  Episcopius,  &c.  with 
which  his  friend  Mr.  Samuel  Thomas,  the  son  of  his  bost^ 
supplied  him,  much  against  the  old  gentleman's  will,  who 
told  his  son  that  he  would  "  corrupt  Mr.  Bull."  Soon 
after  he  had  left  Mr.  Thomas,  he  entertained  thoughts  of 
entering  into  holy  orders,  and  for  that  purpose  applied 
himself  to  Dr.  Skinner,  the  ejected  bishop  of  Oxford,  by 
whom  he  was  ordained  deacon  and  priest  in  the  same  day, 
being  at  that  time  but  twenty-one  years  of  age,  and  con- 
sequently under  the  age  prescribed  by  the  canons,  with 
which,  however,  in  times  of  such  difficulty  and  distress, 
it  was  thought  fit  to  dispense.  Not  long  after,  he  accepted 
the  small  benefice  of  St.  George's,  near  Bristol,  where, 
by  his  constant  preaching  twice  e¥ery  Sunday,  the  method 
he  took  in  governing  his  parish,  bis  manner  of  performing 
divine  service,  his  exemplary  life  and  great  charities,  he 
entirely  gained  the  affections  of  his  flock,  and  was  very 
instrumental  in  reforming  his  parish,  which  he  found  over- 
run with  quakers  and  other  sectarists. 

A  little  occurrence,  soon  after  his  coming  to  this  living, 
contributed  greatly  to  establish  his  reputation  as  a  preacher. 
One  Sunday,  when  he  had  begun  his  sermon,  as  he  was 
turning  over  bis  Bible  to  explain  some  texts  of  scripture 
which  he  had  quoted,   his  notes,  which   were  wrote  on 

-  264  "  BULL. 

several  smfcll  pieces  of  paper,  flew  out  of  his  Bible  into  the 
jniddle  of  the  church  :  many  of.  the  congregation  fell  into 
laughter,  concluding  that  their  young  preacher  would  be 
iion-plussed  for  want  of  materials  ;  but.  some  of  the  more 
sober  and  better-natured  sort,  gathered  up  the  scattered  ' 
ijotes,  and  carried  them  to  him  in  the  pulpit,  Mr.  Bull 
took  them ;  and  perceiving  that  most  of  the  audience, 
(consisting  chiefly  of  sea- faring  persons,  were  rather  in- 
clined to  triumph  over  him  under  that  surprize,  he  clapped 
them  into  his  book  again,  and  shut  it,  and  then,  without 
referring  any  more  to  them,  went  on  with  the  subject  he 
bad  begun*  Another  time,  while  he  was  preaching,  a 
quaker  came  into  the  church,  and  in  the  middle  of  the 
sermon,  cried  out  "  George,  come  down,  thou  art  a  false 
prophet,  and  a  hireling ;"  whereupon  the  parishioners,  who 
loved  their  minister  exceedingly,  fell  upon  the  poor  quaker" 
with  such  fury,  as  obliged  Mr.  Bull  to  come  down  out  of 
the  pulpit  to  quiet  them,  and  to  save  him  from  the  effects 
of  their  resentment ;  after  which  he  went  up  again,  and 
finished  his  sermon.  The  prevailing  spirit  of  those  times 
fWould  not  admit  of  the  public  and  regular  use  of  the  book 
of  common-prayer;  but  Mr.  Bull  formed  all  his  public 
-devotions  out  of  the  book  of  common  prayer,  and  was 
commended  as  a  person  who  prayed  by  the  spirit,  by  many 
'who  condemned  the  common-prayer  as  a  beggarly  element 
and  carnal  performance.  A  particular  instance  of  this 
happened  to  him  upon  his  being  sent  for  to  baptize  the 
.child  of  a  dissenter  in  his  parish.  Upon  this  occasion,  he 
tnade  use  of  the  office  of  baptism  as  prescribed  by  the 
church  of  England,  which  he  had  got  entirely  by  heart, 
and  which  he  went  through  with  so  much  readiness,  gra- 
vity, and  devotion,  that  the  whole  company  were  ex- 
tremely affected.  After  the  ceremony,  the  father  of  the 
child  returned  him  a  great  many  thanks,  intimating  at  the 
same  time,  with  how  much  greater  edification  those 
prayed,  who  entirely  depended  upon  the  spirit  of  God  for 
his  assistance  in  their  extempore  effusions,  than  they  did 
who  tied  themselves  up  to  premeditated  forms  ;  and  that, 
if  he  had  not  made  the  sign  of  the  cross,  the  badge  of 
,popery,  as  he  called  it,  nobody  could  have  formed  the 
least  objection  to  his  excellent  prayers.  Upon  which  Mr. 
Bull  shewed  him  the  office  of  baptism  in  the  liturgy, 
wherein  was  contained  every  prayer  he  had  used  on  that 
occasion  ;  which,  with  other  arguments  offered  by  Mr. 
Bull  in  favour  of  the  cotnmon  prayer,  wrought  so  effec- 

BULL  265 

iuaUy  upon  the  good  old  man,  and  his  whole  family,  that 
from  that  time  they  became  constant  attendants  <m  the 
public  service  of  the  church. 

Whilst  he  remained  minister  of  this  parish,  the  provi- 
dence of  God  wonderfully  interposed  for  the  preservation 
of  his  life ;  for  his  lodgings  being  near  a  powder-mill,  Mr. 
Morgan,  a  gentleman  of  the  parish,  represented  to  him 
the  danger  of  his  situation,  and  at  the  same  time  invited 
him  to  his  own  house.  Mr.  Bull,  at  first,  modestly  de- 
clined the  offer,  but  after  some  importunity  accepted  it ; 
and,  not  many  days  after  his  removal  to  Mr.  Morgan's,  the 
mill  was  blown  up,  ancf  his  apartment  with  it.  In  this  part 
of  his  life  he  took  a  journey  once  a  year  to  Oxford,  where 
he  stayed  about  two  months,  to  enjoy  the  benefit  of  the 
public  libraries.  In  his  way  to  and  from  Oxford,  he  always 
paid  a  visit  to  sir  William  Masters,  of  Cirencester,  by 
which  means  he  contracted  an  intimacy  with  Mr.  Alex- 
ander Gregory,  the  minister  of  the  place,  and  after  some 
time  married  Bridget,  one  of  his  daughters,  on  the  20th 
of  May,  1658.  The  same  year  he  was  presented  by  the 
lady  Pool,  to  the  rectory  of  Suddington  St.  Mary,  near 
Cirencester,  in  Gloucestershire.  The  next  year,  1659, 
he  was  made  privy  to  ,the  design  of  a  general  insurrec- 
tion in  favour  of  king  Charles  II.  and  several  gentlemen 
of  that  neighbourhood  who  were  in .  the  secret,  chose 
his  bouse  at  Suddington  for  one  of  the  places  of  their 
meeting.  Upon  the  restoration,  Mr.  Bull  frequently 
preached  for  his  father-in-law,  Mr.  Gregory,  at  Ci- 
rencester, where  there  was  a  large  and  populous  con- 
gregation;  vand  his  sermons  gave  such  general  satisfaction, 
that,  upon  a  vacancy,  the  people  were  .very  solicitous  to 
have  procured  for  him  the  presentation ;  but  the  largeness 
of  the  parish,  and  the  great  duty  attending  it,  deterred 
him  from  consenting  to  the  endeavours  they  were  making 
for  that  purpose.  In  1662,  he  was  presented  by  the  lord 
high-chancellor,  the  earl  of  Clarendon,  to  the  vicarage  of 
Suddington  St.  Peter,  which  lay  contiguous  to  Suddington 
St.  Mary,  at  the  request  of  his  diocesan  Dr.  Nicholson, 
bishop  of  Gloucester,  both  livings  not  exceeding  100/.  a 
year.  When  Mr,  Bull  came  first  to  the  rectory  of  Sud- 
dington, he  began  to  be  more  open  in  the  use  of  the  li- 
turgy of  the  church  of  England,  though  it  was  not  yet 
restored  by  the  return  of  the  king ;  for,  being  desired  to 
marry  a  couple,  he  performed  the  ceremony,  on  a  Sunday 
morning,  in  the  face  of  the  whole  congregation,  according 


B  U  LL 

to  the  form  prescribed  by  the  book  of  common -prayer. 
He  took  the  same  method  in  governing  these  parishes,  as 
in  that  of  St.  George's,  and  with  the  same  success ;  ap- 
plying himself  with  great  diligence  to  the  discharge  of  his 
pastoral  functions,  and  setting  the  people  an  admirable 
example  in  the  government  and  oeconomy  of  his  own 
family  *.  During  his  residence  here,  he  had  an  opportu- 
nity of  confirming  two  ladies  of  quality  in  the  protestant 
communion,  who  were  reduced  to  a  wavering  state  of  mind 
by  the  arts  and  subtleties  of  the  Romish  missionaries.  The 
only  dissenters  he  had  in  his  parish  were  quakers  ;  whose 
extravagances  often  gave  him  no  small  uneasiness.  In 
this  part  of  bis  life,  Mr.  Bull  prosecuted  his  studies  with 
great  application,  and  composed  most  of  his  works  during 
the  twenty-seven  years  that  he  was  rector  of  Suddington. 
Several  tracts,  indeed,  which  cost  him  much  pains,  are  en- 
tirely lost,  through  his  own  neglect  in  preserving  them ; 
particularly  a  treatise  on  the  posture  used  by  the  ancient 
Christians  in  receiving  the  Eucharist;  a  letter  to  Dr.  Pear- 
son concerning  the  genuineness  of  St.  Ignatius's  epistles;  a 
long  one  to  Mr.  Glanvil,  formerly  minister  of  Bath,  con- 
cerning the  eternity  of  future  punishments ;  and  another, 
on  the  subject  of  papery,  to  a  person,  of  very  great  quality. 
In  1669,  he  published  his  Apostolical  Harmony,  with  a 
view  to  settle  the  peace  of  the  church,- upon  a  point  of  the 
utmost  importance  to  all  its  members ;  and  be  dedicated  it 
to  Dr.  William  Nicholson,  bishop  of  Gloucester.  This 
performance  was  greatly  disliked,  at  first,  by  many  of  the 
clergy,  and  others,  on  account  of  the  author's  departing 
therein  from  the  private  opinions  of  some  doctors  of  the 
church,  and  his  jmanner  of  reconciling  the  two  apostles  St. 
Paul  and  St.  James,  as  to  the  doctrine  of  justification.  It 
was  particularly  opposed  by  Dr.  Morley,  bishop  of  Win- 

*  Every  morning  and  evening  tbe 
family  were  called  to  prayers,  which 
were  either  those  composed  by  bishop 
Taylor,  or  takeu  out  of  "  The  Com- 
mon Prayer  book  the  best  Compa- 
nion." A  portion  of  Scripture  was 
read  at  the  same  time,  with  the  addi- 
tion, on  Sunday  evenings,  of  a  chapter 
out  of  the  "  Whole  Duty  of  Man."  If 
any  of  his  servants  could  not  read,  be 
would  assign  one  of  the  family  to  be 
their  teacher;  and  no  neglect  of  duty 
in  them  offended  him  so  much  as  their 
Absence  from  the  family  devotions.  Tbe 

constant  frame  and  temper  of  his  mind 
was  so  truly  devout,  that  he  would  fre- 
quently in  the  day-time,  as  occasion 
offered,  use  short  prayers  and  ejacula- 
tions ;  and  when  he  was  sitting  in  si- 
lence in  his  family,  and  they,  as  be 
thought,  intent  upon  other  matters,  be 
would  often  with  an  inexpressible  air 
of  great  seriousness,  lift  up  his  hands 
and  eyes  to  heaven,  and  sometimes 
drop  tears.  He  was  very  frequent  and 
earnest  in  his  private  devotions,  of 
which  singing  psalms  always  made  s> 



Chester;  Dr.  Barlow,  Margaret-professor  of  divinity  at  Ox- 
ford ;  Mr.  Charles  Gataker,  a  presbyterian  divine;  Mr.  Jo- 
seph Truman,  a  non-conformist  minister ;  Dr.  Tally,  prin- 
cipal of  St.  Ediriund's-hall ;  Mr.  John  Tombes,  a  famous 
anabaptist  preacher ;  Dr.  Lewis  Du  Moulin,  an  indepen- 
dent ;  and  by  M.  De  Marets,  a  French  writer,  who  tells 
us,  "  that  the  author,  though  a  professed  priest  of  the 
church  of  England,  was  more  addicted  to  the  papists,  re- 
monstrants, and  Socinians,  than  to  the  orthodox  party." 
Towards  the  end  of  1675,  Mr.  Bull  published  his  "  Exa- 
men  Censurae,"  &c.  in  answer  to  Mr.  Gataker,  and  his 
tt  Apologia  pro  Harmonia,"  &c.  in  reply  to  Dr.  Tully.  Mr. 
Bull's  notion  on  this  subject  was  "  That  good  works,  which 
proceed  from  faith,  and  are  conjoined  with  faith,  are  a 
necessary  condition  required  from  us  by  God,  to  the  end 
that  by  the  new  and  evangelical  covenant,  obtained  by 
and  sealed  in  the  blood  of  Christ  the  Mediator  of  it,  we 
may  be  justified  according  to  his  free  and  unmerited 
grace."  In  this  doctrine,  and  throughout  the  whole  book, 
Mr.  .Bull  absolutely  excludes  all  pretensions  to  merit  on 
the  part  of  men ;  but  the  work  nevertheless  excited  the 
jealousy  of  many  able  divines  both  in  the  church  and 
among  the  dissenters,  as  appears  from  the  above  list. 
About  three  years  after,  he  was  promoted  by  the  earl  of 
Nottingham,  then  lord  chancellor,  to  a  prebend  in  the 
church  of  Gloucester,  in  which  he  was  installed  the  9th  of 
October,  1678.  In  1680,  he  finished  his  "Defence  of 
the  Nicene  Faith,"  of  which  he  had  given  a  hint  five  years- 
before  in  his  Apology.  This  performance,  which  is  levelled 
against  the  Arians  and  Socinians  on  one  hand,  and  the 
Tritheists  and  Sabellians  on  the  other,  was  received  with 
universal  applause,  and  its  fame  spread  into  foreign  coun- 
tries, where  it  was  highly  esteemed  by  the  best  judges  of 
antiquity,  though  of  different  persuasions.  Five  years  after 
its  publication,  the  author  was  presented,  by  Philip  Shep- 
pard,  esq.  to  the  rectory  of  Avening  in  Gloucestershire,  a 
very  large  parish,  and  worth  two  hundred  pounds  per  an- 
num. The  people  of  this  parish,  being  many  of  them 
very  dissolute  and  immoral,  and  many  more,  disaffected  to 
the  church  of  England,  gave  him  for  some  time  great  trou- 
ble and  uneasiness  ;  but,  by  his  prudent  conduct  and  dili- 
gent discharge  of  his  duty,  he  at  last  got  the  better  of  their 
prejudices,  and  converted  their  dislike  iuto  the  most  cor- 
dial love  and  affection  towards  him.     He  had  not  been 

268  BULL. 

long  at  Averring,  before  he  was  promoted,  by  archbishop 
Sancroft,  to  the  archdeaconry  of  LandafF,  in  which  he  was 
installed  the  20th  of  June,  1686.  He  was  invited  soon 
after  to  Oxford,  where  the  degree  of  doctor  in  divinity- 
was  conferred  upon  him  by  that  university,  without  the 
payment  of  the  usual  fees,  in  consideration  of  the  great 
and  eminent  services  he  had  done  the  church.  During  the 
reign  of  James  II.  the  doctor  preached  very  warmly  against 
popery,  with  which  the  nation  was  then  threatened.  Some 
-time  after  the  revolution,  he  was  put  into  the  commission 
of  the  peace,  and  continued  in  it,  with  some  little  inter- 
ruption, till  he  was  made  a  bishop.  In  1694,  whilst  he 
continued  rector  of  Avening,  he  published  his  "  Judicium 
Ecclesise  Catholicae,  &c."  in  defence  of  the  "  Anathema,** 
as  his  former  book  had  been  of  the  Faith,  decreed  by  the 
first  council  of  Nice*.  The  last  treatise  which  Dr.  Bull 
wrote,  was  his  "  Primitive  Apostolical  Tradition,"  &c. 
against  Daniel  Zwicker,  a  Prussian.  All  Dr.  Bull's  Latin 
works,  which  he  had  published  by  himself  at  different  times, 
were  collected  together,  and  printed  in  T703,  in  one  vo- 
lume in  folio,  under  the  care  and  inspection  of  Dr.  John 
Ernest  Grabe,  the  author's  age  and  infirmities  disabling 
him  from  undertaking  this  edition.     The  ingenious  editor 

*  Mr.  Nelson,  soon  after  the  publi-  others  assembled  in  the  samo  church, 

cation  of  this  work,  sent  it  as  a  present  can  continue  a  moment  without  ac- 

to  Mr.  Bossuet,  bishop  of  Meaux.  That  knowledging  her.    Or,  let  him  tell  me, 

prelate    communicated  it   to  several  sir,  what  he  means  by  the  term  catholic 

other,  French   bishops,  the  result  of  church?  Is  it  the  church  of  Rome,  ami 

which  was,  that  Mr.  Nelson  was  desired  those  that  adhere  to  her  ?  Is  it  the 

in  a  letter  from  the  bishop  of  Meaux,  church  of  England  ?  Is  it  a  confused 

not  only  to  return  Dr.  Bull  his  humble  heap  of  societies,  separated  the  one 

thanks,  but  the  unfeigned  congratula-  from  the  other  ?  And  how  can  they  be 

ti«as  also  of  the.  whole  clergy  of  France,  that  kingdom  of  Christ,   not  divided, 

then  assembled  at  St,  Germain's,  for  against  itself,   and  which  shall  never 

the  great  service  he  had  done  to  the  perish  ?  It  would  be  a  great  satisfac-* 

catholic  church,  in  so  well  defending  tion  to  me  to  receive  some  answer  up- 

her  determination,  concerning  tbe  ne-  on  this  subject,  that  might  explain  the 

cessity  of  believing  the  divinity  of  tbe  opinion   of  so  weighty  and  solid  an 

Son  of  Cod.     In  that  letter  the  bishop  author."  Dr.  Bull  answered  the  queries 

of  Meaux  expresses  himself  in  the  fol-  proposed  in  this  letter ;    but  just  as 

.lowing  terms :   "  Dr.  Bull's  perform-  his  answer  came  to  Mr.  Nelson's  bands, 

ance  is  admirable,  the  matter  he  treats  the  bishop  died.     However,  Dr.  Bull's 

of  could  not  be  explained  with  greater  answer  was  published,  and  a  second 

learning  and  judgment;  but  there  is  edition  printed  at  London,  1707,    in 

one  thing  I  wonder  at,  which  is,  that  12  mo,  under  the  following  title:  "The 

so  great  a  man,  who  speaks  so  advan-  corruptions  of  the  church  of  Rome,  in 

tageouoly  of  tbe  church,  of  salvation  relation  to  ecclesiastical  government, 

which  is  obtained  only  in  unity 'with  the  rule  of  faith,  and  form  of  divine 

her,  and  of  the  infallible  assistance  of  worship:  In   answer  to  the  bishop  of 

the  Holy  Ghost  in  the  council  of  Nice,  Meaux' s  queries." 
which  infers  the  same  assistance  for  all 

'BULL.  26i 

illustrated  the  work  with  many  learned  annotations,  and 
ushered  it  into  the  world  with  an  excellent  preface.     Dr» 
Bull  was  in  the  seventy-first  year  of  his  age,  when  he  was 
acquainted  with  her  majesty's  gracious  intention  of  con- 
ferring on  him  the  bishopric  of  St.  David's;  which  promo- 
tion he  at  first  declined,  on  account  of  his  ill  state  of  health 
and  advanced  years ;  but,  by  the  impprtunity  of  his  friends, 
and  strong  solicitations  from  the  governors  of  the  church, 
he  was  at  last  prevailed  upon  to  accept  it,  and  was  accord- 
ingly consecrated  in  Lambeth-chapel,  the  29th  of  April, 
1705.     Two  years  after,  he  lost  his  eldest  son,  Mr.  George 
Bull,  who  died  of  the  small-pox  the  1 1th  of  May,  1707,  ia 
the  thirty-seventh  year  of  his  age.     Our  prelate  took  his 
seat  in  the  house  of  lords  in  that  memorable  session,  when 
the  bill  passed  for  the  union  of  the  two  kingdoms,  and 
spoke  in  a  debate  which  happened  upon  that  occasion,  in 
favour  of  the  church  of  England.     About  July  after  his. 
consecration,  he  went  into  his  diocese,  and  was  received 
with  all  imaginable  demonstrations  of  respect  by  the  gen* 
try  and  clergy.    ,The  episcopal  palace  at  Aberguilly  being, 
much  out  of  repair,  he  chose  the  town  of  Brecknock  for 
the  place  of  his  residence ;  but  was  obliged,  about  half  & 
year  before  his  death,  to  remove  from  thence  to  Aber- 
marless,  for  the  benefit  of  a  freer  air-     He  resided  con- 
stantly in  his  diocese,  and  carefully  discharged  all  the  epis- 
copal functions.     Though  bishop  Bull  was  a  great  admirer 
of  our  ecclesiastical  constitution,  yet  he  would  often  la- 
ment the  distressed  state  of  the  church  of  England,  chiefly 
owing  to  the  decay  of  ancient  discipline,  and  the  great 
number  of  lay-impropriations,  which  he  considered  as  a 
species  of  sacrilege,  and  insinuated  that  he  had  known  in- 
stances of  its  being  punished  by  the  secret  curse  which 
hangs  over  sacrilegious  persons.     Some  time  before  his 
last  sickness,  he  entertained  thoughts  of  addressing  a  cir- 
cular letter  to  all  his  clergy ;  and,  after  his  death,  there  was 
found  among  his  papers  one  drawn  Up  to  that  purpose.   He 
bad  greatly  impaired  his  health,  by  too  intense  and  unsea- 
sonable an  application  to  his  studies,  and,  on  the  27th  of 
September,  1709,  was  taken  with  a  violent  fit  of  coughing, 
which  brought  on  a  spitting  of  blood.     About  the  begin- 
ning of  February  following,  he  was  seized  with  a  distem- 
per, supposed  to  be  an  ulcer,  or  what  they  call  the  inward 
piles;  of  which  he  died  the  1 7th  of  the  same  month,  and 

2*0  BULL. 

was  buried,  about  a  week  after  his  death,  at  Brecknock, 
leaving  behind  him  but  two  children  out  of  eleven. 

He  was  tall  of  stature,  and  in  his  younger  years  thin  and 
pale,  but  fuller  and  more  sanguine  in  the  middle  and  lat-. 
ter  part  of  his  age ;  his  sight  quick  and  strong,  and  hid 
constitution  firm  and  vigorous,  till  indefatigable  reading, 
and  nocturnal  studies,  to  which  he  was  very  much   ad-: 
dieted,  had  first  impaired,    and  at  length  quite   extin- 
guished the  one,  and  subjected  the  other  to  many  infir- 
mities ;  for  his  sight  failed  him  entirely,  and  his  strength 
to  a  great  degree,  some  years  before  he  died.     But  what- 
ever other  bodily  indispositions  he  contracted, .  by  intense 
thinking,  and  a  sedentary  life,  his  head  was  always  free, 
and  remained  unaffected  to  the  last.    As  to  the  tempera- 
ture and   complexion   of  his  body,    that  of  melancholy 
seemed  to  prevail,  but  never  so  far  as  to  indispose  his  mind 
for  study  and  conversation.    The  vivacity  of  his  natural 
temper  exposed  him  to  sharp  and  sudden  fits  of  anger, 
which  were   but  of  short  continuance,    and  sufficiently 
atoned  for  by  the  goodness  and  tenderness  of  his  nature 
towards  all  his  domestics.     He  had  a  firmness  and  con- 
stancy of  mind  which  made  him  not  easily  moved  when  he 
had  once  fixed  his  purposes  and  resolutions.     He  had  early 
a  true  sense  of  feligion  ;  and  though  he  made  a  short  ex- 
cursion into  the  paths  of  vanity,  yet  he  was  entirely  re- 
covered a  considerable  time  before  he  entered  into  holy 
orders.     His  great  learning  was  tempered  with  that  modest 
and  humble   opinion  of  it,   that  it  thereby  shone   with 
greater  lustre.     His  actions  were  no  less  instructive  than 
his  conversation ;    for  his  exact  knowledge  of  the   holy 
scriptures,  and  of  the  writings  of  the  primitive  fathers  of 
the  church,  had  so  effectual  an  influence  upon  his  practice, 
that  it  was  indeed  a  fair,  entire,  and  beautiful  image  of  the 
prudence  and  probity,  simplicity  and  benignity,  humility 
and  charity,  purity  and  piety,  of  the  primitive  Christians. 
During  his  sickness,   his  admirable  patience  under  ex- 
quisite pains,  and  his  continual  prayers,  made  it  evident 
that  his  mind  was  much  fuller  of  God  than  of  his  illness  ; 
and  he  entertained  those  that  attended  him   with  such 
beautiful  and  lively  descriptions  of  religion  and  another 
world,  as  if  he  had  a  much  clearer  view  than  ordinary  of 
what  he  believed. 
Bishop  Bull's  Sermons,  and  the  larger  discourses,  were 

BULL.  271 

published  in  1713,  3  vols.  8vo,  by  Robert  Nelson,  esq. 
with  a  Life,  occupy ing  a  fourth  volume,  which  was  also 
published  separately.  Some  of  the  sermons  are  on  curious 
subjects,  and  seem  rather  ingenious  than  edifying,  but  as 
an  assertor  of  the  doctrine  of  the  Trinity,  bishop  Bull  must 
be  allowed  to  rank  among  the  ablest  divines  of  the  last  age. l 
BULL  (John),  a  celebrated  musician,  and  doctor  in 
that  faculty,  was  descended  from  a  family  of  that  name  in 
Somersetshire,  and  born  about  the  year  1563.  Having 
discovered  an  excellent  natural  genius  for  music,  he  was 
educated  in  that  science,  when  very  young,  under  Mr. 
William  Blitheman,  an  eminent  master,  and  organist  of 
the  chapel  to  queen  Elizabeth..  On  the  9th  of  July  1586 
he  was  admitted  bachelor  of  music  at  Oxford,  having  ex- 
ercised that  art  fourteen  years  ;  and,  we  are  told,  he  would 
have  proceeded  in  that  university  "  had  he  not  met  with 
clowns  and  rigid  puritans  there,  that  could  not  endure 
church-music."  Some  time  after,  he  was  created  doctor 
of  music  at  Cambridge;  but  in  what  year  is  uncertain, 
there  being  a  deficiency  in  the  register.  In  1691  he  was 
appointed  organist  of  the  Queen's  chapel,  in  the  room  of 
Mr.  Blitheman,  deceased ;  and  on  the  7th  of  July,  the 
year  following,  he  was  incorporated  doctor  of  music  at 
Oxford.  He  was  greatly  admired  for  his  fine  hand  on  the 
organ,  as  well  as  for  his  compositions ;  several  of  which 
have  been  long  since  published  in  musical  collections, 
besides  a  large  number  in  manuscript,  that  made  a  part  of 
the  curious  and  valuable  collection  of  music  lately  reposited 
in  the  library  of  Dr.  Pepusch.  Upon  the  establishment  of, 
Gresham-college,  Dr.  Bull  was  chosen  the  first  professor 
of  music  there,  about  the  beginning  of  March  1596, 
through  the  recommendation  of  queen  Elizabeth ;  and  not 
being  able  to  speak  in  Latin,  he  was  permitted  to  deliver 
his  lectures  altogether  in  English;  which  practice,  so  far 
as  appears,  has  been  ever  since  continued,  though  the 
professors  of  that  science  have  often  been  men  of  learning. 
In  1601,  his  health  being  impaired,  so  that  he  was  un- 
able to  perform  the  duty  of  his  place,  he  went  to  travel, 
having  obtained  leave  to  substitute,  as  his  deputy,  Mr. 
Thomas  Birde,  son  of  Mr.  William  Birde,  one  of  the  gen- 
tlemen of  her  majesty's  chapel.  He  continued  abroad 
above  a  year.     After  the  death  of  queen  Elizabeth,  our 

» JUfr,  by  NeUon.— Bio*  Brit. 

5t2  BULL. 

professor  became  chief  organist  to  king  James  I.  and  De-t 
cember  the  20th,  the  same  year,  he  resigned  his  profes- 
sorship of  Gresham-college ;  but  for  what  reason  is  not% 
known.  In  1613  he  again  left  England,  induced,  pro-, 
bably,  by  the  declining  reputation  of  church-music,  which, 
at  this  time  had  not  that  regard  paid  to  it,  that  had  been' 
formerly.  He  went  directly  into  the  Netherlands,  where, 
about  Michaelmas,  the  same  year,  he  was  received  into  the 
service  of  the  archduke ;  and  Mr.  Wood  says  he  died  at 
Hamburgh,  or  (as  others,  who  remember  him,  have  said)  . 
at  Lujbeck.  His  picture  is  yet  preserved  in  the  music- 
school  at  Oxford,  among  other  famous  professors  of  that 
science,  which  hang  round  the  room. 

Ward  has  given  a  long  list  of  bis  compositions  in  ma- 
nuscript; but  the  only  works  in  print  are  his  lessons  in 
•'  the  collection  entitled  "  Parthenia,"  the  first  music  that, 
ever  was  printed  for  the  virginals.     He  appears  from  some 
lesspns  in  this  work,  to  have  possessed  a  powet  of  execu- 
tion on  the  harpsichord  far  beyond  what'is  generally  con- 
ceived of  the  masters  of  that  time.     But  Dr.  Burney,  who 
has  entered  very  largely  into  the  character  of  his  music, 
seems  to  think  that  it  evinces  more  labour  than  genius,  and .. 
that  the  great  difficulty  of  performing  it  is  poorly  recom-. 
pensed  by  the  effect  produced. x 


BULLER  (Sir  Francis),  bart.  a  judge  of  the  court  of 
kingVbench  and  common-pleas,  the  soil  of  James  Buller, 
esq.  member  of  parliament  for  the  county  of  Cornwall,  by 
Jane,  his  second  wife,  one  of  the  daughters  of  Allen  earl  • 
Bathurst,  was  born  in  1745,  and  educated  at  a  private 
school  in  the  west  of  England.  After  this  he  removed  to 
London,  and  was  admitted  of  the  Inner  Temple,  Feb.  1763, 
and  became  a  pupil  of  sir  William  Ashurst,  who  was  at 
that  time  a  very  eminent  special-pleader,  but  whom,  it  . 
has  been  thought,  he  excelled.  He  was  always  ranked 
among  the  most  eminent  of  the  profession  in  this  branch, 
and  his  business,  as  a  common-law  draughtsman,  was  im- 
mediate, and  immense.  His  practice  also  tit  the  bar,  to 
which  he  was  called  by  the  honourable  society  of  the 
Middle  Temple  in  Easter  Term,  1772,  was  at  first  con- 
siderable, and  in  a  very  short  period,  became. equal  to  . 

*—  * 

1  Biog.  Brit.— Wood's  Fasti,  vok  I.— Burney  "and  Hawkins's  Hist,  of  Muiic 
—Ward's  Gresham  Professors. 

B  U  L  L  E  R,  278 

■  * 

that  of  almost  any  of  his  brethren.  Devoting  himself  en* 
tirely  to  it,  he  never  came  into  parliament  On  Nov.  24, 
1777,  he  was  appointed  king's-counsel,  and  on  the  27th 
of  the  same  month,  second  judge  of  the  Chester  circuit. 
In  Easter  term,  May  6,  1778,  by  the  patronage  of  lord 
Mansfield,  who  bad  a  high  opinion  of  his  talents,  he  was 
made  a  judge  of  the  king's-bench,  in  the  room  of  sir 
Richard  Aston.  During  the  indisposition  of  lord  Mans-r 
field,  for  the  last  three  or  four  years  that  he  held  the  office 
of  chief  justice,  sir  Francis  Buller  executed  almost  all  the 
business  at  the  sittings  at  nisi  prius,  with  great  ability, 
and  lord  Mansfield  left  him  2000/.  in  his  will,  which,  it  is 
said,  Mr,  justice  Buller  declined  receiving  of  his  lordship, 
when  offered  as  a  compensation  for  his  trouble.  On  th$ 
resignation  of  lord  Mansfield,  his  expectations  were  di- 
rected to  the  succession  to  the  high  office  so  long  and 
ably  filled  by  that  venerable  lawyer,  but,  for  various  rea* 
sons,  sir  Lloyd  Kenyon  was  preferred.  In  1794,  in  con- 
sequence of  his  declining  state  of  health,  which  rendered 
him  unequal  to  the  laborious  duties  of  that  court,  he  was, 
on  the  death  of  judge  Gould,  removed  to  the  court  of 
common-pleas,  but  his  health  still  continuing  to  decay,  he 
was  about  to  have  obtained  his  majesty's  leave  to  resign, 
when  he  died  suddenly,  at  his  house  in  Bedford-square, 
June  4,  1800,  and  was  interred  in  a  vault  in  St.  Andrew's 
burying-ground.  He  was  created  a  baronet  in  1789,  and 
was  succeeded  in  titles  and  estate  by  his  son  sir  F.  Buller 
Yarde,  which  last  name  he  took  for  an  estate.  Sir  Francis 
Buller  was  allowed  to  be  ably  and  deeply  versed  in  the 
law,  and  was  certainly  more  distinguished  for  substantial 
than  showy  talents.  His  eloquence  at  the  bar  was  seldom 
admired,  but  his  addresses  from  the  bench  were  perspi- 
cuous, dignified,  and  logical.  He  possessed  great  quick- 
ness of  perception,  saw  the  consequences  of  a  fact,  and 
the  drift  of  an  argument  at  its  first  opening,  and  could 
immediately  reply  to  an  unforeseen  objection,  but  was  on 
some  occasions  thought  rather  hasty.  He  seldom,  how- 
ever, formed  his  opinions  without  due  consideration, 
and  was  particularly  tenacious  of  what  he  had  thus  con- 

As  a  writer  he  has  conferred  some  obligations  on  the  pro- 
fession. His  "  Introduction  to  the  law  relative  to  Trials  at 
Nisi  Prius,"  1772, 4 to,  has  passed  through  six  editions,  with 

Vol.  VII.  T 

274  B  U  L  L  E  R. 

occasional  corrections  and  additions,  the  last  of  which  was 
printed  in  1793,  and  is  considered  as  a  standard  work.  * 

BULLET  (John  Baptist),  a  learned  French  writer, 
member  of  the  academies  of  Besan£on,  Lyons,  and  Dijon, 
and  a  corresponding  member  of  the  academy  of  inscrip- 
tions, was  born ,in  1699,  and  was  professor  of  divinity  in 
the  university  of  BeSan^on  from  the  year  1728  ;  and  after- 
wards dean.  He  had  a  surprising  memory,  and  although 
devoted  to  controversial  studies,  was  of  a  mild  and  affable 
disposition.  His  works  are  of  two  kinds  ;  some  turning 
on  religious  matters,  and  otheTs  on  literary  inquiry.  They 
are  all  accurate  and  solid ;  but  we  are  not  to  look  in  them 
for  ^elegance  of  style.  The  principal  of  them  are :  I .  "His- 
tory of  the  establishment  of  Christianity,  taken  from  Jewish 
and  Pagan  authors  alone,"  1764,  4to.  2.  "  The  exist- 
ence of  God  demonstrated  by  nature,"  2  vols.  8vo.  3. 
u  Answer  to  some  objections  of  unbelievers  to  the  Bible,'* 
3  vols.  12mo.  4.  "De  apostolica  ecclesiae  Gallicanae  ori- 
gine,"  1752,  12mo.  5.  "  Memoirs  on  the  Celtic  tongue,'* 
1754-59,  3  vols.  fol.  6.  "  Researches  into  the  history  of 
Cards,"  1757,  8vo.  7.  "  A  dissertation  on  the  history  of 
France,"   1757,  8vo. 

Of  these  works,  the  first  was  translated  into  English,  and 
published  in  1776,  under  the  title  of  "The  History,  &c. 
translated  by  William  Salisbury,  B.  D.  with  notes  by  the 
translator,  and  some  strictures  on  Mr.  Gibbon's  account 
of  Christianity,  and  its  first  teachers,"  8vo.  This  is  a 
very  valuable  work,  but  the  original  was  long  a  scarce  one 
in  this  country.  Dr.  Lardner,  before  he  published  the 
third  volume  of  his  "  Collection  of  Testimonies,"  endea- 
voured to  procure  a  copy,  but  without  success,  and  was 
therefore  obliged  to  publish  his  last  volume  without  being 
able  to  make  any  use  of  it.  Dr.  Lardner's  work  is  un-. 
doubtetily  more  complete  and  perfect,  but  the  present* 
contains  within  a  narrow  compass,  and  therefore  more 
useful  to  the  general  reader,  a  clear  and  distinct  view  o£ 
the  facts  on  which  Christianity  is  founded,  during  the  first 
three  centuries,  which  are  by  far  the  most  important. 
There  are  also  in  professor  Bullet's  work  some  useful 
things  which  are  not  in  Lardner ;  particularly  a  vindica- 
tion of  certain  contested  proofs;  an  argument  in  favour  of 

J  Gent  3Vfa£.  1800. — Strictures  on  Eminent  Lawyers,  1 790,  8vo. — Bridjraan's 
Legal  Bibliography, 

BULLET.  275 

the  Christian  cause,  built  upon  the  supposed  silence  of 
Josephus  concerning  Jesus  Christ,  &c.  His  plan  is  also 
different  from  Lardner's,  forming  a  connected  discourse, 
without  interruption,  and  therefore  probably  better  suited 
to  a  numerous  class  of  readers. 

Our  learned  professor's  "  Researches  into  the  history,  of 
Cards"  is  at  least  amusing;  but  his  "  Memoires  sur  la 
langae  Celtique"  contributed  most  to  his  reputation  as  a 
scholar  of  profound  research.  In  these  he  has  endeavoured 
to  prove  that  all  Europeans  are  descended  from  one  com- 
mon origin,  and,  consequently,  now  speak  only  different 
dialects  of  the  same  language.  In  this  investigation  an 
immense  number  of  books  and  MSS.  appear  to  have  been 
consulted,  and  he  made  some  progress  in  all  the  languages 
of  the  earth,  and  had  recourse  to  every  living  and  dead 
tongue,  where  the  smallest  vestiges  of  the  Celtic  were  to 
be  found.  In  his  dissertations  on  different  subjects  of  the 
history  of  France  are  many  curious  inquiries. 1 

BULLEYN  (William),  a  learned  English  physician 
and  botanist,  was  descended  from  an  ancient  family,  and 
born  in  the  isle  of  Ely,  about  the  beginning  of  Henry  the 
Eighth's  reign.  He  was  bred  up  at  Cambridge,  as  some 
say,  at  Oxford  according  to  others ;  but  probably  both 
those  nurseries  of  learning  had  a  share  in  his  education. 
We  know,  however,  but  little  of  his  personal  history, 
though  he  was  famous  in  his  profession,  and  a  member  of 
the  college  of  physicians  in  London,  except  what  we  are 
able  to  collect  from  his  works.  Tanner  says,  that  he  was 
a  divine  as  well  as  a  physician ;  that  he  wrote  a  book 
against  transubstantiation  ;  and  that  in  June  1550  he  was 
inducted  into  the  rectory  of  Blaxhall,  in  Suffolk,  which 
.be  resigned  in  November  1554.  From  bis  works  we  learn 
that  he  had  been  a  traveller  over  several  parts  of  Germany, 
Scotland,  and  especially  England ;  and  he  seems  to  have 
made  it  his  business  to  acquaint  himself  with  the  natural 
history  of  each  place,  and  with  the  products  of  its  soil* 
It  appears,  however,  that  he  was  more  permanently  settled 
at  Durham,  where  he  practised  physic  with  great  repu- 
tation ;  and,  among  others  of  the  most  eminent  inhabitants, 
was  in  great  favour  with  sir  Thomas  Hilton,  knight,  baron 
of  Hilton,  to  whom  he  dedicated  a  book  in  the  last  year 
ef  queen  Mary's  reign.     In  1560,  he  went  to  London, 

I  Diet.  Hist.— Month.  Rer.  to!.  LVIl. 

T  2 

276  BULLEYN. 

where,  to  bis  infinite  surprise,  he  found  himself  accused 
by  Mr.  William  Hilton  of  Biddick,  of  having  murdered  his 
brother,  the  baron  aforesaid ;  who  really  died  among  his 
own  friends  of  a  malignant  fever.  The  innocent  doctor 
was  easily  cleared,  yet  his  enemy  hired  some  ruffians  to 
assassinate  him,  and  when  disappointed  in  this,  arrested 
Dr.  Bulleyn  in  an  action,  and  confined  him  in  prison  a 
long  time ;  where  he  wrote  some  of  his  medical  treatises. 
He  was  a  very  learned,  experienced,  and  able  physician. 
He  was  very  intimate  with  the  works  of  the  ancient  phy- 
sicians and, naturalists,  both  Greek,  Roman,  and  Arabian. 
He  was  also  a  man  of  probity  and  piety,  and  though  he 

'  lived  in  the  times  of  popery,  does  not  appear  to  have  been 
tainted  with  its  principles.  He  died  Jan.  7,  157€,  and 
.was  buried  in  the  same  grave  with  his  brother  Richard 
Bulleyn,  a  divine,  who  died  thirteen  years  before,  in  the 
church  of  St.  Giles^  Cripplegate.  There  is  an  inscription 
on  their  tomb,  with  some  Latin  verses,  in  which  they  are 

.  .celebrated  as  men  famous  for  their  learning  and  piety.  Of 
Dr.  Bulleyn  particularly  it  is  said,  that  he  was  always  as 
ready  to  accommodate  the  poor  as  the  rich,  with  medi- 
cines for  the  relief  of  their  distempers.  There  is  a  profile 
.of  Bulleyn,  with  a  long  beard,  before  his  "Government 
of  Health,1'  and  a  whole-length  of  him.  in  wood,  prefixed 
ta  his  "  Bulwarke  of  defence."  He  was  an  ancestor  of  the 
late  Dr.  Stukeley,  who,  in  1722,  was  at,the  expeoce  of 
having  a  small  head  of  him  engraved.' 

He  wrote,  1.  "The  Government  of  Health,"  1558,  8 vov 
2.  M  Regimen  against  the  Pleurisy/1  1562,  8vo.  3.  "Bul- 
wark of  defence  against  all  sickness,  soreness,  and  wounds, 
that  daily  assault  mankind,1'  &c.  1562,  folio.  This  work 
consists  of,  first,  The  book  of  compounds,  with  a  table  of 
their  names,  and  the  apothecaries  rules  or  terms;  se- 
condly, The  book  of  the  use  of  sick  men  and  medicines. 
These  are  both  composed  in  dialogues  between  Sickness 
and  Health.  Then  follows,  thirdly,  The  book  of  simples, 
being  an  Herbal  in  the  form  of  a  dialogue ;  at  the  end  of 
which  are  the  wooden  cuts  of  some  plants,  and  of  some 
iimbecks  or  stills ;  and,  fourthly,  a  dialogue  between  Sore- 

.  xiess  and  Chirurgery)  concerning .  impostumations  and 
wounds,  and  their  causes  and  cures.     This  tract  has  three 

.  .wooden  cuts  in  it ;  one  representing  a  man's  body  on  the. 
forepart  full  of  sores  and  swellings;  the  other,  in  like 
manner*  behind  J  the  third  is  also  a  human  figure,  in  which 


the  veins  ate  seen  directed  to,  and  named,  which  are  to  be 
opened  in  phlebotomy.  4.  A  dialogue  both  pleasant  and 
pitiful,  wherein  is  shewed  a  godly  regimen  against  the 
plague,  with  consolations  and  comfort  against  death,  1664, 
8vo.  Some  other  pieces  of  a  smaller  nature  are  ascribed 
to  Dr.  Bulleyn,  but  of  very  little  consequence. 

Dr.  Pulteney  is  of  opinion  that  Bulleyn's  specific  know* 
ledge  of  Botany  seems  to  have  been  but  slender ;  but  his 
zeal  for  the  promotion  of  the  useful  arts  of  gardening,  the 
general  culture  of  the  land,  and  the  commercial  interests  of 
the  kingdom,  deserve  the  highest  praise,  and  for  the  in- 
formation he  has  left  of  these  affairs,  in  his  own  time,  pos- 
terity owe  him  acknowledgements.  His  travels,  and  the 
great  attention  he  had  paid  to  the  native  productions  of  bis 
own  country,  had  given  him  a  comprehensive  view  of  the 
natural  fertility  of  the  soil  and  climate  of  England;  which, 
'from  the  tenour  of  his  writings,  seems  to  have  been,  at 
that  time,  by  some  people  much  depreciated.  He  op- 
poses this  idea  with  patriotic  zeal  and  concern,  and  alleges 
various  examples  to  prove,  that  we  had  excellent  apples, 
pears,  plums,  cherries,  and  hops,  of  our  own  growth, 
before  the  importation  of  these  articles  into  England  by 
the  London  and  Kentish  gardeners,  but  tbat  the  culture  of 
them  had  been  greatly  neglected. ' 

BULLIALDUS,  or  BOULLIAU  (Ismael),  a  celebrated 
astronomer  and  scholar,  was  born  of  protestant  parents,  at 
Houdun  in  France,  September  the  28th,  1605 ;  and  hav- 
ing finished  his  studies  in  philosophy  at  Paris,  and  in.  civil 
law  at  Poictiers,  he  applied  to  mathematics,  theology,  sa- 
cred and  profane  history,  and  civil  law,  with  such  assi- 
duity, that  he  became  eminent  in  each  of  these  depart- 
»  ments,  and  acquired  the  reputation  of  an  universal  genius. 
As  he  had  travelled  for  his  improvement  into  Italy,  Ger- 
many, Poland,  and  the  Levant,  he  formed  an  extensive 
acquaintance  with  men  of  letters,  and  maintained  a  cor- 
respondence with  the  most  distinguished  persons  of  his 
time.  Although  he  had  been  educated  a  protestant,  he 
changed  his  profession  at  the  age  of  27  years,  and  became 
a  catholic  priest.  His  life  was  prolonged  to  his  89th  year  ; 
and  having  retired  to  the  abbey  of  St.  Victor  at  Paris  in 
1689;  he  died  there  November  the  25th,  1694.  Besides 
his  pieces  concerning  ecclesiastical  rights,  which  excited 

.  *  Biog.  Brit— Tanner.— Ath.  Ox.  I— Pulteney'g  Sketches.— Aikia't  Biogra- 
phical Memoirs  of  Medicine,  8vo.  p.  142,  fee. 


attention,  and  the  history  of  Ducas,  printed  at  the  Louvre, 
in  1649,  in  the  original  Greek,  with  a  Latin  version  and 
notes,  he  was  the  author  of  several  other  works,  chiefly 
mathematical  and  philosophical.  His  "  Treatise  on  the 
Nature  of  Light"  was  published  in  1638;  and  his  work' 
entitled,  "  Philolaus,  sive  de  vero  Systema  Mundi,"  or  his 
true  system  of  the  world,  according  to  Philolaus,  an  an- 
cient philosopher  and  astronomer,  in  the*  same  year,  and 
republished  in  1645,  under  the  title  of  "  Astronomia  Phi- 
lolaica,"  grounded  upon  the  hypothesis  of  the  earth's  mo- 
tion, and  the  elliptical  orbit  described  by  the  planet's  mo- 
tion about  a  cone.  To  which  he  added  tables  entitled 
"  Tabulae  Philolaicse  :"  a  work  which  Riccioli  says  ought 
to  be  attentively  read  by  all  students  of  astronomy. — He 
considered  the  hypothesis,  or  approximation  of  bishop 
Ward,  and  found  it  not  to  agree  with  the  planet  Mars ; 
and  shewed  in  his  defence  of  the  Philolaic  astronomy 
against  the  bishop,  that  from  four  observations  made  by 
Tycho  on  the  planet  Mars,  that  planet  in  the  first  and  third 
quarters  of  the  mean  anomaly,  was  more  forward  than  it 
ought  to  be  according  to  Ward's  hypothesis ;  but  in  the  2d 
and  4th  quadrant  of  the  same,  the  planet  was  not  so  far 
advanced  as  that  hypothesis  required.  He  therefore  set 
about  a  correction  of  the  bishop's  hypothesis,  and  made  it 
to  answer  more  exactly  to  the  orbits  of  the  planets,  which 
Were'  most  eccentric,  and  introduced  what  is  called  by 
Street,  in  his  ^  Caroline  Tables,"  the  Variation :  for  these 
tables  were  calculated  from  this  correction  of  Bulliaklus, 
and  exceeded  all  in  exactness  that  went  before.  This  cor- 
rection is,  in  the  judgment  of  Dr.  Gregory,  a  very  happy 
one,  if  it  be  not  set  above  its  due  place  ;  and  be  accounted 
no  more  than  a  correction  of  an  approximation  to  the  true 
system  :  For  by  this  'means  we  are  enabled  to  gather  the 
coequate  anomaly  a  priori  and  directly  from  the  mean,  and 
the  observations  are  well  enough  answered  at  the  same 
time;  which,  in ,Mercator's  opinion,  no  one  had  effected 
before. — It'  is  remarkable  that  the  ellipsis  which  he  has 
chosen  for  a  planet's  motion,  is  such  a  one  as,  if  cut  out  of 
a  cone,  will  have  the  axis  of  the  cone  passing  through  one 
©f  its  foci,  viz.  that  next  the  aphelion. 

In  1657,  was  published  his  treatise  "  De  Lineis  Spiral!- 
bus,  Exerc.  Geom.  &  Astron."  Paris,  4to. — In  1682  came 
out  at  Paris,  in  folio,  his  large  work  entitled,  "  Opus  no- 
vum ad  Arithmeticam  Infinitorum :"  a  work  which  is  a  dif- 

B  U  L  L  IALDUS.  2J» 


fuse  amplification  of  Dr.  Wallis's  Arithmetic  of  Infinites, 
and  which  Wallis  treatSvof  particularly  in  the  80th  chapter 
of  im  historical  treatise  of  Algebra. — He  wrote  also  two 
admonitions  to  astronomers.     The  first,  concerning  a  new 
star  in  the  neck  of  the  Whale,  appearing  at  some  times, 
and  disappearing  at  others.     The  2d,  concerning  a  nebu- 
lous star  in  the  northern  part  of  Andromeda's  girdle,  not 
discovered  by  any  of  the  ancients.     This  star  also  appeared 
and  disappeared  by  turns.     And  as  these  phenomena  ap* 
peared  new  and  surprizing,  he  strongly  recommended  the 
observing  them  to  all  that  might  be  curious  in  astronomy.* 
BULLINGER  (Henry),  one  of  the  reformers,  was  borri 
at  Bremgarten,  a  village   near  Zurich, , in :  Switzerland^ 
July  18,   1504.     At  the  age  of  twelve  be  was  sent  by,  his 
father  to  Emmeric,  to  be  instructed  in  grammar-learnings 
and  here  he  remained  three  years,  during  which  his  father,! 
to  make  him  feel  for  the  distresses  of  others,  and  be  mor6 
frugal  and  modest  in  bis  dress,  and  temperate,  ia  hi£  dietj 
withdrew  that  money  with  which  he  was  wont  to  supply: 
him;  so  that  Bullinger  was  forced,  according,  to  tbe.cus-* 
torn  of  those  times,  to  subsist  on  the  alms  be  got  ;by  sing4 
ing  from  door  to  door.     While  here,  he  w#s,  strongly  ink 
cloned  to  enter  among  the  Carthusians,  but  was  dissuaded 
from  it  by  an  elder  brother.     At,  fifteen  years  of  age  het 
was  sent  to  Cologn,  where  he  studied  logic,  and  commenced' 
B.  A.  at  sixteen  years  old;     He  afterwards  betook  himselfi 
to  the  study  of  divinity  and  canon  law,  and  to  the  readingr 
of  the  fathers,  and  conceived  such  a  dislike  to  the  schools 
divines,  as  in  1520,  to  write  some  dialogues  against,  thera^ 
and  about  the  same  time  he  began  to  see  the  errors  of  »the, 
church  of  Rome,  from  which,  however,  he  did  not  imme-r 
diately  separate.     In  1.522,  he  commenced  M,  A,  and. re*! 
turning  home,  he  spent  a  year  in  his  father's  hpuss,  wholly 
employing  himself. in  his  studies.,   /The  year  after,  he.wftSi 
called   by  the, abbot  of  La  Ch&pelle,  a  Cjsterciau  abbey/ 
near  Zurich,  to  teach  in  that  jplftce,; which  he  did  wjthgresfc 
reputation  for.  four  yearfc,  and  wap. ; very  jtn$tvptf*cfn til  iaJ 
causing  the  reformation  of  Zuingfcus.tQ  be  r^wed.  -  ilt,fei 
very  remarkable  that  while  thus!  torching  find. changing  shfa 
sentiments  of  the  Cisterciaps  uv(bi|3-p\ac5,  it  dqestiQtj  apre 
pear  that  he  was  a  cl§«Hfian  injtbfc  cop&munion  &f  t?he  &£& 

of  Rome,  nor ;  that  he  had  .a^M  share  in  the  rpojjiias&fc 

■  ■    ■       •     *  ,  i  •> 

1  Moreri,  art.  Bouillaud.— Martin's  Biographia,Philo80phi^a.-r-HuttonrsDuJ. 


280  '    B  If  L  LI  N  G  E  ft. 

observances  of  the  house.  Zuinglius,  assisted  by  Oecolam~ 
padius.  and  Bucer,  had  established  the  reformed  doctrines 
-at  Zurich  in  1523  ;  and  in  1527,  Bullinger  attended  the 
lectures  of  Zuinglius  in  that  city,  for  some  months,  re~ 
aiewed  his  acquaintance  with  Greek,  and  began  the  study 
of  Hebrew.  He  preached  also  publicly  by  a  licence  from 
the  synod,  and  accompanied  Zuinglius  at  the  famous  dis- 
putation held  at  Bern  in  1528*  The  year  following,  he' 
Was  called  to  be  minister  of  the  protestant  church,  in  his 
native  place  at  Bremgarten,  and  married  a  wife,  wha 
brought  him  six  sons  and  five  daughters,  and  died  in  1 5.64. 
He  met  with  great  opposition  from  the  papists  and  anabap- 
tists in  his  parish,  but  disputed  publicly,  and  wrote  several 
books  against  them.  The  victory  gained  by  the  Romish 
cantons  over  the  protestants  in  a  battle  fought  1531,  forced 
him,  together  with  his  father,  brother,  and  colleague,  to 
fly  to  Zurich,  where  he  was  chosen  pastor  in  the  room  of 
Zuinglius,  slain  in  the  late  battle.  He  was  also  employed 
in  several  ecclesiastical  negociations,  with  a  view  to  recon- 
cile the  Zuiuglians  and  Lutherans,  and  to  reply  to  the 
harsh  censures  which  were  published  by  Luther  against  the 
doctrine  of  the  Swiss  churches  respecting  the  sacrament* 
In  1549,  he  concurred  with  Calvin  in  drawing  up  a  formu- 
lary, expressing  the  conformity  of  belief  which  subsisted 
between  the  churches  of  Zurich  and  Geneva,  and  intended 
on  the  part  of  Calvin,  for  obviating  any  suspicions  that  he 
inclined  to  the  opiniou  of  Luther  with  respect  to  the  sacra- 
ment. ".  He~  greatly  assisted  the  English  divkies  who  fled 
into  .Switzerland  from  the  persecution  raised  in  England 
by  queen  JMary,  and  ably  confuted  the  pope's  bull  excom- 
municating queen  Elizabeth.  The  magistrates  of  Zurich, 
by  his  jpersuasion,  erected  a  new  college  in  1538.  He 
ajso  prevailed  with  them  to  erect,  in  a  place  that  had  for- 
merly been  a  nunnery,  a  new  school,  in  which  fifteen 
ypuths  were  trained  up  under  an  able  master,  and  supplied  , 
with  food,  raiment,  and  other  necessaries.  In  1549,  he 
by  his  influence  hindered  the  Swiss  from  renewing  their 
league  with  Henry  II.  of  France;  representing  to  them,  . 
that  it  was  neither  just  nor  lawful  for  a  man  to  suffer  him- 
artf  to  be  hired  to  shed  another  man's  blood,  from  whom 
himself  had  never  received  any  injury.  In  1551  he  wrote 
&b'ook,  the  purport  of  which  was  to  shew,  that  the  council 
of  Trent  had  no  other  design  than  to  oppress  theprofessors 
of  sound  religion ;  and,  therefore,  that  the  cantons  should 


pky  no  regard  to  the  invitations  of  the  pope,  which  soli- 
cited their  sending  deputies  to  that  council.  In  1 56 1  hd 
feominenced  a  controversy  with  Brehtius  concerning  the 
ubiquity  of  the  body  of  Christ,  zealously  maintained  by 
Brentius,  and  as  vehemently  opposed  by  BuUinger,  which 
continued  till  his  death,  on  the  17th  of  September,  1575. 
His  funeral  oration  was  pronounced  by  John  Stukius,  and 
his  life  was  written  by  Josias  Simler  (who  had  married  one 
of  his  daughters),  and  was  published  at  Zurich  in  1575, 
4to,  with  Stukius's  oration,  and  the  poetical  tributes  of 
many  eminent  men  of  his  time.  Bullinger's  printed  works 
are  very  numerous,  doctrinal,  practical,  and  controversial, 
but  no  collection  has  ever  been  made  of  them.  His  high 
reputation  in  England,  during  the  progress  of  the  reform- 
ation, occasioned  the  following  to  be  either  translated  into 
English,  or  published  here :  1.  "  A  hundred  Sermons 
tfpon  the  Apocalypse,"  1561,  4to.  2.  "Bullae  papistic® 
contra  reginarn  Elteabetham,  refutatio,"  1571,  4to.  3. 
"  The  Judgment  of Bullinger,  declaring  it  to  be  law- 
ful for  the  ministers  of  the  church  of  England  to  wear  the 
apparel  prescribed  by  the  laws,  &c."  Eng.  and  Lat.  1566, 
8vo.  4.  "Twenty-six  Sermons  on  Jeremiah,'9  1583.  5. 
"•An  epistle  on  the  Mass,  with  one  of  Calvin's,"  1548,  8vo. 
G.  "  A  treatise  or  sermon,  concerning  Magistrates  and 
Obedience  of  Subjects,  also  concerning  the  affairs  of  War," 
1049,  8vo,  7.  *  Tragedies  of  Tyrants,  exercised  upon 
the  church  of  God  from  the  birth  of  Christ  unto  this  pre- 
sent ye*r  1572,"  translated  by  Tho.  Twine,  1575,  8vo.  8. 
^Exhortation  to  the  ministers  of  God's  Word,  &c."  1575, 
8vo.  9.  "  Two  Sermons  pn  the  end  of  the  World,"  1 596, 
SvOi  1.0.  "  Questions 'of  religion  cast  abroad  in  Helvetia 
by  the  adversaries  of  the  same,  and  answered  by  M.  H.  Bul- 
linger of  Zurich,  reduced  into  seventeen  commoh  places," 
1572,  8vo.  11.  "  Common  places  of  Christian  Religion,** 
157S  and  1581,  8vo.  12.  "  Bellinger's  Decades,  in  Latin,n 
1586.  13.  •««  The  Summe  of  the  Four  Evangelists/'  1582, 
8vo.  14.  "The  Sum  or  Substance  of  St.  Paul's  Epistle  to 
the  Thessalonians,"  1538,  8vo.*  15.  "Three  Dialogues 
between  the  seditious  Libertine  or  rebel  Anabaptist,  and 
the  true  obedient  Christian,"  1551,  8vo.  16.  "Fifty  godly 
and  learned  Sermons,  divided  into  five  decades,  contain- 
ing the  chief  and  principal  points  of  Christian  religion,"  a 
very  thick  4to  vol.  1577,  particularly  described  by  Ames* 
This  book  was  held'  in  high  estimation  in  the  reign  of  queen 


Elizabeth.  In  1586*  archbishop  Whitgift,  in  full  convoca- 
tion, procured  an  order  to  be  made  that  every  clergyman  of 
a  certain  standing,  should  procure  a  copy  of  them,  read  one 
of  the  sermons  contained  in  them  every  week,  and  make 
notes  of  the  principal  matters. l 

.  BULLOCK  (Henry),  a  man  of  learning  in  the  begin- 
ning of  the  sixteenth  century,  and  the  friend  of  Erasmus, 
who  corresponded  with  him  by  the  name  of  Boviutus,  was 
$,  native  of  Berkshire,  according  to  Fuller.  He  was  edu- 
cated at  Queen's  college,  Cambridge,  where  he  took  his 
bachelor's  degree  in  1504,  and  his  master's  in  1507,  and 
was  chosen  fellow  in  the  last  mentioned  year.  He  com* 
menced  D.D.  in  1<520,  and  was  vice-chancellor  in  1524-5. 
He  was  esteemed  a  man  of  abilities,  and  chosen  by  cardinal 
Wolsey  to  answer  Luther.  The  cardinal  also  made  him. 
his  chaplain,  but  we  do  not  find  that  he  raised  him  to  any 
higher  dignity,  yet  the  oration  he  spoke  in  favour  of  the 
cardinal,  now  printed  in  Fiddes's.  life  of  that  great  church- 
man, seems  to  have  merited  a  higher  reward.  By  his  let- 
ters to  Erasmus,  it  appears  that  he  was  an  able  Grecian  ajt 
a  time  when  that  lahguage  was,:  little  known,  In  1513,  in 
conjunction  with  Mr.  Walden,  he  re*d  a  mathematical  lec- 
ture, and  had  a  salary  from  the  university  for  it.  He  was 
also  one  of  the!  twelve  preachers  sent  oujt  by  that  univer- 
sity in  XJ515.  The  biographers  of.  Erasmus  profess  their 
ignorance  of  the  time  of  his.  death.  Tanner  fixes  it.  in 
1$26,.  ;b*t  Dodd  say's  he  was  living  in  1530..  He  wrote, 
J.  "  De  ,Captivitate  Babylonica  contra  Lutherum."  2. 
"Epistol®  et  Orationes." ..  3;  "  De .  Serpentibus  siticulo- 
sis,"  a  translation  from  the  Gr^ek  of  Lucian,  printed  at 
Cambridge,  1521,  4to.  4.  "Oratio  coram  Archiepiscopo 
Eboracensi,"  ibid,  152L,  4to.8 

BULSTRODE  (Edward),  a  lawyer  of  some  jiote  dur- 
ing the  usurpation,  was  the  second  son  of  Edward  Bul- 
strode  of  Hughley  or  Hedgiey,  near  Beaconsfield  ii>  Bucking- 
hamshire, and  was  born  in  1588..  In  1603  he  became  a 
commoner  of  St.  John's  college,  Oxford,  but  left  it  without 
a  degree,  and  removed  to.  the  Inner  Temple,  London, 
where  he  studied  law,  under  the  patronage  of  sir  James 
Whitlock,  whose  learning  Bulstrode  celebrates  in  high 

1  Vita  a  Simlero. — Melcbior  Adam  in  vitis  Theolog — Gen.  Diet — StrypeV 
Annals  of  the  Reformation.— Saxii  Onomasticon. 

*  Tanner.— Pits.— FaHerV  Worthi«i«.r^Wart<on,A  Hist,  of  Poefiry,  vol,  Ik 
p.  43S.— Dudd's  Church  History.— Jortm  and  Knight's  .Erasmus. 


terms.  After  being  called  to  the  bar,  he  was  in'. 8  Car.  L 
Lent-reader,  and  taking  part  with  the  presbyterians  in  the 
rebellion,  was  promoted  to  be  one  of  the  justices  of  North 
Wales  in  1649,  by  the  interest  of  his  nephew  the  cele* 
brated  Bulstrode  Whitlock.  He  was  also  an  itinerant 
justice,  particularly  at  Warwick  in  1653,  in  which  county 
he  had  an  estate  at  Astley.  He  died  at  the  Inner  Temple; 
of  which  he  was  a  bencher,  in  April  1659,  and  was  buried 
in  the  Temple  church.  He  published  "  A  Golden  Chain; 
or  Miscellany  of  divers  sentences  of  the  sacred  scriptures; 
and  of  other  authors,  &c."  London,  1657,  8vo,  but  what 
he  is  best  known  by  is  his  "  Reports  of  Cases  in  B.  It: 
regn.  Jac.  1.  &  Car.  I."  which  were  first  published  in 
1657,  1658,  and  1659,  in  three  parts,  fol.  Mr.>Bridgman 
remarks  that  in  2  Bulstrode,  1658,  there  is  a  chasm  in  the 
paging  from  99  to  109.  Ill  1688  a  second'  edition  was 
published,  in  which  there  is  also  a  chasm  from  104'  to  1 14 ; 
yet  there  are  the  same  number  of  pages  in  both  editions, 
and  the  book  is  perfect.  Wood  mentions  ah  edition  of 
1691.  Bulstrode  is  said  to  have  adopted  the*  method  of 
Plowden  in  his  reports,  than  which  there  cannot  be  a 
stronger  recommendation. l 

BULSTRODE  (Sir  RicAard),  eldest  son  of  the  pre* 
ceding,  was  educated  at  Pembroke-hall,  Cambridge, 
whence  he  went  to  London,  and  after  studying  law  became 
a  barrister ;  but  being  of  very  different  principles  from  his 
father,  joined  the  forces  of  his  unhappy  sovereign  Charles  I; 
jand  was  quarter-master  general  until  the  forces  were  dis* 
banded  at  Truro.  At  the  restoration,  he  was  sent  to  reside 
as  agent  at  Brussels,  and  on  his  return  in  1675,  Charles  II. 
knighted  and  made  him  resident,  and  James  II.  made  hiift 
his  envoy.  Disapproving  of  the  revolution,  he  adhered  to 
the  abdicated  monarch,  and  accompanied  him  to  St.  Ger* 
mains,  where  he  remained  twenty-two  years.  We  know 
•not  if  this  be  meant  as  the  period  of  his  life,  but  he  is  said 
to  have  died  aged  lor,  which  brings  him  to  the  year  1782, 
contrary  to  all  probability,  or  even  fact,  for  his  great  age  at 
the  time  of  bis  death  is  mentioned  in  a  panegyric  upon 
him,  inserted  in  1715,  in  the  ninth  volume,  or  what  is  called 
the  spurious  volume  of  the  Spectator,  and  if  he  died  much 
before  1715,   he   could  not  have  attained   the  vast  age 

.J  Ath.  Ox.  tot.  H.^Fuller's  Worthi<fe,---Br!rfgifaaa's  Legal  Bibliography, 




attributed  to  him,  consistently  with  the  dates  of  his  father's 

At  eighty  he  is  said  to  have  composed,  1.  185  elegies  . 
and  epigrams,  all  on  religious  subjects ;  and  before  that, 
in  early  life,  a  poem  on  the  birth  of  the  duke  of  York,  1721. 
2.  "  Letters  to  the  Earl  of  Arlington,"  1712,  8vo.  3. 
"  Essays"  on  subjects  of  manners  and  morals,  1715,  8vo. 
4.  "  Memoirs  and  Reflections  upon  the  reigns  and  govern- 
ments of  Charles  I.  and  II."  He  appears  to  have  been  a 
man  of  talents  and  considerable  learning,  and  in  his  poli- 
tical course,  able  and  consistent.  His  son  Whitlocke  Bul- 
strode,  who  published  his  "  Essays,"  enjoyed  the  office  of 
prothonotary  of  the  marshal's  court,  and  published  a  trea- 
tise on  the  transmigration  of  souls,  which  went  through 
two  editions,  1692,  1693,  8vo,  and  was  translated  into  La- 
tin by  Oswald  Dyke,  1725.  2.  "  Essays,  ecclesiastical  and 
civil,"  1706,  8vo.  3.  "  Letters  ^between  him  and  Dr. 
Wood,"  physician  to  the  pretender.  4.  "  Compendium  of 
the  crown  laws,  in  three  charges  to  the  grand  jury  at 
Westminster,"  1723,  8vo.  He  died  Nov.  27,  1724,  in  his 
seventy- fourth  year,  and  was  buried  in  Heston  church, 
Middlesex,  where  there  is  a  monument  and  inscription  on 
the  north  wall  of  the  chancel. ' 

BULTEAU  (Lewis),  a  learned  French  author,  was  borii 
at  Rouen  in  1615,  and  succeeded  his  uncle,  as  king's  se- 
cretary, which  office  he  occupied  for  fourteen  years,  at 
the  end  of  which  he  withdrew  to  study  and  religious  re- 
tirement among  the  Benedictines  of  St.  Manr,  with  whom 
he  passed  the  remainder  of  his  days.  His  principal  works 
were  "  An  Essay  on  the  monastic  History  of  the  East," 
1680,  8vo,  describing  the  manners,  &c.  of  the  Coertobites, 
and  proving  that  monastic  institutions  are  not  so  modern 
as  has  been  supposed.  "  Abridgment  of  the  History  of 
the  Order  of  St.  Benedict,  as  far  as  the  tenth  century," 
1684,  2  vols.  4to.  "  Translation  of  the  Dialogues  of  Gre- 
gory the  Great,"  with  notes,  1689,  12mo ;  but  his  modesty 
would  not  permit  him  to  annex  his  name  to  his  works.  His 
style  was  formed  on  the  model  of  the  writers  of  the  Port 
Royal ;  and  his  knowledge  of  languages  was  very  extensive. 
He  died  of  an  apoplexy  in  1693.  His  brother,  Charles 
Bulteau,  published,  in  1674,  a  "  Treatise  on  the  prece- 

i  Noble'g  Sipptaneat  to  Qraogtn— Lysoni's  Environ*  voL  III.— SptcUtor, 

B  U  L  T  E  A  U.  28A 

deuce  of  the  Kings  of  France  over  those  of  Spain,"  1764, 
4to.     He  died,  dean  of  the  king's  secretaries,  in  1710. l 

BULWER  (John),  of  the  seventeenth  century,  was  au- 
thor of  several  books  of  the  language  of  the  hand,  of  phy- 
siognomy, and  of  instructions  to  the  deaf  and  dumb,  in- 
tended, as  he  expresses  it,  "  to  bring  those  who  are  so  born 
to  hear  the  sound  of  words  with  their  eyes,  and  thence  to 
learn  to  speak  with  their  tongues."  This  is  explained  in 
his  "  Chirologia,  or  the  natural  Language  of  the  Hand, 
&c."  1644,  8vo.  He  was  also  author  of  "  Pathomyoto- 
mia,"  or  a  dissection  of  the  significative  muscles  of  the 
affections  of  the  mind,  1649,  .12mo.  The  most  curious  of 
his  works  is  his  "  Anthropo-metamorphosis ;  Man  trans- 
formed, or  the  artificial  changeling ;"  1653,  ^to,  in  which 
he  shews  what  a  strange  variety  of  shapes  and  dresses  man- 
kind have  appeared  in,  in  the  different  ages  and  nations  of 
the  world.  At  the  end  of  the  first  edition  of  this  book  in 
12mo  is  a  catalogue  of  the  author's  works  in  print  and  MS. 
What  he  calls  the  language  of  the  hand,  or  the  art  of 
speaking  by  the  fingers,  is  yet  known  in  every  boarding- 
school  and  nursery,  where,  however,  the  more  natural 
substitute  is  very  soon  learned. ' 

BUNEL  (Peter),  an  elegant  Latin  scholar,  was  born  at 
Toulouse  in  1499,  and  studied  at  Paris,  where  he  was  dis- 
tinguished by  his  quick  progress  and  promising  talents* 
On  his  return  to  Toulouse,  finding  his  family  unable  to 
maintain  him,  he  went  to  Padua,  where  he  was  supported 
by  Emilius  Perrot     He  was  afterwards  taken  into  the 
'  family  of  Lazarus  de  Baif,  the  French  ambassador  at  Ve- 
nice, by  whose  generosity  he  was  not  only  maintained,  but 
enabled,  to  study  the  Greek  tongue,  and  he  afterwards 
studied  Hebrew.    George  deSelve,  bishop  of  Lavaur,  who 
succeeded  de  Baif  as  ambassador,  retained  Bunel  in  his 
-service,  and  when  his  embassy  was  finished,  carried  him 
with  him  to  Levaur.     Upon  the .  death   of  that   prelate, 
tohich  happened  in  1541,  Bunel  returned  to   Toiilouse, 
where  he  would  have  been  reduced  to  the  greatest  indi- 
gence,  had  not  messieurs  de  Faur,  the  patrons  of  virtue 
and  science,  extended  their  liberality  to  him  unasked.  One 
of  these  gentlemen  appointed  him  tutor  to  his  sons ;  but 
whilst  he  was  making  the  tour  of  Italy  with  them,,  he  was 
'  cut  off  at  Turin  by  a  fever,  in  1546.     Mr.  Bayle  says,  that 

*  Diet.  HWt,— MorerL  *  Granger,  toh  111* 

2«e  BUNEL 

be  was  one  of  the  politest  writers  of  the  Lathi:  tongue  in 
the  sixteenth  century ;  but  though  he  was  advantageously 
distinguished  by  the  eloquence  of  his  Ciceronian  style,  he 
was  still  more  so  by  the  strictness  of  his  morals.  The  ma- 
gistrates of  his  native  town  of  Toulouse  set  up  a  marble 
statue  to  his  memory  in  their  town-house.  He  left  soma 
Latin  epistles  written  with  the  utmost  purity,  which  were 
first  published  by  Charles  Stevens  in  1551,  and  afterwards 
by  Henry  Stevens  in  1581.  Another,  but  a  more  incor- 
rect edition,  was  printed  at  Toulouse  in  1687,  with  noted 
by  Mr.  Gravero,  advocate  of  Nimes. l 

BUNNEY  (Edmund),  descended  from  an  ancient  fa-* 
inily  in  Yorkshire,  was  born  at  a  house  called  the  Vache, 
near  Chalfont  St.  Giles's,  in  Buckinghamshire,  in  1540, 
end  when  sixteen  years  old  was  sent  to  Oxford,  and  having 
taken  his  bachelor's  degree,  was  elected  probationer  fel- 
low of  Magdalen  college.  He  was  at  this  time  distin- 
guished for  his  knowledge  of  logic  and  philosophy,  and 
soon  after  went  to  Staple's  Inn,  and  then  to  Gray's  Inn, 
where  he  spent  about  two  years  in  the  study  of  the  law, 
which  profession  his  father  wished  him  to  follow.  His  oWn 
inclination,  *  however,  was  for  the  study  of  divinity,  which 
displeased  his  father  so  much,  that,  to  use  his  own  words, 
he  "  cast  him  off,"  although  a  man  of  piety  .himself,  and 
one  that  had  fled  for  his  religion  in  queen  Mary's  days. 
He  returned  accordingly  to  Oxford,  and  took  his  master's 
degree  in  1564.  In  the  year  following  he  was  elected  fel- 
low of  Merton  college,  an  irregular  act  of  the  society, 
which,  however,  Wood  says  was  absolutely  necessary,  as 
there  was  no  person  then  in  Merton  college  able  to  preach 
any  public  sermon  in  the  college  turn  ;  and  not  only  there* 
but  throughout  the  university  at  large,  there  was  a  great 
scarcity  of  theologists.  In  1570  he  was  admitted  to  the 
.reading  of  the  sentences,  and  about  the  same  time  became 
chaplain  to  archbishop  Grindall,  who  gave  him  a  prebend 
in  that  church,  and  the  rectory  of  Bolton-Percy  about  sir 
•miles  distant.  This  rectory  he  held  twenty^five  years,  and 
then  resigned  it,  but  retained  his  prebend.-  In  1570  we 
also  find  that  he  was  subdean  of  York,  which  he  resigned 
in  1579.  In  1585  he  was  collated,  being  then  B.  D.  to  a 
prebend  in  Carlisle,  and  had  likewise,  although  we  know 
not  at  what  period,  a  prebend,  in  St.  Paul's.     It  appears 

i  Gen.  Diet. 


BUNNEY.  287 

that  he  preached  and  catechised  rery  frequently,  both  in 
Oxford  and  in  many  other  places,  travelling  over 'a  consi- 
derable part  of  the  kingdom,  and  preaching  wherever 
there  appeared  a  want  of  clergy.  This  zeal,  his  being  a 
Calvinist,  and  his  preaching  extempore,  brought  him  un- 
der the  imputation  of  being  too  forward  and  meddling, 
against  which  he  vindicated  himself  in  "  A  Defence  of  his 
labours  in  the  work  of  the  Ministry,"  written  Jan.  20,  1602, 
but  circulated  only  in  manuscript.  He  died  at  Cawood  in 
Yorkshire,  Feb.  26  (on  his  monument,  but  27  in  arch- 
bishop Matthews' s  MS  diary)  1617,  and  was  buried  in 
York  cathedral.  He  published,  1.  "  The  Sum  of  Christian 
Religion,"  Lond.  1576,  8vo.  2.  "Abridgment  of  Cal- 
vin's Institutions,"  from  May's  translation,  ibid.  1580,  8vo. 
3.  "Sceptre  of  Judah,"  &c.  ibid.  1584,  8vo.  4.  «  The 
Coronation  of  King  David,  &c."  4to,  1588/  5.  Three  or 
four  controversial  pamphlets  with  Parsons,  the  Jesuit.  6. 
"  The  Corner  Stone,  or  a  form  of  teaching  Jesus  Christ 
out  of  the  Scriptures,"  ibid.  1611,  fol. l 

BUNNEY  (Francis),  younger  brother  of  the  preceding, 
was  born  at  Vache,  May  8, 1543,  came  to  Oxford  in  1558, 
and  after  taking  his  bachelor's  degree,  was  chosen  per- 
petual fellow  of  Magdalen  college  in  1562.  He  then  took 
his  master's  degree,  and  entered  into  holy  orders  in  1567. 
He  was  appointed  chaplain  to  the  earl  of  Bedford,  and 
leaving  his  fellowship  in  1571,  went  to  the  north  of  Eng- 
land, where  he  became  a  frequent  and  popular  preacher, 
like  his  brother.  In  May  1572  he  was  inducted  into  a  pre- 
bend of  Durham;  in  1573  he  was  made  archdeacon  of 
Northumberland,  and  in  1 578  he  was  presented  to  the  rec- 
tory of  Ryton  in  the  bishopric  of  Durham,  on  which  he 
resigned  his  archdeaconry.  He  died  April  16,  1617,  a 
few  weeks  after  his  brother,  and  was  buried  in  Rytort 
church.  Wdod  represents  him  as  a  zealous  enemy  of 
popery,  an  admirer  of  Calvin,  and  a  man  of  great  charity. 
His  works  are  three  tracts  against  cardinal  Bellarmin  and 
popery;  an  "  Exposition  of  Romans  iii.  28,  on  Justifica- 
tion by  Faith,"  London,  1616,  4to;  and  "  Plain  and  fa- 
miliar exposition  of  the  Ten  Commandments,"  ibid.  1617, 
8vo.  He  also  wrote  a  commentary  on  the  prophet  Joel, 
being  the  substance  of  some  sermons ;  but,  according  to 
Wood,  this  was  left  in  manuscript.  * 

i  Atb.  Ox.  toL  L— Willis'*  Cathedrals.  *  Ibid. 

388  B  U  N  Y  A  N. 

BUNYAN  (John),  author  of  the  justly -aclixiired  allegory 
of  the  "  Pilgrim's  Progress,"  was  born  at  Elstow,  near 
Bedford,  1628.  His  parents,  though  very  mean,  toQfc 
care  to  give  him  that  learning  which  was  suitable  to  their 
condition,  bringing  him  up  to  read  and  write,  both  winch 
v  he  quickly  forgot,  abandoning  himself  to  all  manner  of 
wickedness,  but  not  without  frequent  checks  of  conscience, 
One  day  being  at  play  with  his  companions  (Jthe  writer  of 
his  life  tells  us),  a  voice  suddenly  darted  from  heaven  into 
his  soul,  saying,  "  Wilt  thou  leave  thy  sins  and  go  to 
heaven,  or  have  thy  sins  and  go  to  hell !".  This  put  him 
into  such  a  consternation,  that  he  immediately  left  his 
sport ;  and  looking  up  to  heaven,  thought  he  saw  the  Lor,d 
Jesus  looking  down  upon  him,  as  one  highly  displeased 
I  with  him,  and  threatening  him  with  some  grievous  punish? 

ment  for  his  ungodly  practices.  At  another  time,  whilst 
he  was  uttering  many  oaths,  he  was  severely  reproved  by 
a  woman,  who  was  herself  a  notorious  sinner :  she  told 
him  be  was  the  ugliest  fellow  for  swearing  that  ever  she 
heard  in  all  hfer  life,  and  that  he  was  able  to  spoil  all  the 
youth  of  the  town,  if  they  came  but  into  his  company* 
This  reproof  coming  from  a  woman,  whom  he  knew  to  be 
very  wicked,  filled  him  with  secret  shame ;  and  made  him, 
from  that  time,  very  much  refrain  from  it.  His  father 
brought  him  up  to  his  own  business,  which  was. that  of  a 
tinker.  Being  a  soldier  in  the  parliament  army,  at  the 
siege  of  Leicester,  in  1645,  he  was  drawn  out  to  stand 
sentinel ;  but  another  soldier  of  his  company  desired  to 
take  his  place,  to  which  he  agreed,  and  thus  escaped  being 
shot  by  a  musket-ball,  which  took  off  his  comrade.  About 
1655  he  was  admitted  a  member  of  a  baptist  congregation 
at  Bedford,  and  soon  after  was  chosen  their  preacher.  In 
1660,  being  convicted  at  the  sessions  of  hokjingrunlawful 
assemblies  and  conventicles,  he  was  sentenc$4V?  perpetual 
banishment,  and  in  the  mean  time  committed  to,  gaol,  from 
which  he  was  discharged,  after  a  confinement  of  twelve 
years  and  an  half,  by  the  compassionate  interposition  of 
Dr.  Barlow,  bishop  of  Lincoln.  During  his  imprisonment, 
his  own  hand  ministered  to  his  necessities,  making  many 
an  hundred  gross  of  long-tagged  thread  laces,  a  trade  which 
he  had  learned  since  his  confinement.  At  this  time  bq 
also  wrote  many  of  his  tracts,  particularly  the  "  Pilgrim* 
Progress."  Afterwards,  being  at  liberty,  he  travelled  into 
several  parts  of  England,  to  visit  and  confirm  the  brethren* 

B  0  N  Y  A  N.  289 

which  procured  him  the  epithet  of  Bishop  Bunyan.    When 
the  declaration  of  James  II.  for  liberty  of  conscience  was 
published,  he,  by  the  contributions  of  his  followers,  built 
a  meeting-house  in  Bedford,  and  preached   constantly  to 
a  numerous   audience.     He  died  in   London  of  a  fever, 
1688,  aged  sixty.     He  had  by  his  wife  four  children,  one 
of  whom,    named  Mary,    was  blind.     This   daughter,  he 
said,  lay  nearer  his  heart  whilst  he  was  in  prison,  than  all 
the  rest ;  and   that  the  thought  of  her  enduring  hardship 
would  be  sometimes  almost  ready  to  break  bis  heart,  but 
that  God   greatly   supported  him  by  these  two  texts  of 
scripture,  "  Leave  the  fatherless  children,  I  vyll  preserve, 
them  alive;  and  let  the  widows  trust  in  me.     The  Lord 
said,  Verily  it  shall  be  well  with  thy  remnant;  verij^  I 
will  cause  the  enemy  to  entreat  thee  well  in,  the  time  of 
evil."  Jer.  xlix.  1 1«  and  chap.  xv.  11.     His  works  are  col- 
lected in  two  volumes  in  folio,  printed  at  London  in  1736-7, 
and  reprinted  in  1760,  arid  often  since  in  various  forms. 
The  con  tin  ua tor  of  his  life,  in  the  second  of  those  volumes, 
tells   us,  that. "  he  appeared  in  countenance  to  be  of  a 
stern  and  rough  temper,  but  in  his  conversation  mild  and 
affable;  not  given  to  loquacity,  or  much  discourse  in  com- 
pany, unless  some  urgent  occasion  required  it ;  observing 
never  to  boast  of  himself  or  his  parts,  but  rather  seem  low 
in  his  own  eyes,  and  submit  himself  to  the  judgment  of 
others;  abhorring  lying  and  swearing;  being  just  in   all 
that  lay  in  his  power  to  his  word ;  not  seeking  to  revenge 
injuries,  loving  to  reconcile  differences,  and  making  friend- 
ship with  all.     He  had  a  sharp  quick  eye;  accompanied 
with  an   excellent  discerning  of  persons,  being  of  good 
judgment  and  quick  wit     As  for  his  person,  he  was  tall  of 
stature,  strong  boned,  though  not  corpulent :   somewhat 
of  a  ruddy  face,  with  sparkling  eyes,  wearing  his  hair  on 
his  upper  lip,  after  the  old  British  fashion  ;  his  hair  red- 
dish, but  in  his  latter  days  time  had  sprinkled  it  with  gray; 
his  nose  well-set,  but  not  declining  or  bending,  and  his 
mouth  moderately  large;  his  forehead  something  high, 
and  his  habit  always  plain  and  modest." 

Of  all  his  works,  the  "  Pilgrim's  Progress"  has  attained 
the  greatest  popularity,  and  greater  than  any  other  human 
composition.  It  was  remarked  by  the  learned  Dr.  Samuel 
Johnson,  that  the  Pilgrim's  Progress. has  had  the  best  evi- 
dence of  its  merit,  namely,  the  general  and  continued 
approbation  of  mankind.     No  work  of  human  composition 

Vol.  VII.  U 

^  i 

290  B  U  N  Y  A  N. 

can  certainly  be  compared  with  it  in  universality  and  ex- 
tent of  popularity.     Besides  having  been  translated  into 
several  European  languages,  scarce  a  year  has  passed,  since 
its  first  appearance,  in  which  the  public  has  not  called  for 
a  new  edition.     For  many  years,  however,  this  work  was 
confined  to  the  serious  part  of  the  world  for  whom  it  was 
intended,  and  was  seldom   noticed  by  others  but  as  the 
production  of  an  illiterate  man,  calculated  only  to  please 
illiterate  people  :  an  objection  which,  if  it  had  been  just, 
could  not  be  said  to  militate  very  strongly  against  its  merit. 
However  necessary  learning  may  be  to  guard  the  outworks 
of  Christianity  against  the  attacks  of  infidels,  pure  and 
undefiled  religion  requires  so  little  literature  to  inculcate 
it  in  the  case  of  others,  or  to  receive  it  ourselves,  that  we 
find  it  had  no  hand  in  the  first  promulgation  of  the  gospel, 
nor  much  in  the  various  means  that  have  been  taken  to 
perpetuate  it.     But  Bunyan's   want  of  education  is  the 
highest  praise  that  can  be.  given.     Such  a  defect  exhibits 
the  originality  of  his  genius  in  the  strongest  light?  and 
since  more  attention  has  been  paid  by  men  of  critical  taste 
to  his  "  Pilgrim's  Progress,9'  he  has  been  admitted  into 
a  higher  rank  among  English  writers,  and  it  seems  uni- 
versally acknowledged  that  nothing  was  wanting  to  ad- 
vance him  yet  higher  but  the  advantages  of  education,  or 
of  an  intimacy  with  the  best  writers  in  his  own  language. 
,    Dr.  Johnson,  whose  opinion  has  been  already  quoted  in 
part,  conceived  so  high  an  opinion  of  the  allegorical  struc- 
ture of  the  Pilgrim,  that  he  thought  Bunyan  must  have 
read  Spenser,  and  observes,  as  a  remarkable  circumstance, 
that  the  Pilgrim's  Progress  begins  very  much  like  the  poem 
of  Dante,  although  there  was  no  translation  of  Dante  when 
Bunyan  wrote.   Dr.  Beattie  says  that  some  of  the  allegories 
in  the  Pilgrim  are  well  conceived,  and  prove*  the  author  to 
have  possessed  powers  of  invention,  which,  if  they  had 
been  refined  by  learning,  might  have  produced  something 
very  noble.     What  learning  might  have  done  to  Bunyan 
we  no  more  can  tell  than  we  can  tell  what  it  might  have 
done  to  Shakspeare ;  but,  in  our  opinion,  Bunyan,  with- 
out its  aid,  has  produced  "  something  very  noble,"  be- 
cause he  has  produced  a  work  the  most  perfect  in  its  kind, 
and  which  has  baffled,  and  continues  to  baffle  all  attempts 
at  imitation.     The  elegant  author,  whom  we  have  just 
quoted,  goes  on  to  say  "  that  the  work  has  been  imi* 
toted,  but  with  little  success.     The  learned  bishop  Patrick 

B  U  N  Y  A  N.  .  291 

-wrote  the  c  Parable  of  the  Pilgrim/  but  I  am  not  satis- 
fied that  he  borrowed  the  hint*  as  it  is  generally  thought 
he  did,  from  John  Bunyan.  There  is.  no  resemblance  in 
the  plan,  nor  does  the  bishop  speak  a  word  of  the  Pil- 
*grim's  Progress,  which  I  think,  he  would  have  done,  if  he 
had  seen  it.  Besides,  Bunyan's  fable  is  full  of  incident ; 
Patrick's  is  dry,  didactic,  verbose,  and  exceedingly  bar- 
ren in  the  invention." 

•.  The  rev.  Mr.  Granger,  in  his  Biographical  History  of 
•England,  is  yet  more  decided  in  his  admiration  of  Bun- 
yan's talents. — "  Bunyan,  who  has  been  mentioned  among 
the  least:  and  lowest  of  our  writers,  and  even  ridiculed  as  a 
driveller  by  those  who  have  never  read  him,  deserves  a 
much  higher  rank  than  is  commonly  imagined.  His  '  Pil- 
grim's ProgressVgives  us  a  clear  and  distinct  idea  of  Calvin- 
istical  divinity.  The  allegory  is  admirably  carried  on,  and 
the  characters  justly  drawn  and  uniformly  supported.  This 
author's  original  and  poetic  genius  shines  through  the 
coarseness  and  vulgarity  of  his  language,  and  intimates 
that  if  he  had  been  a  master  of  numbers,  he  might  have 
composed  a  poem  worthy  of  Spenser  himself.  As  this 
opinion  may  be  deemed  paradoxical,  I  shall  venture  to 
name  two  persons  of  eminence  of  the  same  sentiments : 
one,  the  late  Mr;  JMerrick  of  Reading  (who  has  been  heard 
to  say  in  conversation,  that  Bunyan's  invention  was  like 
that  of  Homer) ;  the  other,  Dr.  Roberts,  now  (late)  fellow 
of  Eton  college." 

These  opinions  of  Bunyan  will  be  found  amply  justified 
by  an  impartial  perusal  of  the  work  in  question,  except 
with  regard  to  what  is  said  of  "  the  coarseness  and  vul- 
garity" of  Bunyan's  style,  which  is  certainly  very  unjust. 
His  style,  if  compared  with  the  writers  of  his  age  on  sub- 
jects of  religion,  and  particularly,  if  his  want  of  education 
be  taken  into  consideration,  will  suffer  very  little.  On 
the  other  hand,  there  is  reason  to  suspect  that,  by  some 
of  these  critics,  simplicity  has  been  mistaken  for  vulgarity, 
although  we  ape  willing  to  allow  that  a  few  phrases  might 
be  elevated  in  expression  without  injury  to  the  sentiment. 
But  of  what  authc?r  in  the  seventeenth  century  may  not  this 
be  said  ?  It  ought  also  tote  remembered  that  the  "  Pil- 
.  grim's  Progress"  was  written  while  the  author  was  suffering 
•  a  long  imprisonment,  during  which  the  only  books  to  which 
he  had  access  were  the  Bible  and  Fox's  Martyrology; 
anil  it  is  evident  that  the  whole  work  is  sprinkled  over  with 

w  2 

2§2  BUNYAN/ 

the  phraseology  of  scripture,  not  only  because  it  was  that 
in  which  he  was  most  conversant,  but  that  which  was  the 
best  adapted  to  his  subject 

Mr.  Granger's  opinion  of  the  probable  advancement  he 
might  have  made  in  poetry,  has  been  opposed  by  the  late 
Dr.  Kippis  in  the  Biographia  Britannica,  but  in  a  manner 
which  evinces  that  the  learned  doctor  was  a  very  incom- 
petent judge.  He  says  Bunyan  "  had  the  invention,  but 
not  the  other  natural  qualifications  which  are,  necessary  to 
constitute  a  great  poet."  Now,  we  believe  it  is  the  uni- 
versal opinion  of  all  critics,  since  criticism  was  known,  that 
invention  is  the  first  qualification  of  a  poet,  and  the  only 
one  which  can  be  called  natural,  all  others  depending  upon 
the  state  of  refinement  and  education  in  the  age  the  poet 
happens  to  live.  Hence  it  is  that  our  early  poets  are  in 
general  so  exceedingly  deficient  in  the  graces  of  harmony, 
and  that  many  of  our  modern  poets  have  little  else.  With 
respect  to  Patrick's  Pilgrim,  mentioned  above,  it  is  ne- 
cessary to  observe  that  (besides  its  being  doubtful  which 
was  first  published,  Bunyan's  or  Patrick's)  the  question  is 
not,  whether  Bunyan  might  not  have  been  preceded  by 
authors  who  have  attempted  something  like  the  Pilgrim's 
Progress:  far  less  is  it  necessary  to  inquire,  whether  he 
be  entitled  to  the  merit  of  being  the  first  who  endeavoured 
to  convey  religious  instruction  in  allegory.  It  is  sufficient 
praise  that  when  his  work  appeared,  ail  others  which  re- 
sembled it,  or  seemed  to  resemble  it,  became  forgotten  ; 
and  the  palm  of  the  highest  merit  was  assigned  to  him  by 
universal  consent.  It  was,  therefore,  to  little  purpose  that 
a  small  volume  was  lately  published,  entitled  "  Th&  Isle  of 
Man,  or  the  legal  proceedings  in  Man-shire  against  Sin," 
by  the  rev.  R.  Bernard,  from  which  Bunyan  was  "  sup- 
posed" to  have  taken  the  idea  of  his  Pilgrim.  Bunyan's 
work  so  far  transcends  that  and  every  similar  attempt,  that  he 
would  have  been  very  much  to  blame  (allowing,  what  can- 
not be  proved,  that  he  took  the  idea  from  Bernard)  had  he 
not  adopted  a  plan  which  he  was  qualified  to  execute  with 
such  superior  ability. 

Of  late  years  many  imitations  have  been  attempted,  and 
rnany  rivals  have  appeared  to  Bunyan,  but  while  candour 
obliges  us  to  allow,  in  some  instances,  the  goodness  of  the 
intention,  and  that  they  are  written  in  a  style  which  pro- 
mises to  be  useful,  it  is  at  the  same  time  justice  to  our 
author  to  say,  that  they  fall  very  short  of  his  performance 


jn  almost  every  requisite :  in  simplicity,  in  the  preserva- 
tion of  the  allegorical  characters,  and  in  that  regular  and 
uniform  progress  which  conducts  the  hero  through  every 
scene,  and  renders  every  scene  and  every  episode  subser- 
vient to  the  main  purpose.  How  well  this  has  been  exe- 
cuted! the  constant  and  increasing  popularity  of  the  "  Pil- 
grim's Progress"  is  sufficient  to  demonstrate.  What  pleases 
all,  and  pleases  long,  must  have  extraordinary  merit :  and 
that  there  is  a  peculiar  fascination  about  the  Pilgrim  has 
never  been  denied  either  by  those  who  do  not  read  to  be 
instructed,  or  who  are  averse  to  the  author's  religious 
opinions.  Of  this  latter,  we  have  a  striking  instance  in 
dean  Swift.  In  his  celebrated  Letter  to  a  young  Clergyman 
he  says,  "  I  have  been  better  entertained,  and  more  in- 
formed, by  a  few  pages  in  the  Pilgrim's  Progress,  than 
by  a  long  discourse  upon  the  will,  and  the  intellect,  and 
simple  and  complex  ideas."  It  must  be  allowed  to  be  no 
small  merit  to  have  "fixed  the  attention  of  such  a  man  as 
Swift,  and  to  have  conciliated  the  esteem  of  men  of  critical 
taste,  on  account  of  the  powers  of  invention,  and  the  ex- 
ercise of  a  rich  and  fertile  imagination. 

It  may  be  prpper  here  to  remark,  that  there  is  a  small 
book,  which  has  been  often  printed  with  it  under  the  title 
of  a  Third  Part  of  the  Pilgrim's  Progress  ;  but  the  purpose 
of  our.  making  the. remark  is  to  guard  our  readers  against  it 
as  a  very  gross  imposition.  The  late  rev.  John  Newton,  b}' 
a  very  happy  figure,  asserts  that  f  a  common  bedgestake 
deserves  as  much  to  be  compared  with  Aaron's  rod,  which 
yielded  blossoms  and  almonds,  as  this  poor  performance  to 
be  obtruded  upon  the  world  under  the  title  of  the  "  Third 
Part  of  the  Pilgrim's  Progress."  Besides  that,  this  forgery 
contradicts  Bunyan's  doctrines,  it  is  evident  that  hi*  plan 
was  completed  in  his  Second  Part, .'  and  that  no  addition 
could  have  been  made  even  by  his  own  ingenious  pen,  that 
wou^ld  not  have  partaken  of  the  nature  of  a  repetition.  It 
remains  to  be  noticed,  that  they  who  have  read  no  other 
production  of  Buny^n,  have  yet  to  learn  the  extent  pf  the 
wonderful  powers  displayed  in  his  various,  works.  Consi- 
dering his  narrow  and  confined  education,  we  have  been 
almost,  equally  struck  with  the  perspicuous  and  clear  views 
of  his  various  theological  .and  practical  treatises,  as  the 
wQrfcs  pf  £  man  gifted  in  a  most  uncommon  degree.  \ 

'  Biog.  Brit— Life  by  hinifceif. — Ath.  Ox.  vol.  II. — &c. 

».  «.    »» 




BUONAMICI  (Castruccio),  an  Italian  historian,  was 
born  at  Lucca  in  1710,  of  a  reputable  family,  and  first  em- 
braced the  ecclesiastical  state.  His  studies  being  finished, 
he  went  to  Rome,  and  during  a  stay  of  some  years  in  that 
city,  attracted  the  notice  of  the  cardinal  de  Polignac,  who 
was  desirous  of  gaining  his  attachment,  but  whom  he  re- 
fused to  accompany  into  France.  Not  meeting  in  the 
church  with  the  advantages  he  had  promised  himself,  he 
gave  it  tip,  in  order  to  bear  arms  in  the  service  of  the  king 
of  the  Two  Sicilies,  which,  however,  did  not  prevent  his 
devoting  himself  to  the  study  of  the  belles-lettres.  He 
wrote  in  Latin  the  history  of  the  war  of  Velletri  in  1745, 
between  the  Austrians  and  Neapolitans,  in  which  he  was 
employed,  under  the  title  of  "  De  rebus  ad  Velitras  gestis 
commentarius,"  1746,  4to.  This  obtained  him  a  pension 
from  the  king  of  Naples,  and  the  rank  of  commissary  ge- 
neral of  artillery.  But  his  most  considerable  work  is  the 
history  of  the  war  in  Italy,  which  appeared  in  1750  and 
1751,  under  this  title,  u  Debelldltalicocommentarii,"  4to, 
in  three  books,  for  which  he  got  the  title  of  count  to  him- 
self and  hie  descendants*  These  two  histories  are  much 
esteemed  for  the  correctness  of  the  narration  and  the  purity 
of  the  Latinity,  and  have  been  several  times  reprinted. 
The  count  de  Buonamici  also  composed  a  treatise  "  De 
scientia  militari,"  but  which  has  not  hitherto  been  publish- 
ed. He  died  in  1761,  at  Lucca,  the  place  of  his  nativity, 
whither  he  was  come  for  the  benefit  of  his  health.  The 
name  dt  Castrtrccio  being  very  famous  in  the  history  of 
Lucca,  be  adopted  it  on  his  going  into  the  Neapolitan1  ser- 
vice, instead  of  his  baptismal  name,  which  was  Francis- 
Joseph-Mary.  His  work  on  the  war  in  Italy  was  trans- 
lated into  English,  and  published  in  1753  at  London  by 
A.  Wishart,  M.  A.  under  the  title  of  "  Commentaries  of 
the  late  war  in  Italy,"  8  vo.  * 

BUONARROTI  (Michel  Angelo),  a  most  illustrious 
painter^  sculptor,  and  architect,  was  born  in  the  castle  of 
Caprese,  in  Tuscany*  March -6,  1474,  and  descended  from 
the  noble  family  of  the  counts  of  Canossa.  At  the  time  of 
his  birth,  his  father,  Lodovico  di  Leonardo  Buonarroti  *Si- 
xnone,  was  podesta,  or  governor  of  C&prese  and  Chiutfi, 

*  Diet*  Hilt.— Saxii  On<*i»st. 

B  U  O  NARROTL  295 

and  as  be  bad  not  risen  above  the  superstitious  belief  in 
astrological  predictions,  so  common  in  that  age,  be  was 
probably  pleased  to  bear  that  "  his  child  would  be  a  very 
extraordinary  genius."  His  biographers  indeed  go  so  far 
as  to  tell  us  of  a  predictipn,  that  he  would  excel  in  paint? 
ing,  sculpture,  and  architecture.  When  of  a  proper  age, 
Michel  Angelo  was  sent  to  a  grammar-school  at  Florence, 
where,  whatever  progress  he  might  make  in  his  books,  he 
contracted  a  fondness  for  drawing,  which  at  first  alarmed 
the  pride  of  his  family,  but  his  father  at  length  perceiving 
that  it  was  hopeless  to  give  his  mind  any  other  direction, 
placed  him  under  Domenico  Ghirlanda'io,  the  most  eminent 
painter  at  that  time  in  Florence,  and  one  of  the  most  cele- 
brated in  Italy.  He  was  accordingly  articled  for  three 
years  to  Ghirlanda'io,  from  April  1488,  but  is  said  to  have 
reaped  no  benefit  from  his  instructions,  as  his  master  soon 
became  jealous  of  his  talents.  He  rapidly,  however,  sur- 
passed his  contemporary  students,  by  the  force  of  his  ge- 
nius, and  his  study  of  nature  ;  and  adopted  a  style  of  draw- 
ing and  design  more  bold  and  daring  than  Ghirlandaio  had 
been  accustomed  to  see  practised  in  bis  school ;  and,  from 
an  anecdote  Vasa,ri  tells,  it  would  seem  Michel  Angelo 
soon  felt  himself  even  superior  to  his  master.     One  of  the 

Smpils  copying  a  female  portrait  from  a  drawing  by  Ghir- 
andaio,  he  took  a  pen  and  made  a  strong  outline  round  it 
on  the  same  paper,  to  shew  him  its  defects ;  and  the  supe- 
rior style  of  the  contour  was  as  much  admired  as  the  act 
was  considered  confident  and  presumptuous.  His  great 
facility  in  copying  with  accuracy  whatever  objects  were 
before  him  sometimes  forced  a  compliment  even  from 
Ghirlandaio  himself. 

When  about  this  time  Lorenzo  de  Medici  established  a 
school  for  the  advancement  of  sculpture,  in  a  garden  in 
Florence,  under  the  superintendence  of  Bertoldo,  Lorenzo 
requested  Ghirlandaio  to  permit  any  of  his  scholars  to 
study  there,  who  were  desirous  of  drawing  from  the  an- 
tique, and  from  that  time  the  Medici  garden  became  the 
favourite  school  of  Michel  Angelo.  No  sooner  had  he  enter- 
ed upon  his  studies  here,  than  seeing  a  student  modelling 
some  figures  in  clay,  he  felt  an  emulation  to  do  the  same ; 
and  Lorenzo,  who  frequently  visited  the  gardens,  observ- 
ing his  progress,  encouraged  him  with  expressions  of  ap- 
probation. He  was,  not  long  after,  desirous  to  try  his 
skill  in  marble,  aad  being  particularly  interested  in  a  mut 



tilated  old  head,  or  rather  a  mask  representing  a  laughing 
Faun,  he  chose  it  for  his  original.  Although  this  was  his 
first  essay  in  sculpture,  he  finished  it  in  a  few  days,  sup- 
plying what  was  imperfect  in  the'  original,  and  making 
some  other  additions.  Lorenzo  visiting  his  garden  as 
usual,  found  Michel  Angelo  polishing  his  mask,  and 
thought  it  an  extraordinary  work  for  so  young  an  artist  ? 
yet  jestingly  remarked,  "  You  have  restored  to  the  old 
Faun  all  his  teeth,  but  don't  you  know  that  a  man  of  such 
an  age  has  generally  some  wanting  ?"  Upon  this  observa- 
tion, the  moment  Lorenzo  departed,  Michel  Angelo  broke 
a  tooth  from  the  upper  jaw,  and  drilled  a  hole  in  the  gum 
to  represent  its  having  fallen  out. 

To  this  little  circumstance  Michel  Angelo,  who  was  now 
between  fifteen  and  sixteen  years  old,  owed  the  patronage 
of  Lorenzo,  who  adopted  him  into  his  family,  provided 
him  with  a  room,  and  every  accommodation  in  the  palace, 
treated  him  as  his  own  son,  and  introduced  him  to  men  of 
rank  and  genius.  Among  others  he  formed  an  intimacy 
with  Politiano,  who  resided  under  the  same  roof,  and  soon 
became  warmly  attached'  to  his  interests.  At  his  recom- 
mendation he  executed  a  basso-relievo  in  marble,  the  sub- 
ject  of  which  was  the  battle  of  the  Centaurs,  of  which  it  is 
sufficient  praise,  that  it  stood  approved  in  the  riper  judg- 
ment of  Michel  Angelo  himself,  who,  although  not  indul- 
gent to  his  own  productions,  did  not  hesitate  on  seeing  it, 
even  in  the  decline  of  life,  to  express  his  regret  that  he 
had  not  entirely  devoted  himself  to  sculpture.  In  1492, 
death  deprived  him  of  the  patronage  of  Lorenzo,  which, 
however,  was  in  some  measure  continued  to  him  by  Lo- 
renzo's successor,  a  man  of  corrupt  and  vitiated  taste,  of 
whose  discrimination  in  merit  we  have  this  notable  proof 
that  he  boasted  of  two  extraordinary  persofis  in  his  house, 
Michel  Angelo,  and  a  Spanish  footman  who  could  out -run 
a  hdrse.  Michel  Angelo,  however,  prosecuted  his  studies, 
and  produced  some  fine  specimens  of  art,  until  the  tran- 
quillity of  Florence  was  disturbed  by  the  haughty  and  pu- 
sillanimous conduct  of  his  patron,  Piero  de  Medici,  when 
he  thought  proper  to  retire  to  Bologna  to  avoid  the  im- 
pending evils.  Here  he  was  invited  into  the  house  of  Al- 
dovrandi,  a  Bolognese  gentleman,  and  one  of  the  sixteen 
Constituting  the  government,  and  during  his  stay  executed 
two  statues  in  marble  for  the  church  of  St.  Domenico. 
After  remaining  with  this  hospitable  friend  somewhat  mora 


than  a  year,  the  affairs  of  Florence  being  tranquillized,  he 
returned  home  to  his  father's  house,  pursued  his  profes- 
sion, and  produced  a  statue  of  a  sleeping  Cupid,  that  ad- 
vanced his  reputation,  but  not  without  the  aid  of  some 
trick.  He  was  advised  by  a  friend  to  stain  the  marble  so 
as  to  give  it  the  appearance  of  an  antique,  and  in  this 
state  it  was  sent  to  Rome  to  an  agent  who  pretended  to 
have  dug  it  up  in  a  vineyard,  and  sold  to  cardinal  St.  Gior- 
gio for  two  hundred  ducats.  What  rendered  this  imposi- 
tion unnecessary  to  Michel  Angelo' s  fame,  was,  that  on 
the  discovery  of  the  real  artist,  he  received  the  most  fiat* 
tering  praises,  and  was  invited  to  Rome,  as  the  proper 
theatre  for  the  exercise  of  his  talents*  At  Rome  he  made 
several  statues,  which  placed  him  in  an  enviable  rank 
among  his  contemporaries,  and  a  cartoon  of  St.  Francis  re- 
ceiving the  stigmata,  painted  in  distemper  for  St.  Pietro 
in  Montorio;  and  while  he  executed  these  commission* 
both  with  credit  and  profit  to  himself,  he  was  also  indefa- 
tigable by  observation  and  study  to  improve  and  elevate 
his  style. 

On  the  promotion  of  Pietro  Soderini,  to  the  rank  of  per- 
petual gonfaloniere,  or  chief  magistrate  of  Florence,  Mi- 
chel Angelo  was  advised  to  return  thither,  as  Soderini  had 
the  reputation  of  an  encourager  of  genius,  and  he  intro- 
duced himself  to  his  patronage  by  a  colossal  statue  of 
David,  a  figure  in  bronze,  name  unknown,  and  a  groupe  of 
David  and  Goliath.  At  the  same  time,  that  he  might  not 
entirely  neglect  the  practice  of  painting,  he  painted  a 
holy  family  for  one  Angelo  Doni,  concerning  which  Vasari 
relates  the  following  anecdote.  When  the  picture  was 
finished,  it  was  sent  home  with  a  note  requesting  the  pay- 
ment of  seventy  ducats :  Angelo  Doni  did  not  expect  such 
a  charge,  and  told  the  messenger  he  would,  give  forty, 
which  he  thought  sufficient ;  Michel  Angelo  immediately 
sent  back  the  servant,  and  demanded  his  picture,  or  an 
hundred  ducats :  Angelo  Doni,  not  liking  to  part  with  it, 
returned  the  messenger,  agreeing  to  pay  the  original  sum, 
but  Michel  Angelo,  indignant  at  being  haggled  with,  then 
doubled  his  first  demand,  and  Angelo  Doni,  still  wishing  .to 
possess  the  picture,  acceded,  rather  than  try  any  further 
experiment  to  abate  his  price. 

That  Michel  Angelo  might  have  an  opportunity  of  add- 
ing to  his  fame  as  a  painter,  the  gonfaloniere  commissioned 
him  to  paint  a  large  historical  subject,  to  ornament  the  h^U 


of  the  ducal  .palace ;  and  as  it  was  the  honourable  ambition 
of  Sode^ini  to  employ  the  talents  of  his  country  in  the  esta~ 
blishment  of  its  fame,  he  engaged  the  abilities  of  Leonardo 
da  Vinci,  at  the  same  time,  to  execute  a  corresponding 
picture  to  occupy  the  opposite  side  of  the  hall.  An  event 
in  the  war  between  the  Florentines  and  Pisans,  was  the 
subject  Michel  Angelo  chose,  ahd  that  of  Leonardo  da 
Vinci  wa&  a  battle  of  cavalry.  Michel  Angelo's  cartoon 
Wfks  the.  most  extraordinary  work  that  had  appeared  since 
the  revival  of  the  arts  in  Italy,  but' as  no  part  of  it  now  re* 
mains,  an  idea  of  it  can  be  formed  only  from  Vasari's  ac- 
count and  description.  Such  was  the  excellence  of  this 
work,  that  some  thought  it  absolute  perfection  ;  not  to  be 
rivalled,  and  hopeless  to  be  approached ;  and  certainly 
some  credit  is  due  to  this  opinion,  as  from  the  time  it  was 
placed  in  the  papal  hall,  it  was  for  many  years  constantly 
visited  by  foreigners  as  well  as  natives,  who,  by  studying 
and  drawing  from  it,  became  eminent  masters.  It  requires 
to  be  added,  however,  that  the  cartoon  was  all  that  was 
finished ;  from  various  causes,  the  picture  itself  was  never 
begun,  and  the  cartoon,  which  was  exhibited  to  students' 
for  their  improvement,  was  by  degrees  mutilated  and  de~ 
stroyed,  an  irreparable  injury  to  posterity. 

On  the  accession  of  pope  Julius  II.  a  patron  of  genius 
and  learning,.  Michel  A ngelo  was  among  the  first  invited 
to  bis  court,  and  after  some  time  the  pope  gave  him  an 
unlimited  commission  to  make  a  mausoleum.  Having  re* 
ceived  full  powers,  he  commenced  a  design  worthy  of 
himself  and  his  patron.  The  plan  was  a  parallelogram, 
and  the  superstructure  to  consist  of  forty  statues,  many  of 
which  were  to  be  colossal,  interspersed  with  ornamental 
figures  and  bronze  basso-relievos,  besides  the  necessary 
architecture,  with  appropriate  decorations,  to  unite  the 
composition  into  one  stupendous  whole.  When  this 
magnificent  design  was  completed,  it  met  with  the  popels 
entire  approbation,  and  Michel  Angelo  was  desired 
to  go  into  St  Peter's  to  see  where  it  could  be  eonve- 
niently  placed.  Michel  Angelo  fixed  upon  a  particular 
spot,  but  the  church  itself,  now  old,  being  considered 
as  ill-adapted  for  so  superb  a  mausoleum,  the  pope,  after 
many  consultations  with  architects,  determined  to  rebuild 
St.  Peter's ;  and  this  is  the  origin  of  that  edifice  which 
took  a  hundred  and  fifty  years  to  complete,  and  is  now  the 
grandest  display  of  architectural  splendour  that  ornaments 
the  Christian  world.    To  those,  says  his  late  excellent 


biographer,  who  are  curious  in  tracing  the  remote  cause* 
of  great  events  to  their  Source,  Michel  Angelo  perhaps  may 
be  found,  though  very  unexpectedly,  to  have!  thu*  laid  the 
first  ?tone  of  the  reformation.  His  monument  demanded 
a  building  of  corresponding  magnificence;  to  prosecute 
the  undertaking  money  was  wanting,  and  indulgences  were 
sold  to  supply  the  deficiency  of  the  treasury.  A  monk  of 
Saxony  (Luther)  opposed  the  authority  of  the  church,  fend 
this  singular  fatality  attended  the  event,  that  whilst  the 
most  splendid  edifice  which  the  world  had  ever  seen  was 
building  for  the  catholic  faith,  the  religion  to  which  it  was 
consecrated  was  shaken  to  the  foundation. 

The  work  was  begun,  but  before  it  had  proceeded  far; 
Michel  Angelo  met  with  some  affront  from  the  servants 
of  the  papal  palace,  who  were  jealous  of  his  favour  with 
the  pope,  and  not  being  admitted  to  his  holiness  when  he 
came  on  business,  set  off  from  Rome  for  Florence.  As 
soon  as  this  was  known,  couriers  were  dispatched  after 
him,  but,  as  he  had  got  beyond  the  pope's  territories,  they 
could  not  use  force,  and  only  obtained  of  Michel  Angelo 
a  letter  to  the  pope  explaining  the  cause  of  his  departure. 
But  after  some  time,  and  the  intercession  of  friends,  Michel 
Angelo  consented  to  return  to  Rome,  where,  to  his  great  dis- 
appointment, ne  found  that  the  pope  had  changed  his  mind, 
and  instead  of  completing  Ihe  monument,  had  determined 
to  decorate  with  pictures  the  ceilings  and  walls  of  the  Sis- 
tine  chapel,  in  honour  of  the  memory  of  his  uncle  Sixtus  IV. 
The  walls  of  this  chapel  were  already  ornamented  with 
historical  paintings  by  various  masters,  but  these  were  now 
to  be  effaced,  and  the  entire  chapel  to  be  painted  by 
Michel  Angelo,  so  as  to  correspond  in  its  parts,  and  make 
one  uniform  whole.  Michel  Angelo  was  diffident  of  his 
powers  in  freaco-p&inting,  and  recommended  Raffaello, 
but  the  pope  was  peremptory,  and  our  artist  obliged  to 
yield.  He  accordingly  prepared  the  cartoons,  and  en- 
deavoured to  engage  persons  experienced  in  fresco* 
painting,  but  being  disappointed  in  the  first  specimen  of 
their  abilities,  he  determined  himself  to  try  how  far  he 
could  overcome  the  difficulties  which  made  it  necessary 
for  him  to  seek  their  aid,  .and  succeeded  in  painting  the 
ceiling  tQ  the  astonishment  and  admiration  even  of  his 
enemies.  For  the  description  of  this  stupendous  monu-J 
ment  of  human  genius,  we  must  refer  to  our  authority, 
but  the  circumstance  not  the  least  remarkable,  was,  that 
the  whole  was  completed  in  twenty  months,  and  on  All- 


Saints-Day,  1512,  the  chapel  was  opened,  and  the  pope 
officiated  at  high  mass  to  a  crowded  and  admiring  audience. 
Michel  Angelo  next  applied  himself  to  make  designs  for 
other  pictures  for  the  sides  of  the  chapd,  to  complete  the 
original  plan :  but  on  Feb.  21,  1513,  the  pope  died,  and 
to  Michel  Angelo  his  loss  was  not  supplied.  The  old 
paintings  still  remain  on  the  walls  of  this  chapel. 

Julius  II.  was  succeeded  by  the  celebrated  Leo  X.  who 
professed  the  same  warmth  of  attachment,  and  the  same 
zeal  to  promote  the  talents  of  Michel  Angelo,  But  we 
have  already  seen  that  the  attachment  of  this  great  artist's 
patrons  was  mixed  with  a  degree  of  caprice  which  reduced 
him  often  to  a  state  of  servitude.  Michel  Angelo  had  re- 
ceived instructions  to  construct  a  monument  for  Julius  II. 
on  a  lesser  scale  than  the  mausoleum  which  we  have  already 
mentioned.  This  Leo  X.  immediately  interrupted,  by  in- 
sisting on  his  going  to  Florence  to  build  the  facade  of  the 
church  of  S.  Lorenzo,  which  remained  unfinished  from  the 
time  of  his  grandfather  Cosmo  de  Medici,  atod  Michel 
Angelo,  after  in  vain  pleading  the  engagement  he  was 
under,  was  obliged  to  comply.  Nor  was  this  all.  While 
at  Carrara,  ordering  the  necessary  marble,  be  received  a 
letter  from  Leo  desiring  him  to  go  to  Pietra  Santa,  where 
his  holiness  had  been  told  there  was  marble  equal  to'  that 
of  Carrara.  Michel  Angelo  obeyed,  and  reported  that  the 
marble  was  of  an  inferior  quality,  and  that  thfere  was  116 
means  of  cbnveying  it  to  Florence  without  making  a  road 
of  many  miles  to  the  sea,  through  mountains,  and  over 
marshes,  &c.  The  pope,  however,  flattered  with  the 
prospect  of  procuring  marble  from  a  territory  which  he 
could  at  any  time  call  his  own,  ordered  him  to  proceed, 
the  result  of  which  was  that  the  talents  of  this  great  man 
were  buried  in  those  mountains,  and  his  time  consumed 
during  the  whole  reign  of  Leo  X.  (above  eight  years)  in 
little  other,  than  raising  stone  out  of  a  quarry,  and  making 
a  road  to  convey  it  to  the  sea.  At  the  death  of  Leo  the 
fatjade  of  S.  Lorenzo  was  not  advanced  beyond  its  founda- 
tion, and  the  time  of  Michel  Angelo  had  been  consumed 
in  making  a  road,  in  seeing  that  five  columns  were  made 
at  the  quarry  of  Pietra  Santa,  in  conducting  them  to  the 
sea-side,  and  in  transporting  one  of  them  to  Florence; 
this  employment,  with  occasionally  making  some  models 
in  wax,  and  some  trifling  designs  for  the  interior  vf  a  room 
in  the  Medici  palace,  appears  to  have  been  all  the  benefit 

B  U  O  N  A  R  R  O  T  L  Ity 

that  was  derived  from  his  talent*  during  the  whole  of  this 

.    During  the  pontificate  of  Adrian  VI.  who  succeeded 
Leo,  the  facade  of  S.  Lorenzo  was  altogether  laid  aside, 
and  Michel  Angelo  endeavoured  to  resume  his  labours  on 
the  monument  of  Julius  II.  for  which  the  heirs  of  Julius 
were  impatient,  and  threatened  to  make  the  artist  account 
for  the  monies  received  in  the  pontificate  of  Julius.     He 
found  a  friend,  however,,  in  the  cardinal  Giuliano  de  Me* 
djci,  who  commissioned  him  to  build  a  library  and  new 
sacristy  to  the  church  of  S.  Lorenzo,  to  serve  as  a  mauso* 
leum  for  the  Medici  family;  and  also  to  execute  monu- 
ments to. the  memory  of  the  dukes  Giuliano  and  Lorenzo, 
to  be  placed  in  it ;  and  these  works  took  up  the  whole  of 
Michel  Angela's  attention  during  the  short  pontificate  of 
Adrian  VI,  which  lasted  only  twenty  months,  ending  Sept 
14,  1523.     During  the  first  part  of  the  pontificate  of  his 
successor  Clement  VII.  formerly  Giuliano  de  Medici,  Michel 
Angelo  went  on  with  the  chapel  and  library  of  S.  Lorenzo, 
which,  Giuliano  bad  ordered,    and  executed  a  statue  of 
Christ,  of  the  size  of  nature,  to  be  placed  on  an  altar  in 
the  church  of  Santa  Maria  Sopra  Minerva,  at  Rome,  and 
which  is  still  in  that  church,  but  on  a  pedestal  at  the  en* 
trance  of  the  choir.     During  the  wars  which  succeeded, 
we  find  him  employing  his  talents  on  works  of  fortification 
at  Florence,  when  besieged  by  the  prince  of  Orange,  but 
Rearing  of  some  treacherous  plans  to  undermine  the  re** 
public,  he  withdrew  secretly  to  Ferrara,  and  thence  to 
Venice.      Being,   however,   solicited  by  persons  high  in  . 
office  not  to  abandon  the  post  committed  to  his  charge,  he 
returned,  and  v  resumed  his. situation,  until  the  city  sur- 
rendered to  the  pope,  when  he  was  obliged  to  secrete  him- 
self in  an  obscure  retreat.     The  pope  having  by  a  public 
manifesto  given  him  assurances,  that  if  he  would  discover 
himself  he  should  not  be  molested,  on  condition  that  he 
vvould  furnish  the  two  monuments  in  St.  Lorenzo,  already 
begun,  Michel  Angelo,  on  this,    with  little  respect  for 
the.  persons  his .  genius  was  to  commemorate,  and  with  less 
affection  for  his  employer,  hastened  to  complete  his  la- 
boqr;  not  with  any  ardour  of  sentiment,  but  as  a  task 
which  was  the  price  of  his  liberty. 

Tranquillity  being  restored  in  Italy,  Michel  Angelo 
was  again  called. upon  by  the  duke  of  Urbino,  to  complete 
tjie  pionijnient  of  Julius  II.  agreeable  to  the  last  design, 

302  B  U  O  N  AH  R  O  T  I. 

and  .was  again  interrupted  by  the  pope,  who  wished 
to  employ  him  at  Florence,  and  afterwards  ordered ;  him 
to  paint  the  two  end  walls  of  the  Sistine  chapel.  Our 
artist  being  unable  openly  to  oppose  the  will  of  the 
pope,  procrastinated  the  work  as  much  as  possible,  and 
while  he  was  engaged  in  making  a  cavtoon  for  the  chapel, 
secretly  employed  as  much  of  his  time  as  circumstances 
would  allow,  in  forwarding  the  monument  to  Julius  II. 
-But  this  wots  again  interrupted  by  the  next  pope,  Paul  III. 
although  at  length,  after  much  toegociation,  and  after 
changing  the  design  three  times,  he  was  permitted  to 
complete  his  task,  which  was  placed,  not  in  St.  Peter's, 
as  originally  intended,  but  in  the  church  of  S.  Pietro,  in 
iVincolh  • 

As.  there  now  remained  no  objection  to  Michel  Angelo's 
devoting  his- time  to  the  service  of  the  pope,  he  commenced 
painting  the  great  work  of  the  Last  Judgment,  in  the 
Sistine  chapel,  which  was'finished  it>  1541,  and  the  chapel 
opened  >on  Christmas  day.  Persons  are  described  to  have 
come  from  the  most  distant  parts  of  Italy  to  see  it,  and 
the. public  and  the  court  were  rivals  in  admiration,  which 
must  have  been  peculiarly  grateful  to  Michel  Angelo,  not 
enly  from  that  pleasure  common  to  all  men  who  are  con- 
scious of  deserving  well,  and  having  those  claims  allowed, 
but  in  succeeding  to  give  the  pope  Paul  III.  entire  satis- 
faction, who,  in  the  first  year  of  his  pontificate,  liberally 
provided  him  with  a  pension  for  his  life  of  six  hundred 
pounds  a  year,  to  enable  him. to  prosecute  the  undertaking 
to  his  own  satisfaction. 

Near  to  the  Sistine  chapel,  in  the  Vatican,  Antonio  de 
San  Gallo  built  another  by  thV  order  of  Paul  III.  which  is 
called  after  its  founder  the  Paoline  chapel,  and  the  pope 
being  solicitous  to  render  it  more  honourable  to  bis  name, 
desired  Michel  Angelo  would  paint  the  walls  in  fresco. 
Although  he  now  began  to  feel  he  was  an  old  man,  he  un- 
dertook the  commission,  and  on  the  sides  opposite  to  each 
other  painted  two  large  pictures,  representing  the  martyr- 
dom of  St.  Peter,  and  the  conversion  of  St.  Paul.  These 
pictures,  he  said,  cost  him  great  fatigue,  and  in  their 
progress  declared  himself  sorry  to  find  fresco  painting  was 
not  an  employment  for  his  years  ;  he  therefore  petitioned 
his  holiness  that  Per  in  o  del  Vaga  might  finish  the  ceiling 
from  his  designs,  which  was  to  have  been  decorated  with 
painting  and  stucco  ornaments;  but  this  part  of  the  work 
was  not  afterwards  carried  into  execution. 

BUONARROTI.  v  308 


The  pope  often  consulted  Michel  Angelo  as  an  architect, 
although  Antonio  de  San  Gallo  was  the  architect  of  St. 
Peter's  church,  and  promoted  to  that  situation  by  his  irt- 
terest  when  cardinal  Farnese,  and  now  employed  in  his 
private  concerns.  The  Farnese  palace  in  Rome  was  de- 
signed by  San  Gallo,  and  the  building  advanced  by  him 
during  his  life ;  yet  Michel  Angelo  constructed  the  bold 
projecting  cornice  that  surrounds  the  top,  in  conjunction 
with  him,  at  the  express  desire  of  the  pope.  He  also  con- 
sulted Michel  Angelo  in  fortifying  the  Borgo*  and  made 
designs  for  that  purpose  ;  but  the  discussion  of  this  subject 
proved  the  cause  of  some  enmity  between  these  two  rivals 
in  the  pope's  esteem.  In  1546  San  Gallo  died,  and  Mi- 
chel Angelo  was  called  upon  to  fill  his  situation  as  archi- 
tect of  St.  Peter's  :  he  at  first  declined  that  honour,  but 
his  holiness  laid  his  commands  upon  him,  which  admitted 
.neither  of  apology  nor  excuse ;  however  he  accepted  the 
appointment  upon  those  conditions,  that  he  would  receive 
no  salary,  and  that  it  should  be  so  expressed  in  the  patent, 
as  he  undertook  the  office  purely  from  devotional  feelings; 
and  that,  as  hitherto  the  various  persons  employed  in  all 
the  subordinate  situations  had  only  considered  their -own 
interest  to  the  extreme  prejudice  of  the  undertaking,  < he 
should  be  empowered  to  discharge  them,  and  appoint 
others  in  their  stead ;  and  lastly,  that  he  should  be  per- 
mitted to  make  whatever  alterations  he  chose  in  San  Gallo's 
.  design,  or  entirely  supply  its  place  with  what  he  might 
consider  more  simple,  or  in  a  better  style.  To  these  con- 
dition's his  holiness  acceded,  and  the  patent  was  made  out 

San  Gallo's  model  being  more  conformable  to  the  prin- 
ciples of  Saracenic  than  of  Grecian  or  Roman  architecture 
in  the  multiplicity  and  division  of  its  parts,  Michel  Angelo 
made  an  original  design  upon  a  reduced  scale,  on  the  plan 
of  a  Greek  cross,  which  met  with  the  pope's  approbation ; 
ibr,  although  the  dimensions  were  less,  the  form  was  more 
grand  than  that  of  San  Gallo's  model.  Having  commenced 
•his.  labours  on  this  edifice,  it  advanced  with  considerable 
activity,  and  before  the  end  of  the  pontificate  of  Paul  III. 
began  to  assume  its  general  form  and  character.  This,  how- 
ever, was  only  a  part  of  his  extensive  engagements..  He  was 
.  commissioned  to  carry  on  the  building  of  the  Farnese  palace, 
left  unfinished  by  the  death  of  San  Gallo ;  and  employed  to 
build  a  palace  on  the  Capitoline-hill  for  the  senator  of 
Rome,  two  galleries  for   the  reception  of  sculpture  and 


pictures,  and  also  to  ornament  this  celebrated  site  with 
antique  statues  and  relics  of  antiquity,  from  time  to  tinie 
dug  up  and  discovered  in  Rome  and  its  environs. 

As  in  proceeding  with  St.  Peter's,  he  had,  agreeably  to 
his  patent,  chosen  his  own  workmen,  and  dismissed  others, 
the  latter  seldom  failed  of  exerting  such  malice  against 
him  as  they  could  display  with  impunity  ;  and  being  exas- 
perated by  disappointments,  they  endeavoured  to  repre- 
sent him  as  an  unworthy  successor  of  San  Gallo,  and  upon 
the  death  of  Paul  III.  an  effort  was  made  to  remove  him 
from  his  situation,  but  Julius  III.  who  succeeded  to  the 
pontificate,  was  not  less  favourably  disposed  towards  him 
than  his  predecessor;  however,  they  presented  a  memorial, 
petitioning  the  pope  to  hold  a  committee  of  architects  in 
St  Peter's  at  Rome,  to  convince  his  holiness  that  their 
accusations*  and  complaints  were  not  unfounded.  At  the 
head  of  this  party  was  cardinal  Saiviati,  nephew  to  Leo  X, 
and  cardinal  Marcello  Cervino,  who  was  afterwards  pope 
by  the  title  of  Marcellus  II.  Julius  agreed  to  the  investi- 
gation, and  the  parties  appeared  in  his  presence.  The 
complainants  stated,  that  the  church  wanted  light,  and  the 
architects  had  previously  furnished  the  two  cardinals  with 
a. particular  example  to  prove  the  basis  of  the  general  po* 
sition,  which  was,  that  he  had  walled  up  a  recess  for  three, 
chapels,  and  made  only  three  insufficient  windows ;  upon 
which  the  pope  asked  Michel  Angelo  to  give  his  reasons 
for  having  done  so ;  he  replied,  "  I  should  wish  first  to 
hear  the  deputies."  Cardinal  Marcello  immediately  said 
for  himself  and  cardinal  Saiviati,  "  We  ourselves  are  the 
deputies."  Then  said  Michel  Angelo,  "  In  the  part  of 
the  church  alluded  to,  over  those  windows  are  to  be  placed 
three  others."  "  You  never  said  that  before,"  replied 
the  cardinal ;  to  which  he  answered  with  some  warmth : 
"  I  am  not,  neither  will  I  ever  be  obliged  to  tell  your 
eminence,  or  any  one  else,  what  I  ought  or  am  disposed ' 
to  do ;  it  is  your  office  to  see  that  the  money  be  provided, 
to  take  care  of  the  thieves,  and  to  leave  the  building  of  St. 
Peter's  to  me,"  Turning  to  the  pope,  "  Holy  father,  you 
see  what  I  gain ;  if  these  machinations  to  which  I  am  ex- 
posed are  not  for  my  spiritual  welfare,  I  lose  both  my 
labour  and  my  time."  The  pope  replied,  putting  his 
hands  upon  his  shoulders,  "  Do  not  doubt,  your  gain  is 
now,  and  will  be  hereafter;"  and  at  the  same  time  gave 
him  assurance  of  his  confidence  and  esteem. 

6  U  O  N  A  R  R  O  T  I.  SOS 

.Julius  prosecuted  no  work  in  architecture'or  sculpture 
without  consulting  him.     What  was  done  in  the  Vatican, 

1  or  in  hts  villa  on  the  Flaminian  way,  was  with  Michel  An- 
gelo* s  advice  and  superintendance.  He  was  employed  also 
to  rebuild  a  bridge  across  the  Tiber,  but  as  his  enemies 
artfully  pretended  to  commiserate  his  advanced  age,  he  so 
far  fell  into  this  new  snare  as  to  leave  the  bridge  to  be 
completed  by  an  inferior  artist,  and  in  five  years  it  was 
washed  away  by  a  flood,  as  Michel  Angelo  had  prophe- 
sied.    In   1555  his  friend  and  patron  pope  Julius  died,. 

'  and  perhaps  it  would  have  been  happier  for  Michel  Angelo 
if  they  had  ended  their  days  together,  for  he  was  now 
eighty-one  years  old,  and  the  remainder  of  his  life  was 
interrupted  by  the  caprices  of  four  successive  popes,  and 
the  intrigues  under  their  pontificates.  Under  all  these 
vexations,  however,  he  went*  on  by  degrees  with  his  great 
undertaking,  and  furnished  designs  for  various  inferior 
works,  but  his  enemies  were  still  restless.  He  now  saw 
that  his  greatest  crime  was  that  of  having  lived  too  long ; 
and  being  thoroughly  disgusted  with  the  cabals,  he  was 
solicitous  to  resign,  that  his  last  days  might  not  be  tor- 
mented by  the  unprincipled  exertions  of  a  worthless  fac- 
tion. That  he  did  not  complain  from  the  mere  peevishness 
of  age  will  appear  from  a  statement  of  the  last  effort  of 
his  enemies,  the  most  formidable  of  whom  were  the  di- 
rectors of  the  building.  Their  object  was  to  make  Nanni 
Biggio  the  chief  architect,  which  they  carefully  concealed, 
and 'the  bishop  of  Ferratino,  who  was  a  principal  director, 
began  the  contrivance  by  recommending  to  Michel  Angelo 
not  to  attend  to  the  fatigue  of  his  duty,  owing  to  his  ad- 
vanced age,  but  to  nominate  whomever  he  chose  to  supply 
bis  place.  By  this  contrivance  Michel  Angelo  willingly 
yielded  to  so  courteous  a  proposition,  and  appointed  Da- 
niello  da  Volterra.  As  soon  as  this  was  effected,  it  was 
roade  the  basis  of  accusation  against  him,  for  incapacity, 
which  left  the  directors  the  power  of  choosing  a  successor, 
and  they  immediately  superseded  da  Volterra,  by  ap- 
pointing Biggio  in  his  stead.  This  was  so  palpable  a  trick, 
so  untrue  in  principle,  and  so  injurious  in  its  tendency, 
that  in  justice  to  himself,  he  thought  it  necessary  to  re- 
present it  to  the  pope,  at  the  same  time  requesting  that 
it  plight  be  understood  there  was  nothing  he  more  solicited 
than  his  dismission.  His  holiness  took  up  the  discussion 
with  interest,  and  begged  he  would*  not  recede  until  he 
Vol,  VII.  X    * 



bad  made  proper  inquiry,  and  a  day  was  immediately  ap- 
pointed for  the  directors  to  meet  him.  They  only  stated 
in  general  terms,  that  Michel  Angelo  was  ruining  the 
building,  and  that  the  measures  they  bad  taken  were  esr 
sentially  necessary,  but  the  pope  previously  sent  Sighor 
Gabrio  Serbelloni  to  examine  minutely  into  the  affair, 
who  was  a  man  well  qualified  for  that  purpose.  Upon  tbi? 
occasion  he  gave  his  testimony  so  circumstantially,  that  the 
whole  scheme  was  shown  in  one  view  to  originate  in  false* 
hood,  and  to  have  been  fostered  by  malignity.  Biggio 
was  dismissed  and  reprimanded,  and  the  directors  apolo<r 
gized,  acknowledging,  they  had  been  misinformed,  but 
Michel  Angelo  required  no  apology ;  all  he  desired  was, 
that  the  pope  should  know  the  truth ;  and  he  would  hav4 
now  resigned,  had  not  his  holiness  prevailed  upon  him  to 
bold  his  situation,  and  made  a  new  arrangement,  that  hi?. 
designs  might  not  only  be  strictly  executed  as  long  as  be 
Jived,  but  adhered  to  after  his  death. 

After  tins  discussion,  the  time  left  to  Michel  Angelo  for 
the  enjoyment  of  his  uncontrolled  authority  was  $hptf, 
for  in  the  month  of  February  1£63,  he  was  attacked  by  a 
slow  fever,  which  exhibited  symptoms,  of  bis  approacbiog 
death,  and  he  desired  Daniello  da  Volterra  to  write  to,  hi* 
nephew  Leonardo  Buonarroti  to  come  to  Rome  ;  his  fever, 
however,  increased,  and  his  nephew  not  arriving,  in  tb^- 
presence  of  his  physician  and  others  who  were  in  his  house*, 
whom, he  ordered  into  his  bed-room,  be  made  this. shoi$ 
nuncupative  will:  "  My  soul  I  resign  to  God,  my  body  to 
the  earth,  and  my  worldly  possessions,  to  my  nearest  of 
kin  '"  then  admonished  bis  attendants  :  "  In  your  passage 
through  this  life,  remember  the  sufferings  of  Jesus  Christ," 
and  soon  after  delivering  this  charge,  he  died,  Feb*  17, 
1563,  aged  eighty-eight  years,  eleven  months,  and  fifteen 
days,  which  yet  was  not  the  life  of  his  father,  who  attained 
the  age  of  ninety-two.  Thr$e  days  after  his  death,  hie 
remains  were  deposited  with  great  funeral  pomp  in  the 
church  of  S.  Apostoli,  in  Rome,  but  afterwards,  at  th«. 
request  of  the  Florentine  academy,  were  removed  to  th$ 
church  of  Santa  Croce  at  Florence,  and  again  with  gr.efl* 
Solemnity  finally  deposited  in  the  vault  by  the  side  qf  the 
altar,  called  the  Altarede  Cavalcanti. 

The  merits  of  Michel  Angelo,  as  an  artist,  have  been  s<* 
frequently  the  object  of  discussion,  that  it  would  be  in*-.. 
possible  to  examine  or  analyse  the  various  opinion*  that. 


bavfc  been  published,  without  extending  this  article  to  an 
immoderate  length. '  Referring,  therefore,  to  our  authori* 
ties,  and  especially  to  Mr.  Duppa's  elaborate  "  Life  of 
Michel  Angeio,"  which  we  have  followed  in  the  preceding 
sketch,  we  shall  present  the  following  outline  from  Mr. 
Fuseli,  and  conclude  with  some  interesting  circumstances 
in  the  personal  history  of  this  great  artist :  "  Sublimity  of 
conception,"  says  Mr,  Fuseli,  "  grandeur  of  form,  and 
breadth  of  manuer,  are  the  elements  of  Michel  Angeio'* 
style ;  by  these  principles  he  selected  or  rejected  the  ob- 
jects of  imitation.  As  painter,  as  sculptor,  as  architect, 
he  attempted,  and  above  any  other  man  succeeded,  to 
unite  magnificence  of  plan,  and  endless  variety  of  subor* 
dinslte  parts,  with  the  utmost  simplicity  and  breadth.  His 
line  is  uniformly  grand.  Character  and  beauty  were  ad* 
mitted  only  as  far  as  they  could  be  made  subservient  to 
grandeur.  The  child,  the  female,  meanness,  deformity,, 
were  by  him  indiscriminately  stamped  with  grandeur.  A 
beggar  rose  from  his  hand  the  patriarch  of  poverty ;  the 
hump  of  his  dwarf  is  impressed  with  dignity ;  his  women 
are  moulds  of  generation ;  bis  infants  teem  with  the  man  ; 
bis  men  are  a  race  of  giants.  This  is  the  '  Terribil  Via* 
hinted  at  by  Agostino  Carracci.  To  give  the  most  perfect 
ease  to  the  most  perplexing  difficulty,  was  the  exclusive 
power  of  Michel  Aogelo.  He  is  the  inventor  of  epic 
painting  in  the  sublime  compartments  of  the  Sistine  chapel* 
Be  has  personified  motion  in  the  groupes  of  the  Cartoon 
of  Pisa ;  embodied  sentiment  on  the  monuments  of  St.  Lo- 
renzo; unravelled  the  features  of  meditation  in  his  Pro* 
pbets  and  Sibyls ;  and,  in  the  Last  Judgment,  with  every 
attitude  that  varies  the  human  body,  traced  the  master- 
trait  of  every  passion  that  sways  the  human  heart  Neither 
as  painter  or  sculptor  he  ever  submitted  to  copy  an  indi- 
vidual, Julio  II.  only  excepted,  and  in  him  he  represented 
the  reigning  passion  rather  than  the  man.  In  painting  he 
contented  himself  with  a  negative  colour,  and,  as  the 
painter  of  mankind,  rejected  all  meretricious  ornament; 
The  fabric  of  St.  Peter's,  scattered  into  infinity  of  jarring 
parts  by  his  predecessors,  he  concentrated,  suspended  the 
cupola,  and  to  the  most  complex  gave  the  air  of  the  most 
simple  of  edifices.  Such,  take  him  all  in  all,  was  Michel 
Angeio,  the  salt  of  art;  sometimes  he,  no  doubt, .had 
moments,  fcnd  perhaps  periods  of  dereliction,  deviated  into 
Mariner,  or  perplexed  the  grandeur  of  his  forms  with  futila 

x  2 


and  ostentatious  anatomy ;  both  met  with  herds  of  copyists, 
and  it  has  been  his  fate  to  have  been  and  still  to  be  cen- 
sured for  their  folly." 

Michel  Angelo  was  of  the  middle  stature,  bony -in  his 
make,  and  rather  spare,  although  broad  over  the  shoulders; 
He  had  a  good  complexion  ;  his  forehead  was  square,  and 
somewhat  projecting ;  his  eyes  rather  small,  of  a  hazel  co- 
lour, and  on  his  brows  but  little  hair ;  his  nose  was  flat, 
being  disfigured  from  a  Wow  he  received  when  young  from 
Torrigiano,  a  fellow  student ;  his  lips  were  thin,  and  speak- 
ing anatomically,  the  cranium  on  the  whole  was  rather, 
large  in  proportion  to  the  face.  He  wore  his  beard,  which 
was  divided  into  two  points  at  the  bottom,  not  very  thicfy 
and  about  four  inches  long;  his  beard  and  the  hair  of  his 
head  were  black  when  a  young  man,  and  his  countenance 
animated  and  expressive.  > 

r  In  his  childhood  he  was  of  a  weakly  constitution,  and 
to  guard  his  health  with  peculiar  care,  be  was  abstemious 
and  continent ;  he  seldom  partook  of  the  enjoyments  of  the 
table,  and  was  used  to  say,  "  however  rich  I  may  have 
been,  I  have  always  lived  as  a  poor  man*'  Although  he 
ate  little,  he  was  extremely  irregular  in  his  meals ;  he  had 
a  bad  digestion,  and  was  much  troubled  with  the  head-ach, 
which  he  attributed  to  his  requiring  little  sleep,  and  the 
delicate  state  of  his  stomach  :  notwithstanding  these  evils; 
during  the- meridian  of  life  his  general  health  was  but  little 
impaired.  Many  years  before  his  death  he  was  afflicted 
with  stone  and  gravel,  and  when  advanced  in  years,  with 
the  cramp  in  his  legs. 

In  the  early  part  of  life,  he  not  only  applied  himself  to 
sculpture  and  painting,  but  to  every  branch  of  knowledge 
connected  in  any  way  with  those  arts,  and  gave  himself  up 
so  much  to  application,  that  he  in  a  great  degree  withdrew 
from  society.  From  this  disposition  he  became  habituated 
to  solitude,  and,  happy  in  his  pursuits,  he  was  more  con- 
tented to  be  alone  than  in  company,  by  which  he  obtained 
the  character  of  being  a  proud  and  an  odd  man.  When! 
his  mind  was  matured,  he  attached  himself  to  men  of  learn- 
ing and  judgment,  and  in  the  number  of  his  most  intimate 
friends  were  ranked  the  highest  dignitaries  in  the  church, 
and  the  most  eminent  literary  characters  of  his  time. 
Among  the  authors  he  studied  and  delighted  in  most,  were 
Dante  and  Petrarch  ;  of  these  it  is  said  he  could  nearly  re- 
peat ail  their  poems,  and  many  of  his  sonnets  (now  re^ 


printed  in  his  life  by  Mr.  Duppa)  shew  how  much  he  de-' 
sired  to  imitate  the  poet  of  Vaucluse.     He  also1  studied 
with  equal  attention  the  sacred  writings  of  the  Old  and 
New  Testament.     His  acquirements  in  anatomy  are  mani- 
fest throughout  his  works,  and  he  often  proposed  to  publish' 
a  treatise  upon  that  subject  for  t\\e  use  of  painters  and' 
sculptors;  principally  to  shew  what  muscles  were  brought 
into  action  in  the  various  motions  of  the  human  body,  and 
was  only  prevented,  from  fearing  lest  he  should  not  be  able- 
to  express  himself  so  clearly  and  fully  as  the  nature  of  the 
subject  required. — Of  perspective  he  knew  as  much  as  was 
fcnown  in  the  age  in  which  he  lived ;  but  this  branch  of 
knowledge  was  not  then  reduced  to  a  science,  nor  govern-' 
?d  by  mathematical  principles. 

The  love  of  wealth  made  no  part  of  Michel  Angelo's 
character ;  he  was  in  no  instance  covetous  of  money,  nor 
attentive  to  its  accumulation.  When  he  was  offered  com- 
missions from  the  rich  with  large  sums,  he  rarely  accepted 
them,  being  more  stimulated  by  friendship  and  benevolence 
than  the  desire  of  gain.  He  was  also  liberal,  and  freely 
assisted  literary  men  as  well  as  those  of  his  own  profession, 
who  stood  In  need  of  his' aid.  He  had  a  great  love  for  his 
art,  and  a  laudable  desire  to  perpetuate  his  name.  A 
friend  of  his  regretted  that  he  had  no  children  to  bequeath 
the  profits  acquired  by  his  profession,  to  which  he  answered, 
"  My  works  must  supply,  their  place ;  and  if  they  are  good 
for  any  thing,  they  must  live  hereafter,"  He  established  it 
as  a  principle,  that  to  live  in  credit  was  enough,  if  life  was 
.virtuously  and  honourably  employed  for  the  good  of  others 
and  the  benefit  of  posterity ;  and  thus  he  laid  up  the  most 
profitable  treasure  for  his  old  age,  and  calculated  upon  its 
best  resources. 

Michel  Angelo  was  never  married,  and  whether  he 
was  at  any  time  on  the  point  of  being  so,  is  not  known :  that 
he  was  a  man  of  domestic  habits  is  certain,  and  he  pos- 
sessed ardent  and  affectionate  feelings.  Although  love  is 
the  principal  subject  which  pervades  his  poetry,  and  Pe- 
trarch the  sole  object  of  his  imitation,  no  mention  is  made 
pf  his  Laura,  his  Stella,  or  Eliza  ;  her  name  is  concealed  if 
she  had  any  ;  but  the  prevalency  in  his  day  of  consolidating 
,all  personal  feeling  into  Platonism,  and  a  species  of  unin- 
telligible metaphysics,  may  probably  have  given  birth  to 
ftkO$t  of  his  sonnets, 

Jn  his  professional  labours  he  continued  to  study  to  the 


end  of  bis  life,  bat  neter  was  satisfied  with  any  thing  he 
did  :  when  he  saw  any  imperfection  that  might  have  been 
avoided,  he  easily  became  disgusted,  rather  preferring  to 
commence  bis  undertaking  entirely  anew  than  attempt  an 
emendation.     With  this  operating  principle  in  his  mind  he 
completed   few  works  in  sculpture.     Lomazzo  tells  an 
anecdote,  that  cardinal  Farnese  one  day  found  Michel  An- 
gelo,  when  an  old  man,  walking  alone  in  the  Colosseum, 
and  expressed  his  surprize  at  finding  him  solitary  amidst 
the  ruins ;  to  which  he  replied,  "  I  yet  go  to  school  that  I 
may  continue  to  learn  something.9'    Whether  the  anecdote 
be  correctly  true  or  not,  it  is  evident  he  entertained  this 
feeling,  for  there  is  still  remaining  a  design  by  him,  of  an 
old  man  with  a  long  beard  in  a  child's  go-cart,  and  an 
hour-glass  before  him ;  emblematical  of  the  last  stage  of 
life,  and  on  a  scroll  over  his  head,  Anchora  Inparo,  de- 
noting that  no  state  of  bodily  decay  or  approximation  to 
death  was  incompatible  with  intellectual  improvement.  An 
outline  of  this,  as  well  as  of  many  of  the  principal  works  of 
Michel  Angelo,  is  given  in  his  Life  by  Mr.  Duppa,  who 
concludes  the  best  and  most  ample  account  of  any  artist 
in  our  language,  with  remarking  that  although  Michel  An* 
gelo's  highTminded  philosophy  made  him  often  regardless 
of  rank  and  dignity,  and  his  knowledge  of  human  nature 
in  one  view  concentrated  the  plausible  motives  and  the 
Inconsistent  professions  of  men,  yet  he  was  not  morose  in 
his  disposition,  nor  cynical  in  his  habits.     Those  who  knew. 
him  well  esteemed  him  most,  and  those  who  were  worthy 
of  his  friendship  knew  how  to  value  it.     The  worthless 
flatterers  of  powerful  ignorance,  and  the  cunning,  who  at 
all  times  trust  to  the  pervading  influence  of  folly,  feared 
and  hated  him.     He  was  impetuous  in  the  highest  degree 
when  he  felt  the  slightest  attack  upon  his  integrity,  and 
hasty  in  his  decisions,  which  gave  him  an  air  of  irascibility; 
but  to  all  who  were  in  need  of  assistance  from  his  fortune 
or  his  talents  he  exercised  a  princely  liberality ;  and  to 
those  of  honourable  worth,  however  low  their  station,  he 
was  kind  and  benevolent,  he  sympathized  with  their  dis* 
tresses,   nor  ever  refused  assistance  to  lessen  the  weight 
of  oppression.     In  the  catholic  faith  of  his  ancestors  he 
was  a  sincere  Christian,   and  enjoyed  its  beneficent  in- 
fluence :  he  was  not  theoretically  one  man,  and  practically 
another ;  nor  was  his  piety  ever  subservient  to  caprice  or 

B  U  R  A  N  A,  3.U 

personal  convenience ;  his  religion  was  not  a?  a  staff  hi 
leaned  upon,  but  the  prop  by  which  he  was  supported. l 

BURANA  (John  Francis),  a  native  of  Verona,  who 
flourished  in  the  sixteenth  century,  was  disciple  to  Bago- 
linus,  who  explained  Aristotle's  Logic  in  the  university  of 
Bologna.  Burana  shewed  great  subtlety  in  his  disputations^ 
which  made  the  scholars  very  desirous  of  hearing  him  read, 
public  lectures  on  this  part  of  philosophy,  which  he  did, 
illustrating  his  subject  from  the  Greek  and  Arabian  inter* 
preters.  H.e  had  studied  Hebrew  with  great  success.  Hav- 
ing  quitted  his  profession,  he  applied  himself  to  the  prac- 
tice of  physic.  He  also  undertook  to  translate  some  trea- 
tises of  Aristotle  and  of  Averr/>ea,  and  to  write  commen- 
taries on  them ;  but  death  hindered  him  from  finishing 
this  work.  He  desired  however  that  it  might  be  printed, 
and  charged  his  heirs  to  publish  it,  after  his  manuscript 
had  been  corrected  by  some  learned  man.  Bagolinus  un- 
dertook that  task,  and  published  the  work  under  the  title 
of  u  Aristotelis  Priora  resolutoria,  &c."  Paris,  1539,  folio! 
Bayle  seems  to  think  there  was  a  prior  edition  printed 
at  Venice  j  but  by  Moreri  we  find  that  the  Paris  edition 
was  of  1533,  and  that  of  Venice  of  the  date  above  men- 

BURCHIELLO,  an  Italian  poet,  was  better  known 
under  this  name  than  by  that  of  Dominico,  which  was  *his 
true  one.  Authors  differ  concerning  his  country  and  the 
time  of  his  birth.  The  opinion  most  followed  is  that  he 
was  born  at  Florence  about  1380.  As  to  the  epocha  of  his 
death,  it  seems  more  certain :  he  died  at  Rome  in  1448. 
This  poet  was  a  barber  at  Florence,  and  his  shop  the  com- 
mon rendezvous  of  all  the  literati  of  that  town.  His  poems, 
which  mostly  consist  of  sonnets,  and  often  very  freely 
written,  are  of  the  comic  and  burlesque  species ;  but  s6 
truly  original,  that  some  poets  who  camfc  after  him  have 
endeavoured  to  imitate  him  by  composing  verses  alia  Bur- 
chiellesca.  They  are  however  full  of  obscurities  and 
cenigmas.  Some  writers  have  taken  the  pains  to  make 
comments  on  them,  and,  among  others,  le  Doni ;  but  the 
commentary  is  scarcely  less  obscure  than  the  text.  Bur- 
chiello   nevertheless  holds .  a  distinguished  place   among 

1  Life  and  Literary  Works  of  M.  A.  Buonarroti  by  R.  Duppa,  1806,  4to.— . 
See  also  Heads  from  Michel  Angelo,  by  tbe  same  author,  atlas  folio.— Fuseli's. 
edition  of  Piikington. — Sir  Joshua  Reynolds's  Works.     See  index. 
'  *  Gen*  t>ict. — Moreri. 

312  B  U  Jl  C  H  IE  L  L  O. 

the  Italian  poets  of  the  satirical  class.     He  may  be  cen- 
surable for  not  having  had  sufficient  respect  for  good  man- 
ners ;  but  the  licence  of  this  poetical  barber  was  much  in  . 
the  general  taste  of  the  times.     The  best  editions  of  his 
poems  are  those  of  Florence,   1552  and  1568,  Svo.     His 
sonnets  were  printed  for  the  first  time  at^  Venice,  1475, 4to.1 
BURE  (William  Fkancls  de),  an  eminent  bookseller  at 
"Paris,  is  well  known  to  the  learned  throughout  Europe  for 
the  able  assistance  he  has  afforded  to  the  study  of  biblio- 
graphy.    Of  his  personal  history  very  little  is  related  by 
his  countrymen,  unless  that  he  was  a  man  of  high  character 
in  trade ;  and,  as  appears  from  his  works,  more  intimately- 
acquainted  with  the  history  of  books  and  editions  than  per-* 
haps  any  man  of  his  time  in  any  country..    He  died  July 
15,   1782.     He  first  published  bis  "  Museum  Typographic 
cum,"  Paris,  1755,  12 mo,  a  small  edition  of  only  twelve 
copies,  which  he  gave  away  among  his  friends.     It  was 
published  under  the  name  of  G.  F.  Rebude,  and  according 
to  the  Diet.  Hist,  was  repriuted  in  1775.     Afterwards  ap- 
peared the  u  Bibliographic  Instructive,'*  1763 — 68,  7  vols. 
8vo,  succeeded  by  a  small  volume  of  a  catalogue  of  the 
anonymous   publications,    and  an    "Essay  upon  Biblio- 
graphy."    The  merits  of  this  work  are  universally  acknow* 
ledged.     The  abb6  Rive  having  attacked  this  work  with 
considerable  asperity,  De  Bure  replied  in  "  Appeiaux  Sa-« 
vans,"  1763,  8vo,  and  "  Reponse  a  une  Critique  de  la 
Bibliographic  Instructive,"  1763,  8vo.     In  1769  he  pub- 
lished the  catalogue  of  Gaignat's  library,  2  vols.  8vo,  which 
completely  established  his  reputation  as  a  bibliographer. 
He  was  succeeded  in  these  labours  by  his  cousin  William, 
who,  with  Mons.  Van  Praet,  prepared  the  catalogue  of  the 
duke  de  la  Valliere's  library  in  1783,  and  published  other 
valuable  catalogues  as  late  as  the  year  1801. 2 

BURETTE  (Peter  Jqhn),  born  at  Paris  in  1665,  was 
the  son  of  a  surgeon,  who,  not  being  very  prosperous  in 
his  practice,  had  recourse  for  his  support  to  music j  and 
first  performed,  professionally,  at  Lyons  ;  and  afterwards 
went  to  Paris  and  played  on  ths  harp  to  Louis  XIV.  who 
was  much  pleased  with  his  performance.  His  son,  Peter 
John,  was  so  sickly  and  feeble  during  infancy,  that  he 
passed  almost  his  whole  youth  in  amusing  himself  on  the 
spinet,  and  in  the  study  of  music ;  but  he  had  so  strong  a 

i  Diet.  Hist. — Roscoe's  Lorenzo. — Ginguen6  Hist  Lit.  cTJtalie,  vol.  III.  j>, 481^ 
f  Diet.  Hist.— Dibdin's  Bibliomauia. 

B  U  RE  T  T  E;  SIS 

passion  for  this  instrument,  jthat  he  had  scarcely  arrived 
at  his  ninth  year  when  he  was  heard  at  court,    accom- 
panied by  his  father  on  the  harp.     Two  years  after,  the 
king  heard  him  again,   when  he  performed  a  duet  with 
his  father  on   the  harp,  and  at  eleven  years  of  age  he 
assisted  him  in  giving  lessons  to  his  scholars.     His  taste 
for  music,  however,    did  not  extinguish  his  passion  for 
other  sciences.     He  taught  himself  Latin  and  Greek  with 
little  assistance  from  others ;  and  the  study  of  these  lan- 
guages inclined  him  to  medical  inquiries.  -  At  eighteen 
years  old  he  attended,  for  the  first  time,  the  public  schools, 
went  through  a  coarse  of  philosophy,  and  took  Jessons  in 
the  schools  of  medicine.     And  even  during  this  time  he 
learned  Hebrew,    Syriac,  Arabic,   Italian,  Spanish,  Ger- 
man,   and   English,    sufficiently  to  understand    them   in 
books.     He  was  at  length  admitted  of  the  faculty  at  Paris, 
and  practised  with  reputation  during  thirty-three  years. 
Jin   1705,   he  was   received  into  the  academy  of  belles- 
lettres,  and  in  1706  he  had  a  considerable  share  in  the 
{mblication  of  the  "  Journal  dep   S<javans,7  at  which  he 
aboured  more  than  thirty  years.     In  1718,  he  had  an  ap± 
poiutment  in  the  royal  library.     The  public  are  obliged  to 
the  abb£  Fraguier  for  the  learned  dissertation  which  Mi 
Burette  produced  on  the  music  of  the  ancients.     This 
learned  abb6,  supposing  that  the  Greeks  applied  the  same 
sense  to  the  word  harmony,  as  is  given  to  it  by  the  mo- 
derns, and  that,  consequently,    they  knew  counterpoint, 
or  music  in  parts,  Burette  proved  that  he  was  mistaken, 
and  that  the  ancients  meant  no  more  by  the  term  harmony, 
than  we  do  by  proportion.     He  demonstrated,    that  the 
Greeks  practised  no  other  simultaneous  consonances  than 
unisons  and  octaves.     This  learned  and  indefatigable  in- 
quirer after  the  music  of  the  ancient  Greeks,  was  seized^ 
in   1745,  with  a  paralytic  affection,  and  after  languishing 
during  during  the  whole  year   1746,  he  died  in   1747,  at 
eighty-two.      His  library,  consisting  of  15,000  volumes, 
was.  composed  of  the  most  curious  and  well-chosen  books 
that  could  be  procured  in  all  languages.     He  has  supplied 
the  Meraoires  of  the  Acad,  des  inscrip.  et  belles-lettres 
4  with  dissertations  on  the  dancing  of  the  ancients,  on  play 
pr  gaming,  on  single  combat,  and  on  horse-racing,  and 
pnriched  these  memoirs  with   a  translation  of  Plutarch's 
treatise  on  music,  with  notes  and  remarks.     He  must  be 
ftttoWed,  on  every  subject  concerning  ancient  music,  the 

$14  BURETTE. 

toerit  of  great  diligence  and  learning ;  but  be  does  not 
seem  always  to  bave  been  possessed  of  an  equal  share  of 
sagacity,  or  with  courage  sufficient  to  confess  himself  un- 
able to  explain  inexplicable  passages  in  bis  author.  He 
never  sees  a  difficulty ;  be  explains  all.  Hence,  amidst 
great  erudition,  and  knowledge  of  antiquity,  there  are 
a  thousand  unintelligible  Explanations  in  bis  notes  upon 

BURGER  (Goi>fred  Augustus),  a  German  poet  of 
considerable  celebrity  in  his  own  country,  and  known  in 
this  by  several  translations  of  one  of  his  terrific  tales,  was 
born  in  1748,  at  Wolmersweade,  in  the  principality  of  Hal- 
berstadt.  His  father  was  a  Lutheran  minister,  and  appears 
to  bave  given  him  a  pious  domestic  education ;  but  to  school 
or  university  studies  young  Burger  had  an  insuperable 
aversion,  and  much  of  his  life  was  consumed  in  idleness 
and  dissipation,  varied  by  some  occasional  starts  of  in* 
dustry,  which  produced  his  poetical  miscellanies,  prin- 
cipally ballads,  that  soon  became  very  popular  from  the 
simplicity  of  the  composition.  In  the  choice  of  his  sub* 
Jects*.  likewise,  which  were  legendary  tales  and  traditions, 
wild,  terrific,  and  grossly  improbable,  he  had  the  felicity 
to  hit  the  taste  of  his  countrymen.  His  attention  was  also 
directed  to  Sbakspeare  And  our  old  English  ballads,  and 
he  translated  many  of  the  latter  into  German  with  consider-* 
able  effect.  His  chief  employment,  or  that  from  which  he 
derived  most  emolument,  was  in  writing  for  the  German 
Almanack  of  the  Muses,  and  afterwards  the  German  Mu- 
saeum.  In  1787  he  lectured  on  the  critical  philosophy  of 
Kant,  and  in  1789  was  appointed  professor  of  belles-lettres 
in  the  university  of  Gottiiigen.  He  married  three  wives, 
the  second  the  sister  of  the  first,  and  the  third  a  lady  who 
courted  him  in  poetry,  but  from  whom,  after  three  years 
cohabitation,  he  obtained  a  divorce.  Her  misconduct  is 
said  to  have  contributed  to  shorten  his  days.  He  died  in 
June  1794.  His  works  were  collected  and  published  by 
Reinhard,  in  1798' — 99,  4  vols.  8vo,  with  a  life,  in  which 
there  is  little  of  personal  history  that  can  be  read  with 
pleasure.  Immorality  seems  to  bave  accompanied  him  the 
greater  part  of  his  course,  but  be  was  undoubtedly  a  man 
of  genius,  although  seldom  under  the  controul  of  judg- 
ment.   His  celebrated  ballad  of  "  Leonora.' y  was  translated 

>  Moreii.— Burney  a«d  Hawkinf's  Hitt  of  Mosic— Reee's  Cyclop©*!** 

B  U  E  GEL  311 

into  'English  in  1796,  by  five  or  six  different  poets,  and 
for  some  time  pleased  by  its  wild  and  extravagant  horrors ; 
and  in  1798,  his  "  Wild  Huntsman'*  Chase"  appeared  in 
an  English  dress;  but  Burger's  style  has  obtained,  perhaps* 
more  imitators  than  admirers,  among  the  former  of  whom 
may  be  ranked  some  caricaturists. 1 
-.  BURGESS  (Anthony),  a  Nonconformist  clergyman! 
was  the  son  of  a  schoolmaster  at  Watford,  in  Hertfordshire, 
and  educated  at  St.  John's  college,  Cambridge.  He  af- 
terwards became  a  fellow  of  Emanuel  college,  and  took 
his  master's  degree.  He  obtained  the  living  of  Sutton* 
Col  field,  in  Warwickshire,  in  1635,  by  the  death  of  the 
rev.  John  Burgess,  but  no  relation.  He  was  afterwards 
one  of  the  assembly  of  divines,  and  although  inclined  to 
conformity  before  the  rebellion,  acquired  such  opinions  OH 
the  subject  as  induced  him  to  submit  to  ejectment  after 
the  restoration.  Dr.  H»cket,  bishop  of  Lichfield  and 
Coventry,  who  had  a  high  opinion  of  his  learning,  and 
said  he  was  fit  for  a  professor's  chair  in  the  university,  en* 
deavoured  by  every  argument  to  retain  him  in  the  church) 
but  in  vain,  although  Mr.  Burgess  went  to  the  parish 
church  of  Tamworth,  where  he  spent  the  remainder  of  his 
days,  and  lived  in  cordiality  with  the  incumbent.  At  what 
time  he  died,  is  not  mentioned.  The  celebrated  Dr.  John 
Wallis  was  his  pupil,  and  says  he  was  "  a  pious,  learned* 
and  able  scholar,  a  good  disputant,  a  good  tutor,  an  emi- 
nent preacher,  and  a  sound  and  orthodox  divine/'  (See 
Hearne's  Langtoft,  publisher's  appendix  to  his  preface; 
p.  cxlviii).  His  principal  works  are:  1.  "  Spiritual  Re- 
finings  ;  or  a  Treatise  of  Grace  and  Assurance,"  1658,  fol. 
2.  "  Sermons  on  John  xvii."  fol.  1656.  3.  "  The  Doc- 
trine of  Original  Sin,"  1659,  fol.  4.  u  Commentary  on 
the  1.  and  2.  of  Corinthians,"  1661,  2  vols.  fol.  with  some 
smaller  tracts,  and  several  sermons  before  the  long  parlia* 
ment.  * 

BURGESS  (Cornelias),  D.  D.  another  Nonconform* 
ist,  but  of  a  very  different  stamp,  was  descended  from  the 
Burgesses  of  Batcomb,  in  Somersetshire.  In  1611  he  was 
entered  at  Oxford,  but  in  what  college  i?  uncertain.  He 
translated  himself,  however,  to  Wadham,  and  afterwards 
to  Lincoln.  When  he  took  orders,  he  had  the  rectory  of 
St;  Magnus,  London-bridge,  the  date  of  which  promotion 

.     i  life  published  wilfc  Works.  *  Calamy. 

»1«  BUR  G  E  S  S. 


is  not  mentioned,  and  the  living  of  Watford,  in  Hertford- 
shire, in   1618.     In  the  beginning  of  Charies  the  First's 
reign  he  became  one*of.  his  chaplains  rn  ordinary,  and  in 
J 627   took  both  degrees  in   divinity,  at  which  time  Dr. 
Prideaux, .  the  regius  professor,  told  him  he  was  a  sorry 
disputant,  but  might  make  a  good  preacher.     At  this  time 
§md  for  several  years  after  he  was  a  zealous  friend  to  the 
church  of  England,  but  either  from  being  disappointed  itt 
certain  expected  preferments,  as  Wood  insinuates,  or  from 
being  vexed,   as  Calamy  says,  for  opposing  archbishop 
Laud's  party,  he  became  a  powerful  advocate  for  the  prin- 
ciples which  soon  overthrew  church  and  state;  and  parti- 
cularly directed  his  attacks  against  the  revenues  of  deans 
and  chapters,  and  bishops.     He  procured,  however,  that 
St.  Paul's  cathedral  might  be  opened,  and  himself*  ap- 
pointed lecturer  there,  with  a  salary  of  400Z.  and  the  dean's 
house  to  reside  in.     Enriched  by  this  and.  similar  advan- 
tages,   he   not  only  purchased  church   lands,    hut  even 
wrote  a  book  in  vindication  of  such  purchases..    On  the 
restoration,  however,  he  lost  all  this  plunder,  to  the  amount 
of  many  thousand  pounds,  and  died  in  extreme  poverty, 
June   9,  1665.     Calamy,  his  continuator,  and  Mr.  Neal, 
fe*d  great,  difficulty  in  refuting  Wood's   account  of  this 
Dr.  Burgess.     Their  strongest  plea  is,  that  he  was  against 
the  king's  murder,  and  drew  up  the  paper  signed  by  the 
London  ministers  to  prevent  that  act.     At  his  death,  al- 
though he  had  been  obliged  from  poverty  to  dispose  of  his 
Jibrary,  he  left  some  curious  editions  of  the  Prayer-book 
to  the  university  of  Oxford.     He  wrote  some  devotional 
tracts,  enumerated  by  Calamy,  and  several  of  the  contro- 
versial kind. J 

,  BURGESS  (Daniel),  a  dissenting  divine  of  the  seven- 
teenth and  .eighteenth  centuries,  a  wit  himself,  and  "the 
cause  of  wit  in  other  men,"  particularly  dean  Swift  and 
his  contemporaries,  was  born  in  1645  at  Staines  in  Mid- 
dlesex, where  his  father  then  was  minister,  but  was  after- 
wards, at  the  restoration,  ejected  for  nonconformity  from 
the  living  of  ColUngbourne  Ducis,  in  Wiltshire.  Daniel 
was  educated  at  Westminster  school,  and  in  1660  went  to 
Magdalen-hall,  Oxford,  but  having  some  scruples  of  the 
nonconformist  stamp,  he  left  the  university  without  a  de* 
.-    .  ■     -  •  •  -■*-*.' 

1  Palmer's  Noncon.  Memorial.— Neal's  Hist,  of  the  Puritans.— Ath.  Ox, 
vol.  11.    .  .      ♦       .       ; 


gfee.  It  would  appear,  however,  that  he  had  taken  or-* 
ders*,  as  we  are  told  that  immediately  after  he  was  invited 
to  be  chaplain  to  a  gentleman  of  Chute  in  Wiltshire,  and 
afterwards  to  a  Mr.  Smith  of  Tedwofth,  where  he  was" 
tutor  to  that  gentleman's  son.  In  1667,  the  earl  of  Orrery^ 
lord  president  of  Munster,  took  Mr.  Burgess  over  to  Ire* 
land,  and  appointed  him  master  of  a  school  which  he  had 
established  at  Charleville  for  the  purpose  of  strengthening 
the  protestant  interest  in  that  kingdom,  and  Mr.  Burgess, 
While  here,  superintended  the  education  of  the  stfns  of 
some  of  the  Irish  nobility  and  gentry.  After  leaving  thfe 
school,  he  was  chaplain  to  lady  Mervin,  near  Dublin  ;:  but 
about  this  time,  we  are  told,  he  was  ordained  in  Dublin  as 
a  presbyterian  minister,  and  married  a  Mrs.  Briscoe  in  that 
city*  by  whom  he  had  a  son  and  two  daughters. 

He  resided  seven  years  in  Ireland,  at  the  end  of  which 
he  returned,  at  the  request  of  his  infirm  father,  and  not- 
withstanding the  strictness  of  the  laws  against  nonconfor- 
mity, preached  frequently  in  Marlborough  in  Wiltshire, 
and  other  places  in  the  neighbourhood.  For  this  he  "was 
*  imprisoned  for  some  time,  but  was  released  upon  bail,  and 
in  1685  came  to  London;  and  the  dissenters  now  having 
more  liberty,  his  numerous  admirers  hired  a  meeting  for 
him  in  Brydgej-street,  Covent- garden.  "  Being  situ- 
ated," says  one  of  his  biographers,  "  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  the  theatre,  and  surrounded  by  many  who  are  fools 
enough  to  mock  at  sin  and  religion,  he  frequently  had 
among  his  hearers  those  who  came  only  to  make  themselves 
merry  at  the  expence  of  religion,  dissenters,  and  Daniel 
Burgess.  This  his  undaunted  courage,  his  pointed  wit,  and 
ready  elocution,  turned  to  great  advantage  :  /or -he  fre- 
quently fixed  his  eye  on  those  scoffers,  and  addressing 
them  personally  in  a  lively,  piercing,  and  serious  manner, 
was  blessed  to  the  conversion  of  many  who  came  only  to 
ihock."  Much  of  this  may  be  true,  but  it  cannot,  on  the 
other  hand,  be  denied  that  Daniel  provoked  the  mirth  of 
his  hearers  by  a  species  of  buffoonery  in  language,  to 
laugh  at  which  was  not  necessarily  connected  with  any  con- 
tempt for  religion. 

He  continued  as  a  pastor  over  this  congregation  for  thirty 
years,  during  which  a  new  place  of  worship  was  built  by 
them  in  Carey-street,  and  when  much  injured,  or  as  it  is 
called,  gutted,  by  Dr.  Sacheverell's  mob,  was  repaired  at 
the  expence  of  government.     Hq  died  January  1712-13* 

2[i&  BURGESS. 

in  the  sixty-eighth  year  of  his  age,  and  was  buried  in  St. 
Clement  Panes,  Strand.  It  has  escaped  the  notice  of  his 
biographers,  that  the  celebrated  lord  Bolingbroke*  was 
once  bis  pupil,  and  the  world  has  perhaps  to  regret  that 
his  lordship  did  not  learn  what  Daniel  Burgess  might  have 
taught  him,  for  Daniel,  with  all  his  oddities,  which  made 
bitty  for  so  many  years  the  butt  of  Swift,  Steele,  and  the 
other  wits  of  the  time,  was  a  man  of  real  piety.  Unfor- 
tunately, like  his  successor  Bradbury,  he  had  a  very  con* 
sideraWe  portion  of  wit,  which  he  could  not  restrain,  and' 
where  he  thought  an  argument  might  be  unsuccessful,  he 
tried  a  pun.  One  of  his  biographers  has  furnished  us  with" 
two  instances  that  may  illustrate  the  general  character  of' 
his  preaching. — When  treating  on  "  the  robe  of  righteous- 
ness,9' he ,  said,  "  If  any  of  you  would  have  a  good  and 
cheap  suit,  you  will  go  to  Monmouth-street ;  if  you  want 
a  suit  fpr  life,  you  will  go  to  the  court  of  chancery ;  but  if 
you  wish  for  a  suit  that  will  last  to  eternity,  you  must  go 
to  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  and  put  on  his  robe  of  righteous- 
ne$s."  In  the  reign  of  king  William,  be  assigned  a  new 
motive  for  the  people  of  God  who  were  the  descendants  of 
Jacob,  being  called  Israelites ;  namely,  because  God  did 
not  choose  that  his  people  should  be  called  Jacobites  !  His 
works  were  numerous,  but  principally  single  sermons, 
preached  on  funeral  and  other  occasions,  and  pious  tracts. 
One  of  his  sermons  is  entitled  "  The  Golden  Snuffers,'* 
and  was  the  first  sermon  preached  to  the  societies  for  the 
reformation  of  manners-  It  is  a  fair  specimen  of  Daniel's 
method  and  style,  being  replete  with  forced  puns  and' 
quaint  sayings,  and  consequently,  in  our  opinion,  better 
adapted  to  amusement  than  edification. l    - 

BURGH  (James),  a  moral  and  political  writer,  was 
born  at  Madderty,  in  Perthshire,  Scotland,  in  the  latter 
end  of  the  year  1714.  His  father  was  minister  of  that 
parish,  and  his  mother  was  aunt  to  the  celebrated  historian 
Dr.  Robertson.  His  grammatical  education  he  received 
at  the  school  of  the  place  which  gave  him  birth,  where  he 
discovered  such  a  quickness  aud  facility  in  imbibing  lite** 

*  In  1702  Mr.  Burgess's  only  son  tary  and  reader  to  the  princess  Sophia, 

was  made  commissioner  of  prizes ;  and  It  is  not  improbable   that  he  might 

in  1714,  ab»ut  a  year  after  hi*  father's  owe  these  promotions  to,  lord  Boling- 

death,  he  resided  at  Hanover,  as  secre-  broke. 

1  Prot  Dissenters'  Magazine,  vol  VL— --Bogue's  Hist  of  the  Dissenters,  vol. 
It.— Henry's  Funeral  Sermon  for  Burgess.-— Swift's  Work*,  see  Index,— Tatiej* 
with  Annotation*,  vol.  II,  and  IV, 

B  U  R  Q  H.  319 

rary  instruction,  that  bis  master  used  to  say,  that  bis  scho- 
lar would  soon  acquire  all  the  knowledge  that  it  was  in  his 
power  to  communicate.  In  due  time  young  Burgh  was 
removed  to  the  University  of  St.  Andrew's,  with  a  view  of 
becoming  a  clergyman  in  the  church  of  Scotland ;  but  he 
did  not  continue  long  at  the  college,  on  account  of  a  bad 
state  of  health,  which  induced  him  to  lay  aside  the  thoughts 
of  the  clerical  profession,  and  enter  into  trade,  in  the  linen, 
way ;  which  he  was  enabled  to  do  with  the  greater  prospect 
of  advantage,  as  he  had  lately  obtained  a  handsome  for* 
tune  by  the  death  of  his  eldest  brother.  In  business,  how-* 
ever,  he  was  not  at  all  successful ;  for,  by  giving  injudi- 
cious credit,  he  was  soon  deprived  of  his  property.  Not 
long  after  this  misfortune,  he  came  to  London,  where  bit 
first  employment  was  to  correct  the  press  for  the  celebrated 
Mr.  Bowyer ;  and  at  his  leisure  hours  he  made  indexes. 
After  being  engaged  about  a  year  in  this  way,  during  which 
he  became  acquainted  with  some  friends  who  were  highly 
serviceable  to  him  in  his  future  plans  of  life,  he  removed 
to  Great  Marlow,  in  Buckinghamshire,  as  an  assistant  at 
the  free  grammar-school  of  that  town ;  and  whilst  he  con- 
tinued in  this  situation,  the  school  is  said  to  have  been 
considerably  increased.  During  his  residence  at  Marlow, 
be  met  with  only  one  gentleman  who  was  suited  to  his  own 
turn  of  mind.  With  that  gentleman,  who  was  a  man  of 
piety,  and  of  extensive  reading  in  divinity r  though  no  clas- 
sical scholar,  he  contracted  a  particular  friendship.  At 
Marlow  it  was  that  Mr.  Burgh  first  commenced  author,  by 
writing  a  pamphlet,  entitled  "  Britain's  Remembrancer,"' 
and  which  was  published,  if  we  mistake  not,  a  little  after 
the  beginning  of  the  rebellion,  in  1745.  This  tract  con- 
tained an  enumeration  of  the  national  blessings  and  deliver- 
ances which  Great  Britain  bad  received ;  with  pathetic  ex- 
hortations to  a  right  improvement  of  them,  by  a  suitable 
course  of  piety  and  virtue.  It  appeared  without  Mr. 
Bqrgh's  name,  as  was  the  case  with  his  works  in  general, 
and  was  so  much  read  and  applauded  by  persons  of  a  re- 
ligious temper,  that  it  went  through  five  editions  in  little 
more  than  two  years,  was  reprinted  in  Scotland,  Ireland, 
and  America,  and  again  in  London  1766.  Mr.  Barker,  at 
that  time  one  of  the  most  eminent  ministers  among  the 
protestant  dissenters  in  London,  spoke  highly  of  it,  in  a 
(armon  preached  at  Salters'-ball ;   and  publicly  thanked 

820  BURGH, 

the  unknown  author,  for  so  seasonable  and  useful  a  per- 

Mr.  Burgh  being  of  a  sociable  disposition,  and  not  meet- 
ing, at  Marlow,  with  company  which  was  suited  to  his  libe- 
ral taste,  he  quitted  that  place,  and  engaged  himself  as  an 
assistant  to  Mr.  Kenross  at  Enfield.     Here  he  remained 
only  one  year;  for,  at  the  end  of  that  term,  Mr.  Kenross 
very  generously  told  him,  that  he  ought  no  longer  to  losd 
his  time,  by  continuing  in  the  capacity  of  an  assistant ; 
thkt  it  would  be  adviseable  for  him  to  open  a  boarding- 
school  for  himself;  and  that,  if  he  stood  in  need  of  it,  he 
would  assist  him  with  money  for  that  purpose.     Accord* 
ingly,  in  1747,  Mr.  Burgh  commenced  master  of  an  aca- 
demy at  Stoke  Newington,  in  Middlesex  ;  and  in  that  year 
he  wrote  "  Thoughts  on  Education,"     The  next  produc- 
tion of  his  pen  was  u  An  hymn  to  the  Creator*  of  the 
world,"  to  which  was  added  in  prose,  "  An  Idea  of  the 
Creator^  from  his  works."     A  second  edition,  in  8vo,  was 
printed  in  1750.     After  Mr.  Burgh  had  continued  at  Stoke 
Newington  three  years,  his  house  not  being  large  enough 
to  contain  the  number  of  scholars  that  were  offered  to  him, 
he  removed  to  a  more  commodious  one  at  Newington- 
green,  where,  for  nineteen  years,  he  carried  on  his  school 
with  great  reputation  jmd  success.     Few  masters,  we  be- 
lieve, ever  existed,  who  have  been  animated  with  a  more 
ardent  solicitude  for  forming  the  morals  as  well  as  the 
understandings  of  their  scholars..     In   1751,    Mr.  Burgh 
married  Mrs.  Harding,  a  widow  lady,  and  a  woman  of  ex- 
cellent sense  and  character,  who  zealously  concurred  with 
him  in  promoting  all  his  laudable  and  useful  undertakings: 
In  the  same  year,  at  the  request  of  Dr.  Stephen  Hales, 
and  Dr.  Hayter,  bishop  of  Norwich/  he  published  a  small 
piece,  in  12mo,  entitled  "  A  Warning  to  Dram  Drinkers." 
Our  author's  next  publication  was  his  great  work,  entitled 
"  The  Dignity  of  Human  Nature  ;  or,  a  brief  account  of 
the  certain  and  established  means  for  attaining  the  true 
end  of  our  existence."     This  treatise  appeared  in  1754, 
in  one  volume  quarto,  and  has  since  been  reprinted  in  two 
volumes  octavo.     It  is  divided  into  four  books,  in  which 
the  author  treats  distinctly  concerning  prudence,   know- 
ledge, virtue,  and  revealed  religion  ;  and  makes  a  greafr 
number  of  important  observations  under   each   of  these 
beads.     In  1762  Mr.  Burgh  published,  in  octavo,  "The 

BURGH.  „    321 

Art  of  Speaking ;"  consisting,  first,  of  an  essay,  in  which 
•  are  given  rules  for  expressing  properly  thct-principal  pas- 
sions and  humours  that  occur  in  reading,  or  in  public  elo- 
cution; and  secondly,  of  lessons  taken  from  the  ancients 
and  moderns,  exhibiting  a  variety  of  matter  for  practice. 
The  essay  is  chiefly  compiled  from  Cicero,  Quitttilian,  and' 
other  rhetorical  writers.     In  the  lessons,   the  emphatical' 
words  are  printed  in  Italics,  and  marginal  notes  are  added 
to  shew  the  various  passions,  in  the  several  examples,  as  * 
they  change  from  one  .to  another.     It  is  evident,  from  an 
inspection  of  this  work,  that  it  must  have  cost  our  author* 
no  small  degree  of  labour.     It  has  gone  through  three- 
editions,  and  was  much  used  as  a  school-book.     The  late 
sir  Francis  Blake  Delaval;  who  had  studied  the  subject  of 
elocution,  and  who  had  distinguished  himself  in  the  pri- 
vate acting  of  several  plays  in  conjunction  with  some  other' 
persons  of  fashion,  had  so  high  an  opinion  of  Mr.  Burgh's 
performance,  that  be  solicited  on  that  account  an  inter*' 
view  with  him.     Our  author's  next  appearance  in  the  lite- 
rary world  was  in  1766,  in  the  publication  of  the  first  vo- 
lume, in  1.2mo,  of"  Crito,  or  Essays  on  various  subjects.** 
To  this  volume  is  prefixed  a  dedication,  not  destitute  of1 
humour,  "  To  the  rjght  rev.  father  (of  three  years  old)  his 
royal  highness  Frederic  bishop  of  Osnaburgh."    The  essays 
ate  three  in  number  ;  the  first  is  of  a  political  nature ;  the 
second  is.  on  the  difficulty  ajid  importance  of  education, 
and  contains  many  pertinent  remarks,  tending  to  shew 
that  Mons.  Rousseau's  proposals  on  this  head  are  improper, 
ineffectual,  or  impracticable ;   and  the  third  is  upon  the 
origin  of  evil.     In  this  essay  Mr.  Burgh  has  collected  to- 
gether and  arranged,  though  with  but  little  regard  to  order, 
the  sentiments  of  many  writers,  both  ancient  and  modem, 
on  the  subject,  and  endeavoured  to  shew  the  inconsistency 
of  their  reasonings.     His  own  opinion  is,  that  the  natural 
and  moral  evil  which  prevails  in  the  world,  is  the  effect  of 
the  hostility  of  powerful,  malignant,  spiritual  beings ;  and 
tbat  Christianity  is  the  deliverance  of  the  human  species 
from  this  peculiar  and  adventitious  distress,  as  an  enslaved 
nation  is  by  a  patriotic  hero  delivered  from  tyranny.     In 
1767  came  put  the  second  volume  of  "  Crito,"  with  a  long 
dedication  (which ,  is  replete  with  shrewd  and  satirical  ob* 
servations,  chiefly  of  a*  political  kind)  to  the  good  people 
of  Britain  of  the  twentieth  century.     The  rest  of  the  vo- 
lume contains  another  "  Essay  on  the  Origin  of  Evil,"  and 
Vol.  VII.  Y 

322  B  tT  R  G  H. 

the  rationale  of  Christianity,  and  a  postscript,  consisting  of 
farther  explanations  of  the  subjects  before  considered,  and 
of  detached  remarks  on  various  matters.     If  our  author* 
has  not  succeeded  in  removing  the  difficulties  which  re- 
late to  the  introduction  of  evil  into  the  world,  and  to  the 
ceconomy  of  the  gospel,  it  may  be  urged  in  his  favour, 
that  he  is  in  the  same  case  with  many  other  ingenious  phi- 
losophers and  divines.  ■'  *■ 
Mr.  Burgh  having,  for  many  years,  led  a  very  laborious 
life,  and  having  acquired  also  a  competent,  though  not  a 
large  fortune  (for  his  mind  was  always  far  raised  above! 
pecuniary  views),  he  determined  to  retire  from  business. 
In  embracing  this  resolution,  it  was  by  no  means  his  in- 
tention to  be  unemployed.     What  he  had  particularly  irij 
contemplation  was,  to  complete  his  "Political  Disquisi- 
tions," for  which  he  had,  during  ten  years,  been  collect-* 
ing  suitable  materials.     Upon  quitting  his  school  at  New- ' 
ington-green,  which  was  in  1771,  he  settled  in  a  house  at 
Colefcrooke-row,  Islington,  where  he   continued  till   his 
decease.    He  had  not  been  long  in  his  new  situation  before 
he  became  convinced  (of  what  was  only  suspected  before) 
that  he  had  a  stone  in  his  bladder.     With  this  dreadful 
malady  he  was  deeply  afflicted  the  four  latter  years  of  bis 
life ;  and  for  the  two  last  of  these  years  his  pain  was  ex- 
quisite.    Nevertheless,   to  the  astonishment  of  all  who 
were  witnesses  of  the  misery  be  endured,  he  w£nt  on  with 
his  u  Political  Disquisitions."     The  two  first  volumes  were 
published  in  1774,  and  the  third  volume  in  1775.     Their 
title  is,  "  Political  Disquisitions :  or,  an  enquiry  into  pub-' 
lie  errors,  defects,  and  abuses.     Illustrated  by,  and  esta- 
blished upon,  facts  and  remarks  extracted  from  a  variety 
of  authors  ancient  and  modern.     Calculated  to  draw  the 
timely  attention  of  government  and  people  to  a  due  con- 
sideration of  the  necessity  and   the  means  of  reforming' 
those  errors,  defects,  and  abuses  ;  of  restoring  the  consti- 
tution, and  saving  the  state."     The  first  volume  relates  to 
government  in  general,  and  to  parliament  in  particular; 
the  second  treats  of  places  and  pensions,  the  taxation  of 
the  colonies,  and  the  army  ;  and  the  third  considers  man- 
ners.    It  was  our  author's  intention  to  have  extended  his' 
Disquisitions  to  some  other  subjects,  if  he  had  not  been 
prevented  by  the  violence  of  his  disease,  the  tortures, of 
which  he  bore  with  uncommon  patience  and  resignation, 
and  from  which  he  was  happily  released,  on  the  26th  of 

BURGH.  322 

August,  1775,  in  the  sixty-first  year  of  his  age*  Besides 
the  publications  already  mentioned,  and  a  variety  of  ma- 
nuscripts which  he  left  behind  him,  he  wrote,  in  1753  and 
1754,  some  letters  in  the  General  Evening  Post,  called 
*'  The  Free  Enquirer;"  and  in  1770,  a  number  of  papers 
entitled  "  The  Constitutionalist,"  in  the  Gazetteer ;  which 
Were  intended  to  recommend  annual  parliaments,  adequate 
representation,  and  a  place  bill.  About  the  same  time  he 
also  published  another  periodical  paper  in  the  Gazetteer, 
tinder  the  title  of  "  The  Colonist's  Advocate ;"  which  was 
written  against  the  measures  of  government  with  respect, 
to  the  colonies.  He  printed  likewise  for  the  sole  use  of 
his  pupils,  "  Directions,  prudential,  moral,  religious,  and 
scientific ;"  which  were  pirated  by  a  bookseller,  and  sold 
Under  the  titlte  of  "  Youth's  friendly  Monitor." 

With  regard  to  Mr.  Burgh's  character,  he  was  a  man  of 
great  piety,  integrity,  and  benevolence.  He  bad  a  warmth 
of  heart  which  engaged  him  to  enter  ardently  into  the  pro* 
secution  of  any  valuable  design  ;  and  his  temper  was  com* 
inunicative,  and  chearful.  Whilst  his  health  permitted  itj 
he  had  great  pleasure  in  attending  a  weekly  society  of 
some  friends  to  knowledge,  virtue,  and  liberty,  among 
whom  were  several  persons  of  no  small  note  in  the  philo- 
sophical and  literary  world.  He  had  once  the  honour  of 
being  introduced  to  his  present  majesty,  when  prince  of 
Walesy  and  to  the  late  princess  dowager  of  Wales,  from 
wJbofn  he  met  with  a  most  gracious  reception,  and  with 
v^bocn  he  had  much  discourse  on  the  subject  of  education* 
a,hd  other  important  topics.  In  his  compositions,  our  au- 
thor paid  greater  regard  to  strength  than  elegance ;  and 
he.  despised,  perhaps  unjnstly,  that  nice  attention  to  ar- 
rangement of  language  which  some  writers  think  desirable ; 
and  which  is  indeed  desirable,  when  thereby  the  force  and 
vigour  of  style  are  not  obstructed.  Mr.  Burgh's  widow 
died  in  17S8.1  . 

BURIDAN  (John),  a  Frenchman,  born  at  Bethune  in 
Artoi^  was  a  renowned  philosopher  or  schoolman  of  the 
fourteenth  fcentury.  He  discharged  a  professor's  place  in 
the  university  of  Paris  with  great  reputation;  and  wrote 
commentaries  on  Aristotle's  logic,  ethics,  and  metaphy- 
sics, which  were  much- esteemed.  Some  say  that  he  was 
rector  of  the  university  of  Paris  in  1320.    Aventine  relates, 

i  Biog.  Brit,  with  so^ie  corrertiori*  aiiffi&iHtioiitfrom  Nicfeolt's  Bowyer. 

Y  2. 

324  BURIDA  N. 

that  he  was  a  disciple  of  Ockam ;  and  that,  being  expelled 
Paris  by  the  power  of  the  realists,  which  was  superior  to 
that  of  the  nominalists,  he  went  into  Germany,  where  be 
founded  the  university  of  Viepna.  "  Buridan's  Ass/9  ha* 
been  a  kind  of  proverb  a  long  time  in  the  schools  ;  though 
nobody  has  ever  pretended  to  explain  it,  or.  to  determine 
with  certainty  what  it  meant.  He  supposed  an  ass,  very 
hungry,  stan